регистрация / вход

School Shootings Essay Research Paper Georgia Colorado

School Shootings Essay, Research Paper Georgia, Colorado, Virginia, Oregon, Michigan, and Tennessee are the sites in which some of the most viscous school crimes have occurred. In this day and age it seems as if school isn’t a safe haven for America’s children anymore. School shootings are on the rise more than ever in today’s society with kids as young as 9 years old committing these gruesome crimes against their classmates and instructors.

School Shootings Essay, Research Paper

Georgia, Colorado, Virginia, Oregon, Michigan, and Tennessee are the sites in which some of the most viscous school crimes have occurred. In this day and age it seems as if school isn’t a safe haven for America’s children anymore. School shootings are on the rise more than ever in today’s society with kids as young as 9 years old committing these gruesome crimes against their classmates and instructors. To see this type of action among kids is heartbreaking and sad. People wonder what makes a child want to kill another or how did they get their little hands on such a powerful weapon. Most of the young killers today find it very easy to gain access to guns and bomb making material via the Internet. By using the internet these kids can create fake identities in order to gain control of weapons and other materials they need to complete their missions of hate and murder. This report will discuss the warning signs and possible causes behind the recent actions of these young killers and expose their possible motives for wanting to commit such crimes at a young age.

Most people think that they know their kids so well that they would know if their child was capable of killing someone. The truth is that no one knows their children as well as they think. People don’t know what signs to look for when they have a troubled child living with them. On the next few pages is a watchlist for noticing signs of violence in your child.

Watch for Signs… Take Action

See also:

The Department of Education and the Department of Justice have also produced an early warning guide for spotting trouble in schools

Know signs that kids are troubled and know how to get them help. Look for such signs as:

· Lack of interest in school

· Absence of age-appropriate anger control skills

· Seeing self as always the victim

· Persistent disregard for or refusal to follow rules

· Cruelty to pets or other animals

· Artwork or writing that is bleak or violent or that depicts isolation or anger

· Talking constantly about weapons or violence

· Obsessions with things like violent games and TV shows

· Depression or mood swings

· Bringing a weapon (any weapon) to school

· History of bullying

· Misplaced or unwarranted jealousy

· Involvement with or interest in gangs

· Self-isolation from family and friends

· Talking about bringing weapons to school

The more of these signs you see, the greater the chance that the child needs help. If it’s your child and he or she won’t discuss these signs with you, see if a relative, a teacher, a counselor, a religious leader, a coach, or another adult can break the ice.

Get help right away. Talk with a counselor, mental health clinic, family doctor, a psychologist, religious leader, the school’s dean of students, or the office of student assistance. The faster you find help, the more likely the problem can be resolved.

Not your child? Recognizing these signs in any child should set off alarm bells for any community member. If you know a child well enough to notice these changes, constructively express concern to the parent(s), who may already be taking action and would welcome your support. If parents appear disinterested, speak to the child’s teacher or counselor.

12 Things Students Can Do

Help stop school violence with this starter list of ideas. Some require only individual action; some require concerted effort. Some address immediate issues; others address the problems that cause violence. Consider this list a launching pad — there’s lots more that can be done. Check the resource section for places to contact for more ideas and help in carrying them out.

Refuse to bring a weapon to school, refuse to carry a weapon for another, and refuse to keep silent about those who carry weapons.

Report any crime immediately to school authorities or police.

Report suspicious or worrisome behavior or talk by other students to a teacher or counselor at your school. You may save someone’s life.

Learn how to manage your own anger effectively. Find out ways to settle arguments by talking it out, working it out, or walking away rather than fighting.

Help others settle disputes peaceably. Start or join a peer mediation program, in which trained students help classmates find ways to settle arguments without fists or weapons.

Set up a teen court, in which youths serve as judge, prosecutor, jury, and defense counsel. Courts can hear cases, make findings, and impose sentences, or they may establish sentences in cases where teens plead guilty. Teens feel more involved and respected in this process than in an adult-run juvenile justice system.

Become a peer counselor, working with classmates who need support and help with problems.

Mentor a younger student. As a role model and friend, you can make it easier for a younger person to adjust to school and ask for help.

Start a school crime watch. Consider including a student patrol that helps keep an eye on corridors, parking lots, and groups, and a way for students to report concerns anonymously.

Ask each student activity or club to adopt an anti-violence theme. The newspaper could run how-to stories on violence prevention; the art club could illustrate costs of violence. Career clubs could investigate how violence affects their occupational goals. Sports teams could address ways to reduce violence that’s not part of the game plan.

Welcome new students and help them feel at home in your school. Introduce them to other students. Get to know at least one student unfamiliar to you each week.

Start (or sign up for) a “peace pledge” campaign, in which students promise to settle disagreements without violence, to reject weapons, and to work toward a safe campus for all. Try for 100% participation

School anti-violence policies and programs run the gamut from general educational improvement efforts to interventions that target specific types of illegal or anti- social behavior. The most effective are directed by a clearly-defined administrative entity, and have line-item budgetary status. They involve parents in a variety of roles and, as appropriate, also draw on community leaders and resources. Initiatives are directed at both preventing violence and at punishing and rehabilitating perpetrators. Their goal is to create a safe school community that believes in and practices nonviolence in resolving differences.

Overall School Improvement

In recognition of the fact that student misbehavior (and even gang membership) can be a reaction to ineffective schooling and to feelings of frustration and failure, some districts are restructuring schools to increase student engagement, attendance, and performance. Indeed, school reform programs around the country, especially those requiring strong family involvement, report increased attendance and student satisfaction. Many schools that cannot totally restructure still strive to better meet the education needs of students through more accurate identification of learning disabilities and personal attention. A related reform is downsizing schools, since it has been widely documented that smaller schools have fewer disruptions and incidences of violence.

Schools can also reduce violence by promoting mutual respect among all members of their community, student self-respect, and appreciation for diversity. They demonstrate respect for students through availability of good facilities and resources, such as up-to-date textbooks, laboratories, and computer equipment. It is also believed that the appearance of a school adds to the perception of safety, and that a well cared for school is less susceptible to vandalism and violence. Unfortunately, schools in urban areas, where violence can be a particular problem, are among the most overcrowded and poorly equipped and maintained.

School Safety Policies

Institutionalization of a code of conduct demonstrates a commitment to violence prevention and helps staff and students feel safe. The code should clearly explain school rules and punishments for infractions. A cornerstone of all policies is the Federally-mandated “zero tolerance for guns” provision. Some schools also institute zero tolerance provisions for other types of offenses, such as assaulting a teacher, so that violent students can be removed from regular classrooms. Because some disruptive students might welcome expulsion, many policies assert that the school response to certain specified acts will be legal prosecution.

Dress regulations, particularly those forbidding clothing associated with gang membership, are increasingly popular. Requiring uniforms is thought to increase students’ commitment to school goals and to reduce theft of expensive clothing and jewelry.

Policies can be created at three levels: district, school, and classroom. Since there are different concerns at each one, it is reasonable for students to be governed by several complementary policies. Collaborative development by administrators, teachers, parents, and even students, with a review for legal compliance, helps ensure that a policy will be respected and enforced. Periodically reviewing a policy for appropriateness, effectiveness, and completeness maintains its usefulness over time. Copies are given to administrators, teachers, parents, and students. Students may also have the rules explained to them in assembly or a classroom to be sure they understand the purpose of the rules, the parameters of acceptable behavior, and the consequences of infractions.

Prevention Strategies

School Security. The most common school security measure is the monitoring of students when they move through the hallways and in places where they congregate, such as restrooms and the cafeteria. School staff members have traditionally served as monitors, but increasingly schools are hiring security guards to patrol the building and to provide security at events. In the most violence-prone areas schools may form partnerships with the police to visit periodically or even to patrol the halls regularly. However, some educators believe that a police presence has a negative impact on teaching and learning and that the need for them is an indication of administrative failure. Others welcome police support but provide special training for dealing with students in a school environment. Probation officers with on- site offices can provide help to students who have already engaged in illegal behavior.

Some schools use parents as monitors and teachers’ aides. Doing this is inexpensive and can be an effective deterrent, since students may be more reluctant to behave badly when watched by someone they regularly see in the neighborhood. Further, involving parents gives them a sense of ownership of anti-violence efforts and may help them reconsider their own attitudes about violence.

To keep students from bringing in weapons some schools use metal detectors and others administer systematic or random searches of students’ bodies, possessions, and lockers. Since there is a strong relationship between student violence and use and sale of drugs, administrators make special efforts to keep schools drug-free, through both education campaigns and searching. The courts have been divided about the constitutionality of searches for either weapons or drugs, however, and some methods, such as use of drug-sniffing dogs, are being challenged legally.

Teacher Involvement. To dispel fears and help teachers feel supported, meetings about violence issues are held regularly, possibly as a component of general staff meetings. Administrators provide accurate information about violent occurrences and responses to them, involve faculty members in prevention efforts, and listen to their concerns. Also, teachers’ input can be invaluable, since it is common for them to have information about the threat of violence (and, also, gang activities) before administrators do, and to have suggestions for how to deal with it based on personal knowledge of the students. Teachers can also meet in groups to discuss ways to establish and maintain control of their classroom and a climate conducive to learning, and to brainstorm strategies for working with disruptive students.

Training in violence prevention-for ancillary staff such as school bus drivers, as well as teachers-can both make the school safer and help staff feel more secure. Programs can include development of the ability to identify students at risk of anti-social behavior for preventive intervention, to identify and diffuse potential violence, and to deal safely with violence should it erupt. Some staff training covers the same issues that comprise training for students, such as conflict resolution, and it can be effective for staff to participate along with students.

Since at-risk students respond positively to personal attention, teachers can help youth resist violent impulses and the lure of drugs and gangs by offering them extra help with their schoolwork, referrals, informal counseling, or even just a sympathetic ear.

Sources

http://www.uncg.edu/edu/ericcass/violence/docs/victim.htm October 1995 Refer to publication number: NCES 95-204

http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/violence/98030017.html

By looking for these changes according to the watchlist a parent might be able to notice the signs of violent behavior in their child and possibly stop something terrible before it happens so the world doesn’t have to see another tragedy.

What exactly causes these kids to think that murder is the answer?

Every expert in every category of any subject has his or her own reasons for why young kids commit these crimes. Most of the kids involved in this type of situation has been barred, banned, or excluded from a certain group of people. The same kids are also often laughed at, picked on, or talked about. When this happens these teens and pre-teens often think of revenge as a way of stopping the ridicule from their peers. This often means that the quickest solution is the best solution. Most of these children look for a way of placing more pain upon those that laugh at them. They look for a way to inflict more pain on others as a way of getting them to understand how their words hurt. In most of these cases murder is the best way stop the laughter, jokes, snickering, and fingerpointing.

We as a society need to take action against this type of behavior. If we work with our children and play an active role in their life then maybe the violence can stop. Parent should set a positive example for their kids in the hopes that they won’t commit any of these crimes. Most children get their behavior from watching their parents’ behavior. In most cases violent parents produce violent kids. In other cases parents who refuse to see the violence in their child is also allowing that child be violent.

Figure 1. –Sixth- through twelfth-graders’ reports of the occurrence, witnessing, worry about, or victimization, by selected incidents: 1993.

_____________________________________________________________________________

PERCENT OF STUDENTS | Occurred | Witnessed | Worried | Happened

ON A SCALE OF 0 | | | about | to student

TO 100 |__________|___________|____________|____________

| | | |

Bullying, Physical Attack, | | | |

or Robbery | 71% | 56% | 25% | 12%

| | | |

Bullying | 56% | 42% | 18% | 8%

| | | |

Physical Attack | 43% | 33% | 10% | 4%

| | | |

Robbery | 12% | 6% | 6% | 4%

____________________________|__________|___________|____________|_____________

* Students who reported more than one type of incident are included in the overall victimization percentages only one time.

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey, 1993.

Table 1.– Percentage of students reporting the occurrence of, witness of, worry about, or victimization through robbery, bullying, or physical attack at school, 1 by school and family characteristics: 1993

______________________________________________________________________________

| |

| Number of | Crime or threats at school

| students |____________________________________________

Characteristics | in grades | Has | Has | Worried | Happened

| 6 through | occurred | witnessed| about | to him

| 12 | | | | or her

| |__________|__________|__________|____________

|(thousands)| % | s.e.| % | s.e.| % | s.e.| % | s.e.

______________________|___________|____|_____|____|_____|__ _|_____|____|_______

| | | | | | | | |

Total . . . . . . . | 24,060 | 71 | 2.0 | 56 | 2.2 | 25 | 1.2 | 12 | 0.7

| | | | | | | | |

School grade level 2 | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

Elementary school | 2,663 | 60 | 5.7 | 47 | 4.8 | 29 | 3.3 | 13 | 2.0

Middle or junior | | | | | | | | |

high school | 7,418 | 77 | 3.0 | 60 | 2.5 | 34 | 1.8 | 17 | 1.1

Senior high school | 11,539 | 71 | 1.1 | 58 | 1.3 | 20 | 0.8 | 8 | 0.6

Combined | 2,440 | 60 | 7.1 | 45 | 5.6 | 19 | 2.9 | 11 | 1.7

| | | | | | | | |

School type 3 | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

Public, assigned | 19,507 | 73 | 1.8 | 58 | 2.0 | 26 | 1.1 | 12 | 0.8

Public, chosen | 2,683 | 71 | 7.2 | 54 | 6.1 | 27 | 3.1 | 10 | 1.7

Private | 1,870 | 45 | 2.9 | 32 | 2.3 | 13 | 1.6 | 7 | 1.1

| | | | | | | | |

School Size 4 | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

Under 300 | 2,632 | 58 | 5.8 | 44 | 4.2 | 21 | 3.3 | 10 | 1.8

300 – 599 | 7,820 | 68 | 3.3 | 53 | 4.5 | 27 | 2.2 | 13 | 1.3

600 – 999 | 6,176 | 74 | 1.3 | 59 | 1.4 | 25 | 1.2 | 12 | 0.9

1,000 or more | 7,433 | 75 | 1.2 | 60 | 1.4 | 25 | 1.1 | 10 | 0.8

| | | | | | | | |

Student’s race/ethni- | | | | | | | | |

city and school | | | | | | | | |

racial composition 5 | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

White in mostly white| | | | | | | | |

school | 9,598 | 70 | 1.9 | 54 | 2.9 | 22 | 1.4 | 10 | 0.9

White in racially | | | | | | | | |

mixed school | 6,449 | 75 | 2.6 | 61 | 2.6 | 27 | 1.7 | 13 | 1.0

White in most non- | | | | | | | | |

white school | 789 | 74 | 3.6 | 59 | 4.2 | 25 | 3.4 | 15 | 2.4

Black in mostly | | | | | | | | |

black school | 1,055 | 70 | 3.4 | 56 | 3.3 | 27 | 3.0 | 10 | 1.8

Black in racially | | | | | | | | |

mixed school | 1,958 | 68 | 7.3 | 55 | 6.3 | 29 | 3.5 | 11 | 2.4

Black in mostly non- | | | | | | | | |

black school | 814 | 69 | 4.2 |56 |4.5 | 22 | 3.8 | 14 | 3.0

Other race/ethnicity-| | | | | | | | |

combination | 3,399 | 64 | 6.5 | 48 | 4.8 | 26 | 4.9 | 12 | 3.2

| | | | | | | | |

Student’s race/ethni- | | | | | | | | |

city | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

White, non-Hispanic | 16,835 | 72 | 2.0 | 57 | 2.6 | 24 | 1.3 | 12 | 0.7

Black, non-Hispanic | 3.826 | 69 | 4.0 | 56 | 3.4 | 27 | 2.1 | 12 | 1.2

Hispanic | 2,636 | 65 | 1.9 | 51 | 2.3 | 30 | 2.0 | 11 | 1.4

Other races | 762 | 64 | 6.5 | 48 | 4.8 | 26 | 4.9 | 12 | 3.2

| | | | | | | | |

Sex | | | | | | | | |

| | | | | | | | |

Male | 12,040 | 71 | 1.4 | 58 | 2.4 | 25 | 1.5 | 14 | 1.0

Female | 12,020 | 70 | 3.0 | 54 | 2.3 | 26 | 1.3 | 9 | 0.7

______________________|___________|____|_____|____|_____|____|_____|____|_____

1. Includes school activities during the day and on the way to and from school.

2. Schools were classified according to the lowest and highest grades at the school. Schools in which the lowest grade was 3 or less and the highest grade was 8 or less were classified as elementary. Middle or junior high schools were those that had a low grade of 4 through 9 and a high grade of 4 through 9. Senior high schools had a low grade of 7 through 12 and a high grade of 10 through 12. Schools that did not precisely meet these qualifica- tions were classified as “combined.”

3. School type was defined by the parents of the students who were inter- viewed as an assigned public school, a public school that was chosen by the family, or a private school.

4. School size was determined by the estimate of parents of students who were asked to choose from among the following four categories: under 300, 300 to 599, 600 to 999, or 1,000 or more. Parents who were only able to estimate the number of students in their child’s grade were allowed to do so, and that answer was converted to size of school based upon the number of grades in the school.

5. School racial composition was measured by parent reports. Schools were characterized as having more than 75 percent of students in the same racial/ ethnic group as the child, between 25 and 75 percent, or less than 25 percent in the same racial/ethnic group.

NOTE: s.e. is standard error. Number of students may not add to totals due to rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey, 1993.

Table 2.- Percentage of students reporting victimization at school, 1 by school and family characteristics: 1993

______________________________________________________________________________

| |

| Number of | Type of incident

| students |____________________________________________

Characteristics | in grades | | Physical |

| 6 through | Bullying | attack | Robbery

| 12 |_____________|______________|______________

| | | | | | |

|(thousands)| % | s.e. | % | s.e. | % | s.e.

______________________|___________|______|______|______|_______|_____|_________

| | | | | | |

Total . . . . . . . | 24,060 | 8 | 0.5 | 4 | 0.4 | 1 | 0.2

| | | | | | |

School grade level 2 | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

Elementary school | 2,663 | 10 | 1.6 | 4 | 1.0 | 1 | 0.4

Middle or junior | | | | | | |

high school | 7,418 | 12 | 0.8 | 5 | 0.7 | 2 | 0.3

Senior high school | 11,539 | 6 | 0.5 | 3 | 0.4 | 1 | 0.2

Combined | 2,440 | 9 | 1.4 | 3 | 0.9 | 1 | 0.4

| | | | | | |

School type 3 | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

Public, assigned | 19,507 | 9 | 0.5 | 4 | 0.4 | 1 | 0.2

Public, chosen | 2,683 | 8 | 1.4 | 4 | 1.0 | 1 | 0.4

Private | 1,870 | 5 | 1.1 | 1 | 0.5 | * | 0.3

| | | | | | |

School Size 4 | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

Under 300 | 2,632 | 7 | 1.4 | 4 | 1.0 | * | 0.2

300 – 599 | 7,820 | 10 | 1.0 | 4 | 0.6 | 1 | 0.3

600 – 999 | 6,176 | 8 | 0.8 | 3 | 0.6 | 1 | 0.3

1,000 or more | 7,433 | 7 | 0.7 | 4 | 0.5 | 1 | 0.2

| | | | | | |

Student’s race/ethni- | | | | | | |

city and school | | | | | | |

racial composition 5 | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

White in mostly white| | | | | | |

school | 9,598 | 8 | 0.7 | 3 | 0.5 | 1 | 0.1

White in racially | | | | | | |

mixed school | 6,449 | 10 | 0.8 | 4 | 0.6 | 2 | 0.3

White in most non- | | | | | | |

white school | 789 | 9 | 2.2 | 5 | 1.7 | 3 | 1.2

Black in mostly | | | | | | |

black school | 1,055 | 8 | 1.7 | 3 | 1.1 | 1 | 0.4

Black in racially | | | | | | |

mixed school | 1,958 | 6 | 1.5 | 5 | 1.7 | 1 | 0.6

Black in mostly non- | | | | | | |

black school | 814 | 9 | 2.7 | 5 | 2.0 | 2 | 1.1

Other race/ethnicity-| | | | | | |

combination | 3,399 | 7 | 1.0 | 4 | 0.8 | 2 | 0.5

| | | | | | |

Student’s race/ethni- | | | | | | |

city | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

White, non-Hispanic | 16,835 | 9 | 0.5 | 3 | 0.4 | 1 | 0.2

Black, non-Hispanic | 3.826 | 7 | 0.9 | 5 | 1.0 | 1 | 0.4

Hispanic | 2,636 | 6 | 0.8 | 4 | 0.9 | 2 | 0.5

Other races | 762 | 9 | 2.7 | 3 | 1.5 | 1 | 0.6

| | | | | | |

Sex | | | | | | |

| | | | | | |

Male | 12,040 | 10 | 0.7 | 5 | 0.6 | 1 | 0.2

Female | 12,020 | 7 | 0.6 | 2 | 0.3 | 1 | 0.2

________________________________________________________________________

* Less than 0.5 percent.

1. Includes school activities during the day and on the way to and from school.

2. Schools were classified according to the lowest and highest grades at the school. Schools in which the lowest grade was 3 or less and the highest grade was 8 or less were classified as elementary. Middle or junior high schools were those that had a low grade of 4 through 9 and a high grade of 4 through 9. Senior high schools had a low grade of 7 through 12 and a high grade of 10 through 12. Schools that did not precisely meet these qualifica- tions were classified as “combined.”

3. School type was defined by the parents of the students who were inter- viewed as an assigned public school, a public school that was chosen by the family, or a private school.

4. School size was determined by the estimate of parents of students who were asked to choose from among the following four categories: under 300, 300 to 599, 600 to 999, or 1,000 or more. Parents who were only able to estimate the number of students in their child’s grade were allowed to do so, and that answer was converted to size of school based upon the number of grades in the school.

5. School racial composition was measured by parent reports. Schools were characterized as having more than 75 percent of students in the same racial/ ethnic group as the child, between 25 and 75 percent, or less than 25 percent in the same racial/ethnic group.

NOTE: s.e. is standard error. Number of students may not add to totals due to rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Household Education Survey, 1993.

With these children it’s all about prevention. Everyone has their own

way of preventing violence. The U.S. Department of Education released a

Survey to every school district in the U.S. requesting information on violence in the schools. Following is a copy of the survey in which certain questions are asked about the violence occurring in the schools.

If every community gets together and tries to come up with ways to prevent youth violence, then we can minimize the violence amongst our children. Once that happens no one will have to worry about their child coming home from school or worry about their child being the center of another school shooting.

Survey Questionnaire

Definitions

Firearm – any weapon that is designed to (or may readily be converted to) expel a projectile by the action of an explosive. This includes guns, bombs, grenades, mines, rockets, missiles, pipebombs, or similar devices designed to explode and capable of causing bodily harm or property damage.

Incident – a specific criminal act or offense involving one or more victims and one or more offenders.

Physical attack or fight with a weapon – an actual and intentional touching or striking of another person against his or her will, or the intentional causing of bodily harm to an individual with a weapon. This category should be used only when the attack is serious enough to warrant calling the police or other law enforcement representative.

Physical attack or fight without a weapon – an actual and intentional touching or striking of another person against his or her will, or the intentional causing of bodily harm to an individual without using a weapon. This category should be used only when the attack is serious enough to warrant calling the police or other law enforcement representative.

Police or other law enforcement representatives – any regular state or local law enforcement officers, school resource officers, campus police, security personnel employed by school or district, or other security personnel with power to arrest or hold for arrest.

Robbery – the taking or attempting to take anything of value that is owned by another person or organization, under confrontational circumstances by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. A key difference between robbery and theft/larceny is that a threat or battery is involved in robbery.

Sexual battery – an incident that includes rape, fondling, indecent liberties, child molestation, or sodomy. These incidents should take into consideration the age and developmentally appropriate behavior of the offenders and are severe enough to warrant calling the police or other law enforcement representative.

Theft/larceny – the unlawful taking of another person’s property without personal confrontation, threat, violence, or bodily harm. Included are pocket picking, stealing purse or backpack (if left unattended or no force was used to take it from owner), theft from a building, theft from a motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts or accessories, theft of bicycles, theft from vending machines, and all other types of thefts.

Typical week – a typical full week of school. Avoid weeks with holidays, vacation periods, or weeks when unusual events took place at the school.

Vandalism – the damage or destruction of school property including bombing, arson, graffiti, and other acts that cause property damage.

Weapon – any instrument or object used with the intent to threaten, injure, or kill. Examples include guns, knives, razor blades or other sharp-edged objects, ice picks, other pointed objects (including pens, pencils), baseball bats, frying pans, sticks, rocks, and bottles.

Zero tolerance policy – a school or district policy that mandates predetermined consequences or punishment for specific offenses.

1. Circle the number indicating to what extent, if any, each of the following has been a problem in your school during the 1996-97 school year.

Serious Moderate Minor Not a problem

a. Student tardiness 1 2 3 4

b. Student absenteeism/class cutting 1 2 3 4

c. Physical conflicts among students 1 2 3 4

d. Robbery or theft of items over $10 1 2 3 4

e. Vandalism of school property 1 2 3 4

f. Student alcohol use 1 2 3 4

g. Student drug use 1 2 3 4

h. Sale of drugs on school grounds 1 2 3 4

i. Student tobacco use 1 2 3 4

j. Student possession of weapons 1 2 3 4

k. Trespassing 1 2 3 4

l. Verbal abuse of teachers 1 2 3 4

m. Physical abuse of teachers 1 2 3 4

n. Teacher absenteeism 1 2 3 4

o. Teacher alcohol or drug use 1 2 3 4

p. Racial tensions 1 2 3 4

q. Gangs 1 2 3 4

2. During the 1996-97 school year, how many incidents involving each type of the following crimes or offenses have occurred at your school? Only include incidents in which police or other law enforcement representatives (see definition) were contacted.

In column I, record the number of incidents for each type of crime in which one or more incidents occurred at your school.

? If one incident included multiple crimes, include the incident only once in the first appropriate crime listed. For example, if an incident included murder and rape, include the incident only under murder.

? Include all incidents that occurred “at your school” including in school buildings, on school buses, on school grounds, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities, but are not officially on school grounds. Include events or activities that took place both during and after normal school hours, including days when school was not in session.

? If a particular incident has not occurred at your school during the 1996-97 school year, enter “0″ in column I and leave columns II and III blank.

In column II, indicate how many of the incidents reported in column I involved one or more of your students as either a victim or perpetrator.

In column III, indicate how many of the incidents reported in column I occurred either during school hours or at school-sponsored events or activities after school hours.

I. Number of incidents in which police or other law enforcement were contacted? II. How many incidents involved students as either victims or perpetrators? III. How many incidents occurred during school hours or at school-sponsored events or activities?

a. Murder ______ ______ ______

b. Rape or other type of sexual battery ______ ______ ______

c. Suicide ______ ______ ______

d. Physical attack or fight with a weapon ______ ______ ______

e. Physical attack or fight without a weapon ______ ______ ______

f. Robbery – the taking of things directly from a person by force ______ ______ ______

g. Theft/larceny – the taking of things without personal confrontation ______ ______ ______

h. Vandalism – damage or destruction of school property or personal items on school property ______ ______ ______

3. Does your school have a policy to report information about the types of incidents listed in question 2 to the public (e.g., to parents in a school newsletter)?

Yes 1 No 2

4. During the 1996-97 school year, how many of the following disciplinary actions have been taken for each of the listed offenses? Include all incidents listed below (a-d) for which the following disciplinary actions have been taken. Police or other law enforcement representatives need not have been called. Report the number of times a given disciplinary action was taken-one student suspended 5 times would be 5 suspensions.

Numbers of:

Expulsions Transfers to alternative schools or programs Out-of-school suspensions lasting 5 or more days

a. Possession or use of a firearm ______ ______ ______

b. Possession or use of a firearm ______ ______ ______

c. Possession, distribution, or use of alcohol or drugs, including tobacco ______ ______ ______

d. Physical attacks or fights ______ ______ ______

5. During the 1996-97 school year, did your school have:

Yes No

a. A requirement that visitors sign or check in? 1 2

b. Controlled access to school grounds (e.g., locked or monitored gates)? 1 2

c. Controlled access to school buildings (e.g., locked or monitored doors)? 1 2

d. Metal detectors through which all students must pass each day? 1 2

e. Random metal detector checks on students? 1 2

f. Closed campus for most students during lunch (i.e., most students are not allowed to leave school grounds for lunch)? 1 2

g. One or more drug sweeps (e.g., locker searches, dog searches)? 1 2

6. In a typical week during the 1996-97 school year, how many school hours have one or more police or other law enforcement representatives (see definition) been stationed at your school (other than for instructional purposes)? (Circle one)

30 hours or more per week 1

10-29 hours per week 2

1-9 hours per week 3

None during the typical week, but stationed as needed 4

None stationed at school during 1996-97 5

7. During the 1996-97 school year, does your school have a zero tolerance policy (see definition) for:

Yes No

a. Violence? 1 2

b. Firearms? 1 2

c. Weapons, other than firearms? 1 2

d. Alcohol? 1 2

e. Drugs? 1 2

f. Tobacco? 1 2

8. During the 1996-97 school year, are students at your school required to wear school uniforms?

Yes…… 1 In what school year were uniforms first required? 19__ – 19__ school year

No…… 2

9. During the 1996-97 school year, what percentage of your students are eligible for the federally funded free or reduced-price lunch program? ______%

10. During the 1996-97 school year, how many formal (planned and organized) programs or efforts did your school have that were intended to prevent or reduce school violence? (These programs or efforts can include instruction, other services to students, or changes to classroom and school management, and can take place either during school hours or after school hours.)

Number of one-day, one-time programs _________

Number of ongoing programs (more than one day) _________

(If your school has no programs, enter “0’s” and go to question 15.)

11. Were the incidents of crimes and offenses reported in question 2 used to modify these programs or to introduce new programs? Yes….. 1 No…… 2 No incidents reported in question 2….. 3

12. During the 1996-97 school year, did any of your formal programs or efforts intended to prevent or reduce school violence include the following?

Yes No

a. Prevention curriculum, instruction, or training for students (e.g., social skills training) 1 2

b. Behavioral programming or behavior modification for students 1 2

c. Counseling, social work, psychological, or therapeutic activity for students 1 2

d. Other activities involving individual attention for students (e.g., tutoring, mentoring) 1 2

e. Recreational, enrichment, or leisure activities for students 1 2

f. Student involvement in resolving student conduct problems (e.g., dispute or conflict resolution or mediation, student court) 1 2

g. Training, supervision, or technical assistance in classroom management for teachers 1 2

h. Review, revision, or monitoring of school wide discipline practices and procedures 1 2

i. Community or parent involvement in school violence prevention programs or efforts 1 2

j. Reorganization of school, grades, or schedules (e.g., school within a school, “houses” or “teams” of students) 1 2

13. During the 1996-97 school year, about how many students in your school participated in (or will participate in) programs or efforts that directly serve students and were intended to prevent or reduce school violence?

(Circle one)

All or almost all (91-100%) 1

Most (61-90%) 2

About half (41-60%) 3

Some (11-40%) 4

Few (1-10%) 5

None 6

14. During the 1996-97 school year, about how many teachers and staff in your school were substantially involved in any of the programs or efforts that were intended to prevent or reduce school violence?

(Circle one)

All or almost all (91-100%) 1

Most (61-90%) 2

About half (41-60%) 3

Some (11-40%) 4

Few (1-10%) 5

None 6

15. During the 1996-97 school year (including or in addition to those programs reported in question 10), did your school provide or sponsor any afterschool programs? Yes….. 1 No…… 2

16. The U.S. Department of Education may want to ask some of the schools responding to this survey to participate in a followup study on school safety at a later time. Like this survey, the followup study will be voluntary, and no data will be released with identifying information. Does the U.S. Department of Education have your permission to consider your school for a followup study? (Approximately 1 in 6 schools will be selected.) Yes….. 1 No…… 2

Bibliography

Sources

http://www.uncg.edu/edu/ericcass/violence/docs/victim.htm October 1995 Refer to publication number: NCES 95-204

http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/violence/98030017.html

STOPPING SCHOOL VIOLENCE[ONLINE]. AVAILABLE:.

http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/digests/dig115.html

ОТКРЫТЬ САМ ДОКУМЕНТ В НОВОМ ОКНЕ

ДОБАВИТЬ КОММЕНТАРИЙ [можно без регистрации]

Ваше имя:

Комментарий