Intelligence In The World Essay, Research Paper
“Any sound that Winston made, above the level of a very low whisper, would be picked up by it . . . There was of course no way of knowing whether you were being watched at any given moment . . . You had to live— did live, from habit that became instinct— in the assumption that every sound you made was overheard and, except in darkness, every moment scrutinized.” George Orwell, 1984 Throughout history, every civilization depends on its ability to read the others cards, in other words, from ancient Greece to Modern America; espionage has been deeply rooted in the basis of government. During the Cuban missile crises, unless John F. Kennedy had seen the SR-71 spy plane pictures, the United States would have gone to war with Cuba and Russia. Instead, he saw that the number of missiles and bombers was much lower than previously suspected, and called off the preparations for war. There are two major divisions of Intelligence in the modern world: Civilian and military. Civilian Intelligence is mainly intelligence agencies that are run by a staff that is mostly civilian. These are usually run by the government. Military intelligence is mainly intelligence agencies run by the military, although they can have a large amount of civilian personnel as well. However, most Agencies are more accurately a combination of the two, and get a part of funding from both the government and the military National Security Agency At 12:01 AM on the morning of November 4, 1952, a newfederal agency was born. Unlike other such bureaucratic births, this one arrived in silence. No news coverage, no press announcement, not even a rumor. Nor could any mention of the new agency be found in the Government organization manual or the Federal Register. Eleven days earlier, on October 24, President harry S. Truman scratched his signature on the bottom of a seven-page presidential memorandum addressed to Secretary of State Dean G. Acheson and Secretary of Defense Robert A. Lovett. Classified top-secret and stamped with a code word that was itself classified, the order directed the establishment of an agency to be known as the National Security Agency. It was the birth certificate for an organization so secret, that only a handful in government would be permitted to know of its existence. Even the date set for its birth was set for maximum secrecy; should any hint of its creation leak out, it would become quickly swallowed up in the other news of he day: the presidential election of 1952. Even now, over forty years later, the presidential memorandum that created this secret agency, is still classified. The National Security Agency is a subordinate agency of the Department of Defense. The National Security Agency was a separately organized agency under the Department of defense. The seal reflected this with National Security Agency on the top, and Department of Defense on the bottom. There was more emphasis on defense than separate. Carter wanted to change this, and had an artist draw the new seal. The design selected combines simplicity with elegance. Pictured was a stern, powerful, almost three-dimensional eagle with wings drawn to its side in a proud, protective stance. Grasped in its sharp talons was an ancient key. But most importantly, the new insignia replaced Department of Defense, with United States f America, thus symbolically declaring the NSA’s independence from the Pentagon. The National Security Agency is also the only agency of the government without a charter establishing what its legal boundaries are. Therefore, theoretically, the agency can do anything that it wishes. The Director of the National Security Agency, also known DIRNSA to the initiated, is a military officer who is also the director of the Central Security Service. He can be from any branch of the armed services. The position is changed every 4 years, however the previous director can be chosen again. The Armed Forces Security Council, who meets with two flag members from, chooses him. Candidates are supplied by each service, and after all the candidates have been reviewed, the Board then votes on a candidate. The headquarters are located in Fort George G. Meade, in Maryland. There are a number of buildings who each have a bust of the director who was there when the building was built. This city is almost like every other city. It has doctors, laundromats, even a barber shop.. However, unlike every other city in the United States, anyone who steps into the barber’s chair to get a trim has to survive rigorous background checks, and have top secret, compartmented security clearance. Inside the basement of the NSA, is the largest and most complex computer system in the entire world. Like the human brain, the computer system is divided into hemispheres, named Carillon and Loadstone. Carillon is powered by a Cray-1 supercomputer. The much more powerful Loadstone is powered by a much more powerful Cray-2 supercomputer. Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency is the most famous Intelligence Agency in the United States. However, contrary to popular belief, it is not the most powerful agency, nor is it an agency with the most budget. President Harry S. Truman publicly signed it into existence with the National Security Act of 1947. Its Director, the Director of Central Intelligence, also known as the DCI is also the head of the intelligence community. The CIA has a charter that was created when the agency was established, saying that it has no domestic intelligence powers or arrest powers. Its mission is to support the President, the National Security Council, and all officials who make and execute US national security policy by: providing accurate, comprehensive, and timely foreign intelligence on national security topics and conducting counterintelligence activities, special activities, and other functions related to foreign intelligence and national security, as directed by the President. The Central Intelligence Agency collect foreign intelligence information through a variety of clandestine and overt means. Which includes eavesdropping devices, although this is mainly controlled by the National Security Agency. It also includes what is known as human intelligence, this is principally intelligence agents, whether they are agents of another government that are paid for secrets, or undercover agents who work for the United States Government. They also engage in research, development, and deployment of high-technology devices. For example, the KH-11 “keyhole” satellite, which is a photo-reconnaissance satellite which takes photos of places on the ground, has a resolution that allow one to read the writing on the label of a pack of cigarettes. However, it cannot see through clouds. For this purpose, the KH-12 radar reconnaissance satellite has the ability to see through clouds, however, it has much worse resolution. Both of these satellites have batteries that can last about two to three years, after that they become just another piece of floating debree in the Earth’s atmosphere. It also has different divisions to carry its mission throughout the Earth. Some of these division include nonproliferation, counterterrorism, counterintelligence, international organized crime and narcotics trafficking, and arms control intelligence. The DCI also has the requirement to serve as Chairman of the National Security Council’s Senior Interagency Group.
Defense Intelligence Agency The Defense Intelligence Agency, also known as the DIA, is a designated combat support agency and the senior military intelligence component of the intelligence community. The DIA’s primary mission is to provide all-source intelligence to the United States armed forces. It gets these pieces of intelligence from the National Security Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency, along with other agencies. Areas of emphasis for it include targeting and battle damage assessment, weapons proliferation, warning of impending crises, support to peacekeeping operations, maintenance of data bases on foreign military organizations and their equipment and, as necessary, support to UN operations and US allies. The agency is commanded by a three-star officer of the military, and is staffed by both civilian and military personnel. Defense Intelligence Agency employees are located around Washington, DC, but most work at the Defense Intelligence Analysis Center on Bolling Air Force Base. A small number of employees work at the Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center in Maryland and the Missile and Space Intelligence Center in Alabama. DIA’s Defense Attaches are assigned to embassies around the world and DIA liaison officers are assigned to each unified military command. Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti The Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti, also known as the Committee for State Security, or the KGB is the Intelligence Agency for the former Soviet Union, and now for Russia. The Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti was originally created as a “state committee attached to the Council of Ministers.” On July 5, 1978, a new law created by the Council of Ministers changed the status of the KGB, so that its chairman was a member of the Council of Ministers by law. A chairman, who, before the split of the Soviet Union, was selected by the politburo, directs the KGB. Key decisions are made by the KGB Collegium, which is a collective leadership body composed of the chairman, deputy chairman, chiefs of the KGB directorates, and one or two chairman of republic KGB organizations. The KGB was usually very good at the placements of agent within a foreign power. The placement would always begin with the counterintelligence department of the foreign power. They were very cruel to double agents, they would torture the agent, and then would shoot him, or would do worse. There is a legend that the KGB once shoved a double agent into an oven alive. The KGB is divided into different directorates so that each can perform specific functions: The First Chief Directorate (Foreign Operations) was responsible for all foreign operations and intelligence-gathering activities. The Second Chief Directorate was responsible for internal political control of Soviet citizens and foreigners residing within the Soviet Union, including both diplomats and tourists. The Third Chief Directorate [Armed Forces] dealt with military counterintelligence and political surveillance of the Soviet armed forces The Fifth Chief Directorate deals with internal security. The Seventh Directorate (Surveillance) handled surveillance, providing personnel and technical equipment to follow and monitor the activities of both foreigners and suspect Soviet citizensThe Eighth Chief Directorate was responsible for the highly sensitive area of communications The Ninth Directorate [Guards Directorate] provided bodyguards for principal Party leaders and their families, and the Kremlin and other major government facilities around the Soviet Union. The Sixteenth Directorate [former State Communications Department] maintained the telephone and radio systems used by all Soviet government agencies. The Border Troops Directorate protected Soviet land and sea borders. Ha-Mossad le-Modiin ule-Tafkidim Meyuhadim The Ha-Mossad le-Modiin ule-Tafkidim Meyuhadim , also known as the Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks, or Mossad, is the intelligence agency for the Israeli government. It has responsibility for human intelligence collection, covert action, and counterterrorism. Its focus for intelligence gathering is on Arab nations and organizations throughout the world. The Mossad also is responsible for the clandestine movement of Jewish refugees out of Syria, Iran, and Ethiopia. Mossad agents are active in the former communist countries, in the West, and at the UN. The Mossad is headquartered in Tel Aviv, and is headed by a man who’s very identity is a state secret. The Mossad was established on April 1, 1951 by then Prime Minister David Ben Gurion, who gave as Mossad’s primary directive: “For our state which since its creation has been under siege by its enemies. Intelligence constitutes the first line of defense…we must learn well how to recognize what is going on around us.” The Mossad has a total of eight departments, though some details of the internal organization of the agency remain obscure. Collections Department is the largest, with responsibility for espionage operations, with offices abroad under both diplomatic and unofficial cover. Political Action and Liaison Department conducts political activities and liaison with friendly foreign intelligence services and with nations with which Israel does not have normal diplomatic relations. Special Operations Division, also known as Metsada, conducts highly sensitive assassination, sabotage, paramilitary, and psychological warfare projects. LAP (Lohamah Psichlogit) Department is responsible for psychological warfare, propaganda and deception operations. Research Department is responsible for intelligence production, including daily situation reports, weekly summaries and detailed monthly reports. MI-5 MI-5, or Military Intelligence Division five, is Britain’s main counterintelligence division. Traditionally this has meant they have concentrated on threats to “National Security”. It is based in London, in Thames House, on Millibank. Its director is also a state secret. Government Communication Headquarters The Government Communication Headquarters, also known as GCHQ is Britain’s match to the National Security Agency in the United States. It has the responsibility of monitoring and intercepting communication for the government. GCHQ is based in Cheltenham, England. It is difficult to find specific events where GCHQ was directly involved; they are more of a supporting agency for other organizations. It directors’s identity is protected under the Government Secret’s Act. Special Air Service The Special Air Service, also known as the SAS is Britain’s human intelligence division, as well as one of the best known special forces organizations in the world. SAS has four operational squadrons (A, B, D, G and R) comprising of four troops each. Each troop has a specialty in terms of an “insertion skill”. These are:AIR: ParachutingMOUNTAIN: Climbing and walkingMOBILITY: Vehicles and motorbikesBOAT: Boats and canoes. In summation, all of these agencies are very effective in what they do, however one of their major assets is their ability to be almost invisible. Many of these agencies, especially in the United States, have one the largest amounts of personnel working for them, and yet they are still able to keep them a secret. But it is this fact, and this fact alone that keeps the world in peace, because we are constantly, although silently, prepared for war.