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Luther

’s Reformation Essay, Research Paper In 1521, he was summoned again, this time by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther went to the meeting known as a Diet in Worms, Germany. In his defense he said, “Unless I am convinced by Scriptures and plain reason – I do not accept the authority of Popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other.

’s Reformation Essay, Research Paper

In 1521, he was summoned again, this time by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther went to the meeting known as a Diet in Worms, Germany. In his defense he said, “Unless I am convinced by Scriptures and plain reason – I do not accept the authority of Popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other. My conscience is captive to the word of God, I can not and I will not recant anything, for to go against my conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand. I can do no other: God help me, Amen.” Because of his words and beliefs, Luther was declared an outlaw.

Charles V, bound by his knightly code of honor, granted Luther forty days of peace to get home, but Luther never made it there. He disappeared. Rumors surfaced throughout Germany that he had been assassinated. Soon after his disappearance, however, Luther’s friends began to receive letters from him. These letters stated that he was alive and was hiding in the castle of Frederick of Saxony.

While he was hiding, Luther wrote many sermons. He also translated the New, and later Old, Testaments into German, making it possible for more people to read the Bible. He also wrote many hymns,including “A Mighty Fortress Is Our God.”

Though Luther’s church, The Lutheran Church, was organized much like the Catholic Church, his ideas and religious convictions were new. The Lutheran Church was open for all, for Luther believed that all men were predestined for heaven or hell and and that it was impossible for man to know who would go where. The traditional structure of this new church resembled the Catholic one. There were still bishops and clergy, and the traditional Catholic Mass was still included in the services.Lutheran pastors still administered the sacraments, but their principle job was to preach. One of the most widespread of Luther’s reforms was his translation of the Bible into German. Because of this many ideas surfaced concerning religious practice and doctrine.

During 1524 and 1525 a revolt broke out among the German peasants. They wanted to reform the clergy and lower taxes. Luther, who the peasants expected help from, urged them to stop fighting. When they didn’t, he encouraged the nobility to crush the peasants. The ill-armed peasants won a few battles but soon were brutally beaten by the Emperor’s seasoned veterans. Luther’s discontent with the peasants cost him many followers.

In 1529 at the Diet of Speyer, Lutheranism was outlawed. Lutheran princes and imperial cities signed a protest of this ruling. Though both sides were opposed to each other, the Catholics and Protestants refrained from fighting while Luther still lived. After his death in 1546, however, the long overdue war began. The Catholics veteran army savagely beat the Protestants, who were badly organized and divided. The Battle Of Muhlberg in 1547 saw some Protestant leaders captured. With this victory in mind, Charles V started to force his authority over Germany causing many of his supporters to turn against him.

In an effort to win back souls to the Church, the council of

Trent in 1555 instituted the “Counter-Reformation.” This ‘new’

reformation had five points: First, only the Church could teach the Bible. Second, faith and good works were necessary for salvation. Third, the Pope was the highest power in the Church. Fourth, the Church should be a central part of a Catholics life and faith. Fifth, the clergy shouldn’t marry. The council also banned the sale of indulgences, disciplined the clergy, offered training for clergy, and insisted only worthy people should be allowed into the clergy. This feeble attempt to reform the Church still In an effort to win back souls to the Church, the council of

Trent in 1555 instituted the “Counter-Reformation.” This ‘new’

reformation had five points: First, only the Church could teach the Bible. Second, faith and good works were necessary for salvation. Third, the Pope was the highest power in the Church. Fourth, the Church should be a central part of a Catholics life and faith. Fifth, the clergy shouldn’t marry. The council also banned the sale of indulgences, disciplined the clergy, offered training for clergy, and insisted only worthy people should be allowed into the clergy. This feeble attempt to reform the Church still didn’t stop a growing number of protestants.

The number of religious wars was growing. The Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555 to put an end to them. This agreement declared the princes of each region could choose their religion, with Lutheranism being the only Protestant religion allowed, and the Protestants could keep church land and wealth that was acquired before 1552. Many Northern princes converted to Lutheranism, whereas many Southern princes stayed Catholic. In Germany, Lutheranism had now arose to a position along side its rival, Catholicism. Now Lutherans were recognized but only in a select number of states. By now many different radical churches had formed. Germany wasn’t the only country in Europe that had adopted Lutheranism: Denmark and Sweden’s Kings had also converted. King Henry VII of England reformed his church, too, mostly to give himself power. The kings that did convert may not have been deeply religious. Some were probably greedy for the wealth of the Church or for extra power. The result? A wide range of C

Churches and religious convictions came from the reformation.

So, what exactly did the Protestant Reformation “reform?” First and foremost the Reformation shattered religious unity in Europe. Many of the Protestant Catholic wars also destroyed the works of beauty in the Catholic Church, including statues and many diferent forms of art. The will of the individual and an emphasis on a more “personal” relationship with God also came out of the Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a movement to “reform” the Church. Out of this era a varying number of religious convictions and religious orders came.

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