Presidentialism Essay, Research Paper
Democracy has many subdivisions, countries must chose the optimal system for their situations. The main two systems of Democracy are Presidentialism and the parliamentary system. By weighting the pros and cons of each system countries must chose an effective form. Although the Parliamentary system has many fine points, which make it a strong system; the presidential system of government is superior. In a presidential system the power for the president to act alone in a time of crisis provides countries with a great advantage over a parliamentary system country. In Canada there is a huge problem of non-equal representation in government, yet in the United States there is equal representation for states. Presidentialism provides checks and balances which distributes power equally between the 3 branches and fine-tunes bills to near perfection. Both systems of government have their strong points, but in the end, in a country with a large population spread over a large land mass, the presidential system is most effective.
In any form of government, branches must be constantly monitored to maintain a balance of power. In the United States the constitution provides a system of checks and balances are formed giving each of the three branches [Executive, legislative, judiciary,] power to oversee and block the actions of the other branches . This guarantees that the other two branches approve all decisions made by a branch of the American government. Making sure that one branch of the government cannot make decisions unchallenged. As in comparison to the parliamentary system of government, where there are only a couple of checks. Allowing for Parliament to pass bills unchallenged. In this system, there is too much power instilled in the senate. When a bill is introduced only the senate has a check on the house s actions, yet no branch has a check on the senate. The House must amend bills to the senate s approval; which forces the House to form bills to please the senate, passing the bill under the senate s terms. Theoretically the Governor General has the power to veto a bill and send it back to the House, but realistically the Governor General can not be considered a check on Parliament because he is a yes man, appointed by the Queen from a list of the Prime Minister s recommendations. In a presidential form of government each of the three branches of government must approve a bill for it to become a law.
1.A councils and senate introduce bill to the House and then goes through a series of checks.
2.Which is checked by the President, who has the power to veto any bill
3.Which can be declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
i) supreme court judges are appointed by the president with the approval of the senate
Although this process can be costly and time consuming; it provides an extensive series of checks and balances. Power is evenly distributed and there is no possibility of the executive branch pushing a bill through i.e Canadian GST. Making presidentialism a stronger system for passing laws, where bills are more thourally check before becoming law.
In times of crisis it is extremely important to be capable of making quick decsions. In the presidential form of government the president can act alone in a time of crisis, by giving the president this great power a country using the presidential form of government can respond to a direct threat immediately. Instead of the president having to consult a war council and then congress. Which in a modern age of nuclear weapons is too late. In a parliamentary form of government the prime minister is now granted these powers, which even though Canada has not been in direct threat could be costly because of the amount of time it would take for the House and senate to approve the action. During the Vietnam War it was a great advantage for Kennedy to be able to call attacks instantly instead of waiting for approval from congress, at a time where it would not have been as effective. Giving the president this power to be command and chief of the American army makes him the most powerful man in the world and provides optimal protection in times of war.
In both forms of government the senate plays a very strong role in the passing of bills. Proving a series of checks on bills and by being the final parliamentary check on a bill, but in any system if a senate is unfair balanced then its effectiveness is very limited. In a parliamentary system the Prime Minister, making them favorable to the governments will appoints senators. Senators are allowed to stay in office till they are 75, making the addition of new ideas and young blood minimal. In Canada population chooses the senate according to representation. This is the main cause of western alienation, where the house which is a majority of central Canadian MPs may pass a law, and the senate which is also a majority of Ontario or Quebec senators with the same goals will pass it. The purpose of a senate is to allow small states of provinces to be able to veto bills made only to please the majority of people. By making the Canadian senate more like the presidential senate (triple E senate) the problem of alienation would be eliminated. In the American senate, it is representation by region. Each state is allowed 2 senators no matter how large or small it may be. This allows smaller states such as Nevada a way of eliminating unfair bills. The American senate is also elected, which gives the people say in the senate and makes it so that the president s yes man are not put in. Senators also face election every 6 years making for a good flow of new ideas in the senate. These elections are staggered so there is a good mix of experience and young blood in the senate. Because the Canadian senate is a rubber stamp to the house, the American system for senate is the most effective in providing equality.
No system of government is perfect; all have their good and bad points. Countries must decide which form of government can benefit them the most. Through the ideals of power being evenly distributed and the extensive series of checks and balances, presidentialism is in one s view a more effective system of government for making laws and in times of crisis.