Food Additives Essay, Research Paper
Food additives have been used for thousands of years. In prehistoric times, salt was probably used to preserve meat and fish. Our ancestors also found that large amounts of sugar helped preserve fruit and that cucumbers could be preserved in a vinegar solution. The ancient Egyptians used sulfites to stop bacterial growth and fermentation in wine. They also used extracts from beetles for food coloring. Vegetable dyes from juniper fruits or beech-root juice were popular colorings in the Middle Ages, although wary kings began to employ ?garglers? to test their meals?perhaps for additives that did not originate in the kitchen (Editors of Prevention Magazine 1993). Today, salt, sugar, and corn syrup are by far the most widely used additives. The role of food additives has become more prominent in recent years, due in part to the increased production of prepared, processed, and convenience foods. At the same time, consumers, scientists, and others have raised questions about the necessity and safety of these substances. Although limited amounts of food additives are necessary to guarantee adequate food supplies for a growing population, their use is strictly controlled by laws that assure consumers that foods are safe to eat and accurately labeled (FDA/IFIC 1998).
Many people tend to think of any additive added to foods as a complex chemical compound but that ideology is quite wrong. A food additive is a substance or mixture of substances, other than basic foodstuffs, present in food as a result of any aspect of production, processing, storage, or packaging (Winter 1984). Salt, baking soda, vanilla, and yeast are all food additives and are commonly used in processed foods today. By law, the label must identify the food product in a language the consumer can understand. It must indicate the manufacturer, the packer, or distributor, and declare the quantity of contents either in net weight or volume, and the ingredients must be declared on the label in order of predominance (Winter 1984).
The useful functions of food additives are often taken for granted, but their purpose is as varied as the foods in which they are used. Additives prevent salad dressings from separating, salt from becoming lumpy, and packaged goods from spoiling on the grocery shelf. They keep cured meat products safe to eat and give margarine its yellow color. The addition of vitamins and minerals to milk, flour, cereals, and breads was a key factor in the disappearance of diseases such as goiter, rickets, pellagra, and beriberi in the United States over the last fifty years. Since most people today are concentrated in big cities and their suburbs, additives help keep the nutritional and aesthetic quality of food from degrading while en route to markets. Additives also improve the nutritional value of certain foods and can make them more appealing by improving their taste, texture, consistency, or color (FDA/IFIC 1998).
Some additives could be eliminated if we were willing to grow our own food, harvest and grind it, spend many hours cooking and canning, or accept increased risks of food spoilage. Most people have come to rely on the many technological, aesthetic, and convenience benefits that additives provide in food (FDA/IFIC 1998). We want ?pretty? foods because consumers have been subjected to the beautiful pictures of foods in popular magazines and on television. Food purveyors are only responding to the changes in society (Winter 1984).
Additives are used in foods for five main reasons. (1) To provide leavening or control acidity/alkalinity. (2) To enhance flavor or impart desired color. (3) To maintain product consistency. (4) To maintain palatability and wholesomeness. (5) To improve or maintain nutritional value (FDA/IFIC 1998).
Many substances added to food may seem odd when seen listed on the ingredient label, but these chemicals that sound so intimidating are actually quite familiar. It is helpful to remember that all food is simply made of Carbon, Hydrogen and other chemical elements like Oxygen and Nitrogen. Dr. Melvin A. Benarde feels that the public is being widely misinformed about the chemical additives in processed foods. He points out that without these chemical additives, many of the convenience foods we use would not be available (Benarde 1971).
Under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the term food additive is defined as any substance which results or may reasonably be expected to result — directly or indirectly — in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food (FDA/IFIC 1998). If a substance is added to a food for a specific purpose in that food, it is referred to as a direct additive. For example, aspartame, which is used in diet sodas, yogurt, chewing gum, and other foods, is considered a direct additive. Dr. Wurtman, who is, in addition to his position at MIT, a consultant to Searle (on products other than aspartame) is of the opinion that ? gram to 1 gram a day should be safe for those adults who have no special sensitivity (Harrington 1987). On the other hand Jacobson, Lefferts, and Garland state in their book, Safe Food, to avoid the additive aspartame, especially if one is pregnant, suffers from PKU, or experiences side effects from using it (Jacobson et. al. 1991).
Some common direct additives are antioxidants, such as propyl gallate and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). These additives are approved for use in retarding rancidity in animal or vegetable fats, to preserve color during storage, and to enhance flavor. Preservatives and curing agents such as table salt, sugar, benzoic acid, and sodium nitrite help prevent food spoilage. Binders and extenders — including cereals, nonfat dry milk, and soy protein products — are permitted in such items as sausages and meat patties to bind together ingredients and extend processed products (Harrington 1987).
Although FSIS and FDA have approved these additives for safety, their use is not required in most cases. In fact, a number of food manufacturers limit the use of additives or avoid using them altogether. Persons who are concerned about additives or who must avoid certain substances in their diets should consult product labels to learn the names of many direct additives used in products (Haas 1999).
Another group of additives is classified as indirect. These substances may be present in food in very small amounts as a result of some phase of production, processing, storage, and packaging. For instance, packaging materials may become indirect additives when minute amount of substances making up the packaging material diffuse into the food. FSIS and FDA work with the industry to ensure that material used in processing and packaging meat and poultry products are safe, perform their intended function, and comply with food safety laws (FDA 1998). In their book, The Rubbish On Our Plates, Perucca and Pouradier warn that many of the late twentieth century?s major diseases, such as Alzheimer?s and cancer, can be traced to the chemicals in our food from both industrial farming and environmental pollution. They also believe that the modern multi-national food industry is so complex and fast moving that it is impossible for the authorities to monitor the proliferation of new chemicals and irregular practices (Perucca and Pouradier 1996).
There are four groups of substances that are exempt from the Food Additives Amendment. They are generally recognized as safe substances (GRAS), prior sanctioned or approved substances, pesticides, chemicals, and color additives. If new data on a food chemical indicate a possible health risk, the FDA may revoke its GRAS classification of the substance and relabel it as an unapproved food additive (Stare, Aronson, & Barrett 1991).
Additives have been around since the beginning of time. Our ancestors used salt to preserve meats and fish; added herbs and spices to improve the flavor of foods; preserved fruit with sugar; and pickled cucumbers in a vinegar solution. But, as our country industrialized, the nation had to depend on the newly emerging food industry to produce and distribute its food. Dishonesty regarding what was added to foods led to the development of Food Safety Laws.
While the first efforts to pass laws to govern food were difficult to enforce, it set the framework for our current policy. Over the years, improvements have been made in increasing the efficiency and ensuring the safety of all additives. Today food and color additives are more strictly regulated that at any other time in history. Regulations known as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) limit the amount of food and color additives used in foods. Manufacturers are to use only the amount of an additive necessary to achieve the desired effect (FDA/IFIC 1998).
If an additive is approved, FDA issues regulations that may include the types of foods in which it can be used, the maximum amounts to be used, and how it should be identified on food labels. Additives proposed for use in meat and poultry products also must receive specific authorization by USDA. Federal officials then carefully monitor the extent of Americans’ consumption of the new additive and the results of any new research on its safety to assure its use continues to be within safe limits. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 assures that food labeling information is consistent with recent dietary recommendations from the U.S. Surgeon General and the National Research Council (Jordan 1994).
In addition, FDA operates an Adverse Reaction Monitoring System (ARMS) to help serve as an ongoing safety check of all additives. The system monitors and investigates all complaints by individuals or their physicians to specific foods; food and color additives; or vitamin and mineral supplements. The ARMS computerized database helps officials decide whether reported adverse reactions represent a real public health hazard associated with food, so that appropriate action can be taken. Additives are never given permanent approval. FDA and FSIS continually review the safety of approved additives to determine if approvals should be modified or withdrawn (FDA/IFIC 1998).
As consumers we can make an impact on the use of additives in processed foods by complaining to the makers of additive-laden foods. It was pressure from parents who thought their children were reacting poorly to additives such as artificial colorings that got companies specializing in children?s foods to drop questionable additives from their products (Jacobson, et. al. 1991). As concerned citizens we can urge our legislators to demand tougher testing of additives and more vigorous enforcement of the food-additive laws. To reinforce good food processing practices we can thank companies whose food products do not contain questionable additives and also vote for legislators who are concerned about the health and safety of their constituents. We need to worry about the loss of nutrients that results from modern methods of farming, polluted water, depleted soil, and chemicals used on plants and given to animals (Haas 1999).
The earliest uses of food additives were to preserve and enhance the appearance of the foods we consume. Now with customers concerned about fats in foods and dietary restrictions, food chemists are working to develop new additives to substitute for fat and sugar. Processed foods manufacturers are likely to increase their reliance on additives that cut back on calories, fat, sugar, and salt. We consumers need the assurance that new food ingredients will be safe and truly healthful to our bodies. Peg Jordan, R.N., a recognized fitness writer and consumer health advocate, states that reading food labels can prolong your life (Jordan 1994). Being an informed consumer will take the guesswork out of choosing the right foods to maintain a wholesome and balanced diet. Avoiding abuses of food and substances is very crucial to one?s long-term health, and being concerned about our food supply is very important to one?s well-being.
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Editors of Prevention Magazine Health Books. 1993. Prevention?s Food & Nutrition. Rodale Press. Emmaus, PA.
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Winter, Ruth. 1984. A Consumer?s Dictionary Of Food Additives. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, NY.