Cloning Term Papr Essay, Research Paper
In old science fiction movies people were cloned be being put into a chamber, some one pushes a button, and then an exact copy of the person is made. Cloning takes a much longer time to work because the clone has to be born. Cloning is heavily debated, is able to be done in different ways, can be done to many animals, has many uses, and has an interesting history.
Cloning is a word that has been around for a long time. A clone refers to one or more offspring derived from a single ancestor, whose genetic composition is identical to that of the ancestor. No sex is involved in the production of clones, and since sex is the normal means by which new genetic material is introduced during procreation, clones have no choice but to have the same genes as their single parent.
There are many uses for cloning. Cloning can be used to make pharmaceutical drugs, better and more milk or babies, clone prize animals, and make animals immune to certain diseases, ect.. For example, scientist at A&M university unveiled a prize black angus bull who is immune too most diseases. They made the bull so that beef could be safer and produced easier because the bull would not get any diseases. The disease resistant bull would be very useful when diseases like the Mad Cow starts showing up. Sometimes scientists alter calves DNA and then clone them for pharmaceutical reasons. The transgenic animals create larger amounts of drugs for a lower cost. Also you could take a cell from a $100,000 prize bull and then make as many clones of it as you would want.. In the future cloning will probably be used to create donor organs, tissue, nerves, blood cells, or cartilage. This hasn t been proven possible yet, but the cloning specialists have been able to make a theory about how it would be done. The specialists could make donor organs by making human stem cells in a host cow and then from there they could make almost anything.
Any animal can be cloned, but only a few types of animals have been cloned. Only the following choice animals have been cloned because they can either grow up fast, or they can help the world. Scientists are working with farmyard animals now because they are easy to raise, they age quickly, and they can be altered to produce more of what they make. So far pigs, cows, mice, rats, some human cells, sheep, frogs and a few others have been successfully cloned. The human cells were cloned, but in the early stages of development they were destroyed because the Korean scientist thought it was unethical. Most of the animals that were cloned survived, but some got sick and some (like Dolly ) age prematurely.
The most controversial debate about cloning is whether it is the ethics of it(is it right or wrong). There are two different points of view. The reasons why cloning is right are to make endangered animals plentiful again, to make safer and more livestock and agriculture, create biological proteins to cure Parkinson and other diseases, and single women could have a child instead of having artificial insemination. The reasons why cloning is wrong are that there would be a decline in genetic diversity, if everyone had the same genetic make up one disease could wipe out the whole population, helping endangered species would not work because there are no cousins to the animals to breed them in, cloning is still experimental, it took 277 tries to clone dolly, with these mistakes scientist could kill the last female animals, scientist are playing god , because of nuclear transfer men are now reproductively obsolete, cloning would deprive a person of its uniqueness , and scientist don t know how a person would handle knowing that they were a clone.
Some inquisitive people might ask Who was the first person to clone an organism? . The answer to that is , humans were not the first to make clones. Bacteria, some invertibres, non-seed pants, and some algae produce asexually. That is when they split their cells and divide into two different organisms. So just keep this in mind next time some one asks you who was the first to clone.
Cloning Humans has been banned in 19 European nations and the united states for 5 years. Great Britain didn t sign the contract because they believed that the restrictions were too draconian. Human cloning was banned because it was unethical.
In conclusion, cloning has gone from 50 s science fiction to the reality of today. Cloning is available because of better equipment, smarter scientists, and a questioning of the world.