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Ecomic Advances Essay, Research Paper

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Jeffrey Cavorley6/11/2000

Mr. Gibbons Global Studies

The cultures, histories, and former government types of many different nations

determine what the effect a former mother country would have on the new nation.

Cultures have always had different reactions to different events in history, and this had

bearing on the governments of former colonies and how they thought about their former

government and condition. Many wanted justice for “land shortage, and the poverty.”

Others wanted to make peace with their former rulers. Some nations felt that their former

governments were “unclean,” while another showed reflection on why the government

of the former mother country failed. A country’s history would affect the values and

attitudes towards certain subjects.

Many different nations responded differently towards their governments because

of culture and history. India, Czechoslovak, and various African nations responded

differently towards their former owners. India responded peacefully wanting only or have

a good relationship with the world, and a “world disarmament.” This peaceful settlement

was due to the history of the nation, and its culture. The Hindus did not believe in

violence, and so it could be said that the culture affected this nation’s relationship with

the world. Czechoslovak, which was a land filled with wars, was more belligerent

towards its former mother country. Czechoslovak criticized their former mother country,

and did not look for a peaceful relationship. Many African nations felt the same way.

Because of the past deportation of Africans, and formation of country’s without any

consideration for geography and tribal history, Africans were bitter towards their former

owner.

The former government, in which the nation was controlled, also had an effect

on the type relationship that were held by the two nations. India was ruled by democracy,

and remained a democracy, and in a democracy a peaceful way of thinking is dominate.

Czechoslovak was ruled under a totalitarian government, and because of this, it was

bitter because the larger country had all the control. African nations felt nearly the same,

but they only blamed it on the government. In the eyes of the Africans all the governments

that controlled them could of better research the area before forming the nations, and not

have treated them as cruelly as they did.

Culture, history, and government affected the relationships between nations, and

their former owners. Culture allowed for many different reactions because it is so

diversities around the nation, and history affected the thoughts of the people of various

nations. Governments of the past affected the way a person thought, depending on how

effective it was, and how it treated the people.b) Clapham said conditions improved, and real

wages of workers increased and with time working conditions improved

* c) our “golden age” was built on this foundation; the very bad conditions were of

a short one generation duration; and in general

the European workers were better off than the peasants

d) Thompson believes that there was dietary improvement: increased

consumption of meat, tea, sugar, liquor, beer, and potatoes replaced wheat

(cheaper); but “In the fifty years of the Industrial Revolution the working class

share of the national product had almost certainly fallen relative to the

share of the property owning and professional classes. The working man

remained very close to the subsistence level.”

e) evils of child abuse; protectionist laws against child and women labor

f) which came first: the chicken (surplus production of products) or the egg

(markets)

B- Introductory comments

1- Most of the source of power and work was done by animals and men until 1800

a) since then machines have been used

b) power * steam, electric, internal

combustion engine, atomic power, solar power

c) this change from muscle to advanced power

and from hand tool to machine powered tool is the industrial revolution

d) although it is still expanding in area and

quality of production today, it started in England in the period 1780-1830

2- In spite of the pressures of this period of

revolutions, the workingman remained fairly docile

a) it involved great mobility of labor and capital

b) it found fertile seeds in England’s heritage of liberty and commerce

C- The Agricultural Revolution in Britain

1- From 1688 to 1832 the landowners of England dominated the government and

created the Agricultural Revolution of surplus food and labor

which made the Industrial Revolution possible

2- The landowners, desiring to increase their money incomes, began experimenting

with improved cultivation and stock raising even though these actions were

opposed by farmers who tend to be naturally conservative in their agricultural

methods

a) increased use of fertilizers- guano

b) use of new or improved implements

c) new crops: turnips, potatoes

d) better crop rotation

e) to carry out these reforms the landlord needed full control over his land

f) he had to overcome the antiquated old system of open fields and common lands

g) these reforms needed large amounts of capital; this was impossible for many

poor and small farmers

3- The common rights of the villagers was based on the Common Law

a) only an act of Parliament could change them

b) the gentry pushed thru hundreds of “enclosure acts”, authorizing the abolition

of the old common lands and open fields

c) many of the farmers were bought or forced

out of their small holdings; reaching its height during the Napoleonic Wars

4- The productivity of land and labor increased greatly

a) better methods meant more and better foods

b) less farm labor was needed to produce the same amount of food

c) excess labor moved to the cities

d) the yeomanry (small farmers) almost vanished

e) “wage earning” replaced “food earning” as the basic way of earning a living

D- Industrialism in Britain: Incentives and Inventions

1- The British merchants had achieved dominance of the world’s trade

a) seemingly unlimited customers, shipping,

and capital needed more manufactured goods to sell

b) cotton cloth was in great demand, and could

be produced cheaply and well in English mills

c) England had sufficient capital, management,

and stock companies to take up the challenge and risk of these inventions

2- A series of successful inventions in the textile industry made possible great

progress in production

a) 1733 John Kay invented the flying shuttle

which increased the speed of weaving and with it the demand for yarn

b) 1760’s the spinning jenny, a mechanized spinning wheel was developed

c) Arkwright invented the water frame for

multiple spinning; and in the 1780’s steam was used

d) machinery needed considerable capital and

management and was concentrated in large mills and factories

e) weaving was also mechanized

f) Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in the

early 1800’s which sped up cotton processing and saved the plantation system

g) English imports of cotton from 1790-1820 increased 500% and cotton

products made up 50% of all English exports

3- The steam engine revolutionized the production of energy

a) helped by the decline of Europe’s wood supply and the turn to coal

b) steam pumps were needed to pump out coal mines

c) in 1763 Watt perfected Newcomen’s steam engine of 1702

d) by the 1780’s it was in mass production

4- The steam engines spread rapidly and were easily adopted to various tasks

a) 1807 Fulton applied it to river boats

b) 1829 the railroad; Stephenson’s Rocket ran

from Manchester to Liverpool, and by the 1840’s they were widespread

E- Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution in Britain

1- It was no longer “Merry Olde England” after the Napoleonic Wars

a) population greatly increased from 10,000,000 in 1750 to 30,000,000 in 1850

(even with large numbers emigrating) and shifted from the South to the new

Midlands industrial areas near the iron and coal deposits

b) from only 4 cities over 50,000 in population in 1785 to 31 cities in 1850

2- Manchester was the greatest of the new industrial cities

a) sprang from “nothingness”

b) in 1845 it finally ceased to be a manor; the population grew from 25,000 in

1772 to 455,000 in 1851

c) these cities lacked municipal organization

and could not deal with urban problems even if they wanted to

3- The new cities were horrible, drab places

a) crowded slums

b) family life and morality declined

4- Rise of unskilled labor needed for factories

a) skilled workers declined in status and pay

as they were no longer in great demand- not like today

b) salaries were too low to support a family;

thus all had to work- at lower wages of course !

5- Factory working conditions were terrible

a) 14 hour + workday and 6 day work week of tedious labor

b) no holidays or vacations except for periods of unemployment which were long

and erratic as markets tended to be unsteady in the early

days of the Industrial Revolution

c) wages were kept low by the lack of labor unions, child labor, and stiff

competition among the producers

6- The “Cotton Lords” were the first industrial capitalists

a) self-made, hardworking men

b) tended to ascribe their success to hard work; others were lazy

c) believed that they did good deeds by providing the poor with jobs

d) wanted a wild laissez-faire economy

e) 1802 Peel put through the first Factory Act; tried to regulate child labor but

failed; there were no inspectors, in fact in this period England had almost no full

time paid civil-servants

f) believed that the free market would eventually work things out to the best

interests of all; employers, employees, and England

F- Classical Laissez-Faire economics

1- The emerging science of economics had a great effect on English thought

a) Adam Smith- 1776- The Wealth of Nations; attacked mercantilism with its

complex regulations and supported laissez-faire policies of production and trade

b) Malthus (population theory) and Ricardo (the Iron Law of Wages) established

“classical” economics; that all should follow their self-interests to ensure the best

results for all

c) the government should do as little as possible; just maintain law and order, and

have courts to protect contracts; all else should be based on private initiative:

charity, education, health etc.

d) there was no escape from the often “cruel” laws of economics

2- The Industrial Revolution was a rough experience for England’s people

a) but neither child employment, the 14 hour

day, or unemployment were new; all had existed in agriculture

b) factories and towns just concentrated poverty in one place

c) so much misery made it evident and observable; reform became inevitable

d) workers concentrated in cities recognized their strength and were educated

and unionized, acquiring eventually a greater share of the fruits of production

II Political Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

A- Reforms in Great Britain

1- Liberal reforms in England had been starting

even before the Paris events of July 1830

a) in the 1820’s young liberals moved up in the Tory Party and revised English

laws; they abolished many capital crimes; and started a police force

b) allowed union organizing

c) reduced tariff duties and the Navigation Acts; favored allowing the export of

machinery and the emigration of skilled labor

d) moved towards the secularization of the

state by repeal of the Test Act of 1673

2- Certain things they could not do as yet

a) repeal the Corn Laws

b) reform the House of Commons

3- Commons was more unrepresentative than ever

a) no new borough had been created since 1688

b) the new factory towns were unrepresented

c) rural areas were over-represented with their lost population (rotten boroughs)

d) not all seats were elected, some were appointed by certain members of the

gentry based upon medieval “liberties”

4- Attempts to reform the House of Commons before 1830 failed

a) the events in Paris caused the Whigs to ask for reforms

b) the Tory majority led by the Duke of

Wellington opposed reforms; “England’s government was perfect”

c) when the Whigs reform bill failed many Whig

members of the government resigned

d) under fear of popular violence the law was

reintroduced and passed in the Commons

e) but was defeated in the Lords

f) serious rioting throughout England resulted

g) under the threat of the King appointing new

peers, the House of Lords passed the bill in April 1832

5- The Reform Bill of 1832

a) a very “English” voting system resulted

b) you enjoyed the franchise if you resided in

a borough and paid L 10 a year in rent

c) or resided in the country and paid L 10 for

a 60 year lease; or L 50 for a short lease

d) if you owned land that could be rented for L 2 a year you voted

e) the electorate of 500,000 was increased to 813,000 12% of adult males voted

f) seats were redistributed: 56 boroughs were

abolished; 30 were diminished; and 143 were given to the new industrial towns

6- While not truly sweeping, it was considered so by the Whigs

a) the pressure valve of a reformable Parliament prevented the danger of a


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