Abstract. Main objective of this article is to examine and describe and address the problem of processing and recycling of solid waste in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The ways of solution are offered. The economic efficiency of recycling of municipal solid waste is presented.
Key words: solid wastes, recycling.
The problem of the treatment of solid waste is one of the most pressing on our peninsula in recent years. The main difficulty of the scope of solid waste is associated with the tourism industry and generated as a result of tourist activity waste. The influence of tourism is manifested not only in the annual volume of waste produced, but in the fact that in some resort areas of daily volume of waste during the summer period is 4-5 times higher than their daily intake in the winter. And this requires a constant reserve of appropriate technical means and staff.
The existing methods for the treatment of solid waste leads to more pollution in our cities, or to excessive consumption of electric power, that during the crisis requires urgent and effective solutions.
Before describing the pluses of new methods for processing solid waste it is important to dwell on the negatives of those already in use. Today, Ukrainian government actively pursued the policy with respect to the treatment of solid waste, which includes the experience of some countries with high population density. This policy is based on the implementation and operation of incinerator plants.
The first minus is that the implementation of this strategy requires significant capital and operating costs. In addition, complex processes are gas purification, as well as recycling and disposal of toxic ash and slag, which are formed during combustion of solid waste in large numbers. Thermal methods of waste disposal, as shown by operating experience in waste incineration plants, can be a source of environmental pollution, since non-compliance with the technological regime of burning in the atmosphere can reach toxic substances. [3, p,21]
We also have one in Crimea. It is located in Sevastopol. Operating experience of this plant discovered many deficiencies: the actual power at the domestic waste at 60 ... 70% of the project, the thermal energy was not used efficiently, and there was no perfect gas purification unit. Consequently, the plant was closed. Ash from incinerator plant is toxic first-class risk and requires special methods of disposal.
Besides the question about the dangers of such plants, there is another question, the burning of garbage treats to power-consuming processes. Therefore we can not afford this strategy. Moreover, the best option for our region is now the transition to new technologies in the processing system.
Given a European focus, it is necessary to set up a regional system for the treatment of solid waste is consistent with these trends and has been adapted to the legislation of the European Union (EU).
In view of this fact, our region needs to move to new technologies in the treatment of solid waste:
- Separate collection, sorting and use of recycled waste;
- Downstream processing of solid waste from their sorting and thermal processing of unsorted residue;
- Seizure (in the process of separate collection or on waste sorting line) and composting of organic components of SW;
- Two-stage removal of SW using waste-trans-shipping station, as well as the harvesting and transport garbage trucks;
- Creation of large regional sanitary landfills-reactors, which is collected and used for energy purposes biogas;
- Packaging activities of mixed SW at waste-trans-shipping stations or tails of sorting lines and storing bales in piles on the special landfills using cranes and forklifts.
All of the mentioned directions of development of the scope of the treatment of solid waste should be used in the Crimea. It should be also developed a system for the treatment of SW for Crimea as a whole and for each locality in particular.
For settlements of Crimea the most appropriate options for the Treatment of Landfill are:
- Creating individual cities (some landfills), waste treatment systems for processing wastes in these cities (towns), as well as those wastes that are already available on the sites;
- Establishment in the towns of waste facilities (clean and non-waste) for processing of solid waste generated in the city (village);
- Establishment in the towns (settlements) waste-trans-shipping stations with sorting garbage and subsequent removal of remaining unsorted container truck transportation (rail) beyond the resort area of Crimea at 2 regional waste processing systems (thermal power plants on renewable energy) that can be created on saline areas Center Crimea (near settlements Nizhnogirskiy, Oktyabrskoe).
To select the technological scheme of the treatment of solid waste in a particular locality or region, first it is important to examine the volumes of solid and their content of valuable components, physical and thermal properties of waste, to pick up solid waste processing technology and equipment for its implementation. Then it should be developed a sanitation settlement, as a component of urban planning documentation and a program for the treatment of solid waste, which includes measures for the implementation of the Scheme. Also, projects of major facilities handling solid waste, including waste treatment plants should be elaborated and implemented.
If this program will be implemented, we will save a lot of resources to our region. Practice shows that the recycling of waste, reduces the consumption of raw materials and increases significant power savings. For cleaning bottles spent much less energy than its melting and fabrication of the material obtained a new bottle. Studies show that when a tenfold re-use glass bottles with a capacity of 0.34 liters energy consumption accounts for 24% of the energy in the same disposable glass bottles recycled and about 16% of the cost of this packaging made from a primary material. To ensure the return of containers it should have a high collateral value.
Paper and textile waste paper is a good secondary raw material in paper production, helping to reduce deforestation: 1 million tons of paper recycling saves from cutting down 60 hectares of forest. Of the 120-130 tons of cans you can get 1 ton of tin. This is equivalent to mining and processing of 400 tons of ore. [5, p.3]
Almost all European countries have long practiced recycling SW in their economies. What leads to cost savings on electric power for their destruction.The main difficulty sorting for recycled materials is that in similar wastes may contain various components. Must be set up a system of waste sorting and place of their appearance ( in the home of resident), and after the collection and removal. In the first case, you must have special containers for garbage collection of different types of active and environmentally conscious citizens. Filled sorted waste containers must enter the special control station resorting.Then, the waste must be sent for recycling.[8.p 68]
Innovation processes in the treatment of solid waste for today remains the only hope for our peninsula. Construction of two environmentally friendly waste enterprises and implementing the program for the treatment of SW in the Crimea will completely get rid of the constant problems of pollution and through generating heat and electricity we can also cope with the energy problem of our region.
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