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The Rolling Stone Essay, Research Paper

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Microsoft Windows 95 README for MS-DOS Device Drivers

August 1995

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(c) Copyright Microsoft Corporation, 1995

This document provides complementary or late-breaking information to

supplement the Microsoft Windows 95 documentation.

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How to Use This Document

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To view Msdosdrv.txt on screen in Notepad, maximize the Notepad window.

To print Msdosdrv.txt, open it in Notepad or another word processor,

then use the Print command on the File menu.

In syntax lines, except where noted, lowercase text signifies replaceable

parameters and uppercase text must be typed as it appears.

NOTE: The Config.txt file contains more Help for MS-DOS commands. Also

you can type the name of the command at the command prompt, followed by

a slash and question mark (/?). For example:

CHKDSK /?

——–

CONTENTS

ANSI.SYS

DBLBUFF.SYS

DISPLAY.SYS

DRVSPACE.SYS, DBLSPACE.SYS

EGA.SYS

EMM386.EXE

HIMEM.SYS

RAMDRIVE.SYS

SETVER.EXE

——–

ANSI.SYS

=========

Note: In this section, uppercase letters in syntax and ANSI escape

sequences indicate text you must type exactly as it appears.

Defines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and

reassign keys. The ANSI.SYS device driver supports ANSI terminal emulation

of escape sequences to control your system’s screen and keyboard. An ANSI

escape sequence is a sequence of ASCII characters, the first two of which

are the escape character (1Bh) and the left-bracket character (5Bh). The

character or characters following the escape and left-bracket characters

specify an alphanumeric code that controls a keyboard or display function.

ANSI escape sequences distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters;

for example,”A” and “a” have completely different meanings.

This device driver must be loaded by a DEVICE or DEVICEHIGH command in

your CONFIG.SYS file.

Syntax

DEVICE=[drive:][path]ANSI.SYS [/X] [/K] [/R]

Parameter

[drive:][path]

Specifies the location of the ANSI.SYS file.

Switches

/X

Remaps extended keys independently on 101-key keyboards.

/K

Causes ANSI.SYS to treat a 101-key keyboard like an 84-key

keyboard. This is equivalent to the command SWITCHES=/K.

If you usually use the SWITCHES=/K command, you will need

to use the /K switch with ANSI.SYS.

/R

Adjusts line scrolling to improve readability when ANSI.SYS

is used with screen-reading programs (which make computers

more accessible to people with disabilities).

Parameters used in ANSI escape sequences:

Pn

Numeric parameter. Specifies a decimal number.

Ps

Selective parameter. Specifies a decimal number that you use to select

a function. You can specify more than one function by separating the

parameters with semicolons (;).

PL

Line parameter. Specifies a decimal number that represents one of the

lines on your display or on another device.

Pc

Column parameter. Specifies a decimal number that represents one of the

columns on your screen or on another device.

ANSI escape sequences for cursor movement, graphics, and keyboard settings:

In the following list of ANSI escape sequences, the abbreviation ESC

represents the ASCII escape character 27 (1Bh), which appears at the

beginning of each escape sequence.

ESC[PL;PcH

Cursor Position: Moves the cursor to the specified position

(coordinates). If you do not specify a position, the cursor moves to the

home position--the upper-left corner of the screen (line 0, column

0). This escape sequence works the same way as the following Cursor

Position escape sequence.

ESC[PL;Pcf

Cursor Position: Works the same way as the preceding Cursor Position

escape sequence.

ESC[PnA

Cursor Up: Moves the cursor up by the specified number of lines without

changing columns. If the cursor is already on the top line, ANSI.SYS

ignores this sequence.

ESC[PnB

Cursor Down: Moves the cursor down by the specified number of lines

without changing columns. If the cursor is already on the bottom line,

ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.

ESC[PnC

Cursor Forward: Moves the cursor forward by the specified number of

columns without changing lines. If the cursor is already in the

rightmost column, ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.

ESC[PnD

Cursor Backward: Moves the cursor back by the specified number of

columns without changing lines. If the cursor is already in the leftmost

column, ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.

ESC[s

Save Cursor Position: Saves the current cursor position. You can move

the cursor to the saved cursor position by using the Restore Cursor

Position sequence.

ESC[u

Restore Cursor Position: Returns the cursor to the position stored

by the Save Cursor Position sequence.

ESC[2J

Erase Display: Clears the screen and moves the cursor to the home

position (line 0, column 0).

ESC[K

Erase Line: Clears all characters from the cursor position to the

end of the line (including the character at the cursor position).

ESC[Ps;...;Psm

Set Graphics Mode: Calls the graphics functions specified by the

following values. These specified functions remain active until the next

occurrence of this escape sequence. Graphics mode changes the colors and

attributes of text (such as bold and underline) displayed on the

screen.

Text attributes

0 All attributes off

1 Bold on

4 Underscore (on monochrome display adapter only)

5 Blink on

7 Reverse video on

8 Concealed on

Foreground colors

30 Black

31 Red

32 Green

33 Yellow

34 Blue

35 Magenta

36 Cyan

37 White

Background colors

40 Black

41 Red

42 Green

43 Yellow

44 Blue

45 Magenta

46 Cyan

47 White

Parameters 30 through 47 meet the ISO 6429 standard.

ESC[=psh

Set Mode: Changes the screen width or type to the mode specified

by one of the following values:

0 40 x 148 x 25 monochrome (text)

1 40 x 148 x 25 color (text)

2 80 x 148 x 25 monochrome (text)

3 80 x 148 x 25 color (text)

4 320 x 148 x 200 4-color (graphics)

5 320 x 148 x 200 monochrome (graphics)

6 640 x 148 x 200 monochrome (graphics)

7 Enables line wrapping

13 320 x 148 x 200 color (graphics)

14 640 x 148 x 200 color (16-color graphics)

15 640 x 148 x 350 monochrome (2-color graphics)

16 640 x 148 x 350 color (16-color graphics)

17 640 x 148 x 480 monochrome (2-color graphics)

18 640 x 148 x 480 color (16-color graphics)

19 320 x 148 x 200 color (256-color graphics)

ESC[=Psl

Reset Mode: Resets the mode by using the same values that Set Mode

uses, except for 7, which disables line wrapping. The last character

in this escape sequence is a lowercase L.

ESC[code;string;...p

Set Keyboard Strings: Redefines a keyboard key to a specified string.

The parameters for this escape sequence are defined as follows:

o Code is one or more of the values listed in the following table.

These values represent keyboard keys and key combinations. When using

these values in a command, you must type the semicolons (;) shown in

this table in addition to the semicolons required by the escape

sequence. The codes in parentheses are not available on some

keyboards. ANSI.SYS will not interpret the codes in parentheses for

those keyboards unless you specify the /X switch in the DEVICE

command for ANSI.SYS.

o String is either the ASCII code for a single character or a string

contained in quotation marks ("). For example, both 65 and "A" can be

used to represent an uppercase A.

IMPORTANT: Some of the values in the following table are not valid for all

computers. Check your computer's documentation for values that

are different.

Key Code SHIFT+code CTRL+code ALT+code

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

F1 0;59 0;84 0;94 0;104

F2 0;60 0;85 0;95 0;105

F3 0;61 0;86 0;96 0;106

F4 0;62 0;87 0;97 0;107

F5 0;63 0;88 0;98 0;108

F6 0;64 0;89 0;99 0;109

F7 0;65 0;90 0;100 0;110

F8 0;66 0;91 0;101 0;111

F9 0;67 0;92 0;102 0;112

F10 0;68 0;93 0;103 0;113

F11 0;133 0;135 0;137 0;139

F12 0;134 0;136 0;138 0;140

HOME (num keypad) 0;71 55 0;119 --

UP ARROW (num keypad) 0;72 56 (0;141) --

PAGE UP (num keypad) 0;73 57 0;132 --

LEFT ARROW (num keypad) 0;75 52 0;115 --

RIGHT ARROW (num 0;77 54 0;116 --

keypad)

END (num keypad) 0;79 49 0;117 --

DOWN ARROW (num keypad) 0;80 50 (0;145) --

PAGE DOWN (num keypad) 0;81 51 0;118 --

INSERT (num keypad) 0;82 48 (0;146) --

DELETE (num keypad) 0;83 46 (0;147) --

HOME (224;71) (224;71) (224;119) (224;151)

UP ARROW (224;72) (224;72) (224;141) (224;152)

PAGE UP (224;73) (224;73) (224;132) (224;153)

LEFT ARROW (224;75) (224;75) (224;115) (224;155)

RIGHT ARROW (224;77) (224;77) (224;116) (224;157)

END (224;79) (224;79) (224;117) (224;159)

DOWN ARROW (224;80) (224;80) (224;145) (224;154)

PAGE DOWN (224;81) (224;81) (224;118) (224;161)

INSERT (224;82) (224;82) (224;146) (224;162)

DELETE (224;83) (224;83) (224;147) (224;163)

PRINT SCREEN -- -- 0;114 --

PAUSE/BREAK -- -- 0;0 --

BACKSPACE 8 8 127 (0)

ENTER 13 -- 10 (0

TAB 9 0;15 (0;148) (0;165)

NULL 0;3 -- -- --

A 97 65 1 0;30

B 98 66 2 0;48

C 99 66 3 0;46

D 100 68 4 0;32

E 101 69 5 0;18

F 102 70 6 0;33

G 103 71 7 0;34

H 104 72 8 0;35

I 105 73 9 0;23

J 106 74 10 0;36

K 107 75 11 0;37

L 108 76 12 0;38

M 109 77 13 0;50

N 110 78 14 0;49

O 111 79 15 0;24

P 112 80 16 0;25

Q 113 81 17 0;16

R 114 82 18 0;19

S 115 83 19 0;31

T 116 84 20 0;20

U 117 85 21 0;22

V 118 86 22 0;47

W 119 87 23 0;17

X 120 88 24 0;45

Y 121 89 25 0;21

Z 122 90 26 0;44

1 49 33 -- 0;120

2 50 64 0 0;121

3 51 35 -- 0;122

4 52 36 -- 0;123

5 53 37 -- 0;124

6 54 94 30 0;125

7 55 38 -- 0;126

8 56 42 -- 0;126

9 57 40 -- 0;127

0 48 41 -- 0;129

- 45 95 31 0;130

= 61 43 --- 0;131

[ 91 123 27 0;26

] 93 125 29 0;27

92 124 28 0;43

; 59 58 — 0;39

‘ 39 34 — 0;40

, 44 60 — 0;51

. 46 62 — 0;52

/ 47 63 — 0;53

` 96 126 — (0;41)

ENTER (keypad) 13 — 10 (0;166)

/ (keypad) 47 47 (0;142) (0;74)

* (keypad) 42 (0;144) (0;78) –

- (keypad) 45 45 (0;149) (0;164)

+ (keypad) 43 43 (0;150) (0;55)

5 (keypad) (0;76) 53 (0;143) –

DBLBUFF.SYS — Double Buffering

===============================

Loads the Dblbuff.sys device driver to perform double buffering. Double

buffering provides compatibility for certain hard-disk controllers that

cannot work with memory provided by EMM386 or Windows running in 386

Enhanced mode.

If Windows Setup determined that your system may need double-buffering,

it will add a DoubleBuffer=1 entry to the [Options] section of Msdos.sys,

which will automatically load Dblbuff.sys. To manually enable double-

buffering, you can either add the above entry to Msdos.sys, or add

a DEVICE command in your CONFIG.SYS file.

Syntax

DEVICE=[drive:][path]DBLBUFF.SYS [/D+]

Parameters

[drive:][path]

Specifies the location of the Dblbuff.sys file.

/D+

Instructs Dblbuff.sys to double-buffer all disk I/O all the time.

By default, it will only double-buffer I/O to UMBs, and it will

automatically stop double-buffering if it appears to be unnecessary.

DISPLAY.SYS

===========

Enables you to display international character sets on EGA, VGA, and LCD

monitors. This device driver must be loaded by a DEVICE or DEVICEHIGH

command in your CONFIG.SYS file.

Syntax

DEVICE=[drive:][path]DISPLAY.SYS CON[:]=(type[,[hwcp][,n]])

DEVICE=[drive:][path]DISPLAY.SYS CON[:]=(type[,[hwcp][,(n,m)]])

Parameters

[drive:][path]

Specifies the location of the DISPLAY.SYS file.

type

Specifies the display adapter in use. Valid values include EGA and LCD.

The EGA value supports both EGA and VGA display adapters. If you omit

the type parameter, DISPLAY.SYS checks the hardware to determine which

display adapter is in use. You can also specify CGA and MONO as values

for type, but they have no effect because character-set switching is not

enabled for these devices.

hwcp

Specifies the number of the character set that your hardware supports.

The following list shows the character sets that MS-DOS supports and the

country or language for each:

437 United States

850 Multilingual (Latin I)

852 Slavic (Latin II)

860 Portuguese

863 Canadian-French

865 Nordic

Additional character sets are supported by the EGA2.CPI and EGA3.CPI

files.

n

Specifies the number of character sets the hardware can support in

addition to the primary character set specified for the hwcp parameter.

Valid values for n are in the range 0 through 6. This value depends on

your hardware. For EGA display adapters, the maximum value for n is 6;

for LCD display adapters, the maximum value for n is 1.

m

Specifies the number of subfonts the hardware supports for each code

page. The default value is 2 if type is EGA, and 1 if type is LCD.

DRVSPACE.SYS, DBLSPACE.SYS

==========================

Determines the final memory location of DRVSPACE.BIN or DBLSPACE.BIN, the

part of MS-DOS that provides access to your compressed drives.

DxxSPACE.SYS loads the real-mode driver into upper memory blocks. This

can save 60K of conventional memory when you run Windows 95 in real mode,

and can save 100K or more if you use Microsoft Plus! for Windows.

When you start your computer, Windows loads DRVSPACE.BIN or DBLSPACE.BIN

along with other operating-system functions, before carrying out the

commands in your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files. DxxSPACE.BIN initially

loads in conventional memory because it loads before device drivers that

provide access to upper memory.

When you use DriveSpace or DoubleSpace to create a compressed drive on your

computer, the program adds a command for DxxSPACE.SYS to your CONFIG.SYS

file.

In the following syntax, for DxxSPACE type the filename for the program

you are using.

Syntax

DEVICE=[drive:][path]DxxSPACE.SYS /MOVE [/NOHMA] [/LOW]

DEVICEHIGH=[drive:][path]DxxSPACE.SYS /MOVE [/NOHMA] [/LOW]

Switches

/MOVE

Moves DxxSPACE.BIN to its final location in memory.

Initially, DxxSPACE.BIN loads at the top of conventional memory. After

Windows finishes carrying out the commands in the CONFIG.SYS file, it

moves DxxSPACE.BIN to the bottom of conventional memory. When

DxxSPACE.SYS is loaded by using the DEVICE command, it moves

DxxSPACE.BIN from the top of conventional memory to the bottom. This can

be useful for avoiding conflicts with programs that are loaded from the

CONFIG.SYS file and require access to the top of conventional memory.

When DxxSPACE.SYS is loaded by using the DEVICEHIGH command,

DxxSPACE.BIN moves to upper memory, if available. Moving DxxSPACE.BIN

to upper memory makes more conventional memory available.

/NOHMA

Prevents DxxSPACE.SYS from moving a portion of DxxSPACE.BIN to the high

memory area (HMA).

If MS-DOS is loaded into the HMA, DxxSPACE.SYS moves a portion of

DxxSPACE.BIN to the HMA (if there is enough room in the HMA). Use this

switch if you do not want DxxSPACE.BIN to use the HMA.

/LOW

Prevents DxxSPACE.SYS from loading at the top of conventional memory.

Use this switch if you have an MS-DOS-based program that does not support

DriveSpace or DoubleSpace at the top of conventional memory. Note that

use of this switch will prevent Windows from reusing the memory

occupied by DxxSPACE.sys.

Parameter

[drive:][path]

Specifies the location of the DxxSPACE.SYS file.

EGA.SYS

=======

Saves and restores the display when the MS-DOS Shell Task Swapper is used

with EGA monitors. If you have an EGA monitor, you must install the EGA.SYS

device driver before using Task Swapper. This device driver must be loaded


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