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History Cheat Note Essay Research Paper 1Justinians (стр. 1 из 2)

History Cheat Note Essay, Research Paper


Justinian?s court was much like the Eastern?s rule; the subjects were spaced

from the rulers in space, dress and obedience. The laws were in Latin, even

though the common language was Greek. 2. · 622- Heraclius opened a

successful attack on the Persians. · 628- At Ctesiphon a peace treat was

signed in favor of Heraclius · 632- Muhammad?s followers conquered and

ran the Empire. · 717-718- Leo III beat back Muslim attack on

Constantinople. 3. Iconoclastic policy under Leo III forbid showing respect to

holy images within churches and it also allowed the destruction of then images.

This had a disastrous effect but brought the Western and Eastern churches

together. 4. The issues that indicate how the Byzantium Emperor was associated

with the church while also acting as the secular head of the state has to do

with his responsibilities in protecting and aiding in the perseverance of his

empire. This is what the people of the empire thought God wanted, so by doing

his job emperor was thought as a holy figure, which placed him as the head of

the churches with some restrictions. 5. The Byzantium Empire bureaucracy

differed from the Roman Empire in that the Roman Empire did not have a fiscal

system, a state postal service or a secret police. They also collected money

from the 10 percent tariff on trade and from the monopolies, while the Roman

Empire did not have a budget. The Byzantium bureaucracy had skilled diplomats,

which kept the enemies divided and used bribes, tributes and subsides, the Roman

Empire used a basic administration without a professional civil service. The

Eubuchs were used for important positions in the government in the Byzantium

Empire, while queens and woman of the court preformed that job in the Roman

Empire. 6. The Byzantine bureaucracy was run mostly by the emperor, who also

controlled justice, with the aid of a civil service. The government had a fiscal

system, a state postal service and a secrete army. It collected a 10 percent tax

from the trade and more money from state monopolies. The Eunuchs filled the most

important positions in the government. 7. Roman Catholic Greek Orthodox Control

of the Churches Clergy Emperor Filioque dispute Holy spirit proceeds from the

Father and from the Son Holy spirit proceeds only from the father Rules for

churches No divorce and no married priests Divorce because of adultery and

married priests Languages Latin and no vernacular languages Allowed vernacular

languages (Greek, Coptic?) Centralization Centralized control over

Christianity under the papacy Relied on secular authority for the individual

churches Conversion of Slavs Used force to gain more land and to convert people

Converted Slavs and Serbs into Christianity 8. As a result of Cyrillic and

Methodius? work, today the Serbs and Slavs are Christians. 9. The Byzantium

society was divided into two parts, the urban and rural. In the urban parts

there were paved and illuminated streets and magnificent churches and palaces.

The rich lived along excellent surroundings in huge palaces and where divided

from the poor, who lived in sprawling slums with a criminal environment. The

rural society consisted of soldier/sailor farmers and laborers. The farmers made

decisions about uncultivated or common land, collected taxes, elected judges and

other officials needed for the government. 10. Guilds were creates to ensure the

products had good quality. These guilds helped make a state monopoly and the

products produced where sent all over the world giving the empire more money.

11. The women?s role in the Byzantium Empire where centered on the home with

limitations in contacting with men outside the family. The Byzantine women wore

veils over their heads, but not their faces. The nuns where not allowed to

perform charity work or run schools. The only women who had power were those

that were at the imperial and aristocratic level. Poor women had to aid in

family agriculture, become street vendors, enter the theater or become

prostitutes. The male relatives protected the women and children, but the women

did have protection for their goods, money and land. In the East women were

discouraged by the churches to remarry. There were three types of institutions

of higher learning: a palace school for the laymen, trained civil servants in

language, law and rhetoric; patriarchal schools instructed priests in rhetoric

and theology; and monastic schools taught young monks the mystical writings of

the past. With the decrease of public grammar schools in the sixth and seventh

centuries, the poor depended on their guild for their education. The boys were

learned Greek from a Psalter instead of from classical authors. After the sixth

century scholars used Greek instead of Latin when composing school manuals,

histories, saints? lives, biblical commentaries and encyclopedias of ancient

science and lore. The Byzantine scholars concentrated on Plato and religious

writers instead of Aristotle. Their greatest accomplishment was the preservation

of the classical Greek literature. After the rejection of iconoclasm in the

middle of the ninth century, art and architecture flourished again. The artists

started decorating many churches in the Empire. Mosaics at that time showed the

emperor as grand and Christ was never shown as suffering because of the close

relationship between him and the emperor. The people were in a debate about the

nature of Christ and the use of icons. With the evolvement of the laity there

was a possibility that it would lead to riots. There was entertainment in the

Roman coliseums and there was chariot racing, the most popular, animal shows and

theatre. The fans divided themselves into two groups, the ?Blues? and

?Greens?. 12. When the theme system collapsed the military manpower was

reduced, which led to a rural aristocracy of landlords. This weakened the

strength of the central government. The emperors had to seek help from

Constantinople for naval power, while also under pressure for ground troops. 13.

The ending of the Byzantine Empire as a great power began with the weakness in

their troops; the Byzantine Empire had little defense against the Seljuks. The

Seljuks shattered the Byzantine troops and took emperor Ramaus in 1071. The

weakening of the defense brought down Asia Minor to the Seljuks. The loss of

Asia Minor forced the Byzantine Empire to appeal to the west for help, showing

that the empire had lost its great power in the East. 14. Schism- a formal

breach of union within a Christian church. 15. The cause of the schism was due

to competition in the southern churches, different languages, and other

rivalries, disputes and snobbery. 16. Muhammad began establishing the Islamic

faith by preaching his religion in Mecca. After he was rejected he went to

Yathrib, where he gained much support and became the political leader and

governor. With this he had a military base which he used in war to spread his

beliefs to Mecca in 624. 17. Contributions Christianity Concepts of Last

Judgment, personal salvation, heaven and hell, charity to the poor and weak and

a Universal religion Judaism Prophecy Arab paganism Veneration of Kaaba and the

requirement of pilgrimage to the sacred city Zoroastrianism Figures of Satin and

evil demons. 18. I don?t go to a church, temple or mosque and I do not know

rabbi or a minister or anything else. 19. The beliefs of the religion Islam are

that the prophet is Allah and that the collection of prophecies is known as the

Koran. The Koran was written in Arabic and Allah could only be addressed in

Arabic. Islam was seen as the final revelation, completing the message of God.

The Arabs were given the mission of carrying the final message. 20. The

expansion of Islam was strengthened since the Arabs will familiar with camels,

which enabled them to move much more easily in the desert than the Byzantines

and the Persians, who had horses. With this they were able to retreat easily

whenever needed. The Byzantines and the Persians were tired from their wars,

which made them easier to conquer. There were parts in both Byzantine and Persia

that were Semitic and their religion were closely related to those of the Arabs,

making it easier for them to join. The warriors were inspired by the Prophet?s

promise of vast rewards to those who died and booty to those who won. Since the

Arabs did not have enough skilled people they placed the newly conquered people

in the government. After Muhammad?s death his successors conquered Byzantine,

Syria, Persia and Egypt by the 640s. 21. The Umayyads were the first line of

hereditary rulers of the Arab Empire. 22. Sunnas- traditions that were writings

that purported to describe how the first companions of Muhammad or how Muhammad

himself dealt with various problems. Sunnites- people who believed the Sunnas.

Shiites- people who apposed the Sunnites. 23. The Islamic community became

disunited in 655 with the birth of Ali, Muhammad?s son in law. The Shiites

believed that he should rule the Islamic community and thought of the Umayyads

as usurpers. The Shiites started antagonisms, protests, and revolts. Then, one

of Muhammad?s uncle revolted against the Umayyads and killed all of the except

for one, Abdurrahman. Abdurrahman fled to Spain and set up a dependent

caliphate. Others were formed at Morocco in 788, Tunisia in 800, eastern Persia

in 820 and Egypt in 868. 24. The unifying factor across all of the Islamic lands

was Arabic, the language of the Koran. This unified literature, learning, and

commerce. 25. Islam embraced numerous economic systems. The Bedouins in the

Arabian peninsula, the Berbers in North Africa and the Turkish people of Eurasia

continued to have pastoral economy. The majority of people living in Egypt,

Persia, Sicily and Spain lived by settling agriculture. The inhabitants of

cities relied on commerce. Islam improved communications with a universal

language and with a pilgrimage in Mecca. The agriculture expanded with new

plants form Asia and with some advanced ways of agriculture. The steel, leather,

cotton, linen and silk were traded to India and Indonesia for spices. The Arabs

improved the technology that they borrowed form China and India. They also got

the formula for the Greek fire and improved other weapons and fortress

buildings. They introduced the windmill, the spinning wheel, papermaking,

blocking printing, and specialized textile weaving. The caliph was the supreme

religious and civil head of the Muslim world. He was primarily the military

chief and a judge. The chief administrator was primarily the judge and his task

was to see that the faithful lived according to the lad of the Koran. The Koran

helped preserve the family by encouraging the people to marry and for men to

support their wives. The position of women depended on their social class and

the period of society in which they lived in. 26. The Greek embraced the Islamic

culture with their achievements that the Arabs wanted to preserve. Scholars

translated many great Geek authors and were especially interested in astronomy,

astrology, mathematics, medicine and optics. 27. There are abundant resources

that exist for the study of women?s lives during the medieval history. Few

writings by women survive today since not a lot of women in the West were

literate. Nuns left religious literature, plays, and histories. Some of

women?s poems written in Arabic survive and also Greek histories written by

women. Another source is the recording of the priests about the women. These

sources are biased since men wrote them and because they were used for a number

of motives. To interpret the overall information about the history of medieval

women, a historian needs to know a great deal about the context which they were

written. They might have been written to help accomplish a goal, like to

strengthen families. Another source is the laws, which might not be useful since

historians might not know if they were actually applied, but there are court

cases that can be useful. 28. The halls and chambers of the Alhambra Palace

surround a series of open courts, which include the Court of Lions containing

arcades resting on 124 white marble columns. The interior of the building is

decorated with examples of the so-called honeycomb and stalactite vaulting. Its

walls and ceilings are decorated with geometric ornamentation of great detail

and complexity, executed with skilled marble, alabaster, glazed tile, and carved

plaster. At the center of the Court of Lions is a garden, which is divided into

four parts, with a fountain marked with references to the warriors of the holy

war. Rooms and halls lead to the courts, either directly or through arcades.

Muhammad V redesigned the Alhambra in the last half of the 14th century. A

striking feature of the Court of Lions is the limitless delicacy of its forms.

The architectural structures are arranged in a manner that creates sudden,

ever-changing impressions. The design of the court seems perfectly symmetrical,

but it is modified by axes of composition that do not agree to the features of

the plan. 29. The early circumstances that brought on the decline of medieval

Islamic civilization was the growing weakness in the military of various Islamic

states during invasions. The Christian armies were attacking on the West, the

Byzantine offensive was in Jerusalem and Turkish nomads were attacking the East.

The Islamic states were giving their warriors grants for land instead of money,

which weakened the central authority. 30. · 732- Charles Martel defeated

the Arabs in a battle at Tours · 744- Charlemagne conquers Kingdom of the

Lombards · 788- Charlemagne conquers Bavaria · 800- Pope Leo III

crowned Charlemagne as the emperor of Rome. · 804- Charlemagne conquers

Saxony · 811- Charlemagne conquers Brittany · 811- Charlemagne

conquers Spanish March 31. Charles the Great was a large man that liked physical

exercise such as hunting, riding, bathing and swimming. He was passionate for

woman and food and had an intellectual curiosity and alertness. He was probably

illiterate, but he spoke and understood Latin, he understood Greek and enjoyed

the company of intellectual men. 32. The Pope confirmed the Frankish

monarchy/papacy alliance by crowning Charlemagne the emperor of the Romans on

the Christmas night. 33. A rebellion would not have been staged against the cult

of the emperor because the people were made to think that the emperor was a

figure of holiness and brilliance and could not be rebelled against. In this way

the emperor and the cult were protected from any rebellion. 34. The court

chaplain oversaw the court chancery since its job was to advise the emperor and

the entire court in matters of conscience, which include the official documents

that were written in the chancery. 35. Emperor Head of the government Chaplain

Head of the palace, advised the emperor and the entire court in matters of

conscience Chancery Where the official documents were written Chief lay official

Supervised the administration, judged cases the emperor did not handle, and

acted as regent during the emperor?s absences Chamberlain Looked after the

royal bedroom, and treasury Seneschal Kept the palace food and servants

Constable Cared for the horses County The fundamental administrative unit Count

Administrator, judge, and military leader of the county Vicarius Heard minor

cases. 36. Charlemagne managed control over such a large empire by maintaining

an effective supervision and control over the local officials. He traveled to

check how the land was being administered and heard appeals from the decisions

of the counts. He appointed traveling inspectors to inspect specific counties.

The last thing was to require that the important men of his realm to attend a

general assembly every year. 37. Charlemagne standardized weights, measures and

money throughout the empire. 38. The need for literacy jumpstarted the

Carolingian Renaissance because in the sixth and seventh centuries different

styles of writings developed and there were other changes that needed to become

unified. Literate people in one part of Europe had a great difficulty reading a

text written in another part of Europe. There was also a widespread decline of

education, which prevented some priests from performing their jobs completely.

These were weakening the unity of the Church and the state. 39. The benefits

derived form the Carolingian Renaissance were the unity of the Church,