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Jeffrey Cavorley6/11/2000

Mr. Gibbons Global Studies

The cultures, histories, and former government types of many different nations

determine what the effect a former mother country would have on the new nation.

Cultures have always had different reactions to different events in history, and this had

bearing on the governments of former colonies and how they thought about their former

government and condition. Many wanted justice for “land shortage, and the poverty.”

Others wanted to make peace with their former rulers. Some nations felt that their former

governments were “unclean,” while another showed reflection on why the government

of the former mother country failed. A country’s history would affect the values and

attitudes towards certain subjects.

Many different nations responded differently towards their governments because

of culture and history. India, Czechoslovak, and various African nations responded

differently towards their former owners. India responded peacefully wanting only or have

a good relationship with the world, and a “world disarmament.” This peaceful settlement

was due to the history of the nation, and its culture. The Hindus did not believe in

violence, and so it could be said that the culture affected this nation’s relationship with

the world. Czechoslovak, which was a land filled with wars, was more belligerent

towards its former mother country. Czechoslovak criticized their former mother country,

and did not look for a peaceful relationship. Many African nations felt the same way.

Because of the past deportation of Africans, and formation of country’s without any

consideration for geography and tribal history, Africans were bitter towards their former


The former government, in which the nation was controlled, also had an effect

on the type relationship that were held by the two nations. India was ruled by democracy,

and remained a democracy, and in a democracy a peaceful way of thinking is dominate.

Czechoslovak was ruled under a totalitarian government, and because of this, it was

bitter because the larger country had all the control. African nations felt nearly the same,

but they only blamed it on the government. In the eyes of the Africans all the governments

that controlled them could of better research the area before forming the nations, and not

have treated them as cruelly as they did.

Culture, history, and government affected the relationships between nations, and

their former owners. Culture allowed for many different reactions because it is so

diversities around the nation, and history affected the thoughts of the people of various

nations. Governments of the past affected the way a person thought, depending on how

effective it was, and how it treated the people.b) Clapham said conditions improved, and real

wages of workers increased and with time working conditions improved

* c) our “golden age” was built on this foundation; the very bad conditions were of

a short one generation duration; and in general

the European workers were better off than the peasants

d) Thompson believes that there was dietary improvement: increased

consumption of meat, tea, sugar, liquor, beer, and potatoes replaced wheat

(cheaper); but “In the fifty years of the Industrial Revolution the working class

share of the national product had almost certainly fallen relative to the

share of the property owning and professional classes. The working man

remained very close to the subsistence level.”

e) evils of child abuse; protectionist laws against child and women labor

f) which came first: the chicken (surplus production of products) or the egg


B- Introductory comments

1- Most of the source of power and work was done by animals and men until 1800

a) since then machines have been used

b) power * steam, electric, internal

combustion engine, atomic power, solar power

c) this change from muscle to advanced power

and from hand tool to machine powered tool is the industrial revolution

d) although it is still expanding in area and

quality of production today, it started in England in the period 1780-1830

2- In spite of the pressures of this period of

revolutions, the workingman remained fairly docile

a) it involved great mobility of labor and capital

b) it found fertile seeds in England’s heritage of liberty and commerce

C- The Agricultural Revolution in Britain

1- From 1688 to 1832 the landowners of England dominated the government and

created the Agricultural Revolution of surplus food and labor

which made the Industrial Revolution possible

2- The landowners, desiring to increase their money incomes, began experimenting

with improved cultivation and stock raising even though these actions were

opposed by farmers who tend to be naturally conservative in their agricultural


a) increased use of fertilizers- guano

b) use of new or improved implements

c) new crops: turnips, potatoes

d) better crop rotation

e) to carry out these reforms the landlord needed full control over his land

f) he had to overcome the antiquated old system of open fields and common lands

g) these reforms needed large amounts of capital; this was impossible for many

poor and small farmers

3- The common rights of the villagers was based on the Common Law

a) only an act of Parliament could change them

b) the gentry pushed thru hundreds of “enclosure acts”, authorizing the abolition

of the old common lands and open fields

c) many of the farmers were bought or forced

out of their small holdings; reaching its height during the Napoleonic Wars

4- The productivity of land and labor increased greatly

a) better methods meant more and better foods

b) less farm labor was needed to produce the same amount of food

c) excess labor moved to the cities

d) the yeomanry (small farmers) almost vanished

e) “wage earning” replaced “food earning” as the basic way of earning a living

D- Industrialism in Britain: Incentives and Inventions

1- The British merchants had achieved dominance of the world’s trade

a) seemingly unlimited customers, shipping,

and capital needed more manufactured goods to sell

b) cotton cloth was in great demand, and could

be produced cheaply and well in English mills

c) England had sufficient capital, management,

and stock companies to take up the challenge and risk of these inventions

2- A series of successful inventions in the textile industry made possible great

progress in production

a) 1733 John Kay invented the flying shuttle

which increased the speed of weaving and with it the demand for yarn

b) 1760’s the spinning jenny, a mechanized spinning wheel was developed

c) Arkwright invented the water frame for

multiple spinning; and in the 1780’s steam was used

d) machinery needed considerable capital and

management and was concentrated in large mills and factories

e) weaving was also mechanized

f) Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in the

early 1800’s which sped up cotton processing and saved the plantation system

g) English imports of cotton from 1790-1820 increased 500% and cotton

products made up 50% of all English exports

3- The steam engine revolutionized the production of energy

a) helped by the decline of Europe’s wood supply and the turn to coal

b) steam pumps were needed to pump out coal mines

c) in 1763 Watt perfected Newcomen’s steam engine of 1702

d) by the 1780’s it was in mass production

4- The steam engines spread rapidly and were easily adopted to various tasks

a) 1807 Fulton applied it to river boats

b) 1829 the railroad; Stephenson’s Rocket ran

from Manchester to Liverpool, and by the 1840’s they were widespread

E- Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution in Britain

1- It was no longer “Merry Olde England” after the Napoleonic Wars

a) population greatly increased from 10,000,000 in 1750 to 30,000,000 in 1850

(even with large numbers emigrating) and shifted from the South to the new

Midlands industrial areas near the iron and coal deposits

b) from only 4 cities over 50,000 in population in 1785 to 31 cities in 1850

2- Manchester was the greatest of the new industrial cities

a) sprang from “nothingness”

b) in 1845 it finally ceased to be a manor; the population grew from 25,000 in

1772 to 455,000 in 1851

c) these cities lacked municipal organization

and could not deal with urban problems even if they wanted to

3- The new cities were horrible, drab places

a) crowded slums

b) family life and morality declined

4- Rise of unskilled labor needed for factories

a) skilled workers declined in status and pay

as they were no longer in great demand- not like today

b) salaries were too low to support a family;

thus all had to work- at lower wages of course !

5- Factory working conditions were terrible

a) 14 hour + workday and 6 day work week of tedious labor

b) no holidays or vacations except for periods of unemployment which were long

and erratic as markets tended to be unsteady in the early

days of the Industrial Revolution

c) wages were kept low by the lack of labor unions, child labor, and stiff

competition among the producers

6- The “Cotton Lords” were the first industrial capitalists

a) self-made, hardworking men

b) tended to ascribe their success to hard work; others were lazy

c) believed that they did good deeds by providing the poor with jobs

d) wanted a wild laissez-faire economy

e) 1802 Peel put through the first Factory Act; tried to regulate child labor but

failed; there were no inspectors, in fact in this period England had almost no full

time paid civil-servants

f) believed that the free market would eventually work things out to the best

interests of all; employers, employees, and England

F- Classical Laissez-Faire economics

1- The emerging science of economics had a great effect on English thought

a) Adam Smith- 1776- The Wealth of Nations; attacked mercantilism with its

complex regulations and supported laissez-faire policies of production and trade

b) Malthus (population theory) and Ricardo (the Iron Law of Wages) established

“classical” economics; that all should follow their self-interests to ensure the best

results for all

c) the government should do as little as possible; just maintain law and order, and

have courts to protect contracts; all else should be based on private initiative:

charity, education, health etc.

d) there was no escape from the often “cruel” laws of economics

2- The Industrial Revolution was a rough experience for England’s people

a) but neither child employment, the 14 hour

day, or unemployment were new; all had existed in agriculture

b) factories and towns just concentrated poverty in one place

c) so much misery made it evident and observable; reform became inevitable

d) workers concentrated in cities recognized their strength and were educated

and unionized, acquiring eventually a greater share of the fruits of production

II Political Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

A- Reforms in Great Britain

1- Liberal reforms in England had been starting

even before the Paris events of July 1830

a) in the 1820’s young liberals moved up in the Tory Party and revised English

laws; they abolished many capital crimes; and started a police force

b) allowed union organizing

c) reduced tariff duties and the Navigation Acts; favored allowing the export of

machinery and the emigration of skilled labor

d) moved towards the secularization of the

state by repeal of the Test Act of 1673

2- Certain things they could not do as yet

a) repeal the Corn Laws

b) reform the House of Commons

3- Commons was more unrepresentative than ever

a) no new borough had been created since 1688

b) the new factory towns were unrepresented

c) rural areas were over-represented with their lost population (rotten boroughs)

d) not all seats were elected, some were appointed by certain members of the

gentry based upon medieval “liberties”

4- Attempts to reform the House of Commons before 1830 failed

a) the events in Paris caused the Whigs to ask for reforms

b) the Tory majority led by the Duke of

Wellington opposed reforms; “England’s government was perfect”

c) when the Whigs reform bill failed many Whig

members of the government resigned

d) under fear of popular violence the law was

reintroduced and passed in the Commons

e) but was defeated in the Lords

f) serious rioting throughout England resulted

g) under the threat of the King appointing new

peers, the House of Lords passed the bill in April 1832

5- The Reform Bill of 1832

a) a very “English” voting system resulted

b) you enjoyed the franchise if you resided in

a borough and paid L 10 a year in rent

c) or resided in the country and paid L 10 for

a 60 year lease; or L 50 for a short lease

d) if you owned land that could be rented for L 2 a year you voted

e) the electorate of 500,000 was increased to 813,000 12% of adult males voted

f) seats were redistributed: 56 boroughs were

abolished; 30 were diminished; and 143 were given to the new industrial towns

6- While not truly sweeping, it was considered so by the Whigs

a) the pressure valve of a reformable Parliament prevented the danger of a


b) social and political changes could be

gained without driving conservatives into an untenable position

c) hope of future progress

7- The new industrialists now joined the old rural aristocracy in governing England

a) the Whigs and radical industrialists formed the Liberal Party

b) 1833- slavery was abolished in the British Empire

c) 1835- the Municipal Corporations Act

modernized the government of British cities

8- The Tories (Conservatives) “retaliated” by

reforming the industries which were the strength of the Liberal Party

a) championed workers

b) publicized social evils

c) Factory Act of 1833 forbade child labor of

children less than 9 years of age in textile mills

d) in 1842 they regulated the coal mines;

forbid the employment of women, girls, and boys under 10 years of age

9- The Ten Hours Act of 1847 was a great victory for workers

a) limited the labor of women and children to 10 hours a day in factories

b) soon spread to men

10- Liberals, aghast at the limiting of laissez-faire economic policies “retaliated”

with the 1838 Anti-Corn Law League

a) corn laws raised food prices

b) industrialists felt that this forced them to pay higher wages to workers

c) others said it was needed to protect and

encourage English agriculture and maintain a balanced economy

d) the Corn Laws were repealed in 1846 under industrialist backed pressure

11- In England industry had triumphed over agriculture

a) England relied for her food supplies upon a world wide economic system

b) industrialization accelerated as economic specialization in England increased

c) the importance of British sea power was re-affirmed to hold open and control

these world wide trade routes that were needed for

England’s survival on imported foods

d) growth of the “free trade” needed by England for her survival

B- The Challenge of Labor

1- The workers felt left out and estranged

a) they had a low share of the increase of wealth

b) they had forced thru reforms by rebellions

or threats of rebellions and the bourgeoisie got all the political benefits

c) if reform was impossible * destroy the system

2- Concept of a labor market developed (commodity)

a) price of labor was kept down by high population

b) high unemployment was an advantage in this

system as it would keep down wages

1848 1997

Priority for Capital Needs Priority for Consumer Needs

Cheap Food Cheap Food

High Unemployment Low Unemployment

High Population High Population

3- There were two ways out:

a) reform via unions; they only became legal

in England in 1825; and all over Europe were not allowed the right to strike

b) repudiate the system and look for something

new such as compensation based upon need not production

C- Socialism and Chartism

1- Socialism spread rapidly as a doctrine after 1830

a) in France it joined with revolutionary

republicans who wished to use the events of 1793 as a basis for more reforms

b) Robespierre’s works became popular among

workers and intellectuals

c) in England it joined with campaigns for parliamentary reform

2- An English mass movement, the Chartists, was formed in 1838

a) anti-capitalistic

b) demanded working class representation in Parliament; an end to property

qualifications for office; and salaries for members of the House of Commons

c) a “Convention” was held in 1839 with representatives of unions and radical

societies in London; a bad name, as it reminded people of the French Revolution,

and some members were revolutionaries

3- The Chartists presented a petition with 1,000,000 signatures to Parliament

demanding reforms

a) the “physical force” Chartists started riots

b) in 1842 the petition was re-submitted with

3,317,702 signatures out of a population of 19,000,000 people

c) it was rejected by commons 287 to 49

because they feared reforms would endanger property rights

d) Chartism died out, but may have created the

atmosphere of reforms being needed

e) labor unions concentrated on improving

labor conditions with greater success

III The Revolutions of 1848

A- 1789 was repeated

1- Violence in the streets; international rebellion; even another Napoleon

2- There were more revolutions than before or

since; no one country dominated it as it spread all across Europe

a) was it due to an “international revolutionary movement”?- no

b) it was just that most people wanted the

same things: constitutional government; national states; and an end to serfdom

3- It was a brilliant flash- then it was gone

a) there were far reaching effects; pan-Germanisn and pan-Slavism grew

b) Marxism received careful incentives for growth

B- The revolutionaries had many aims:

1- Hungarians wanted an independent state

2- Czechs wanted autonomy within the Austrian Empire

3- Italians and Germans wanted national unification

4- French wanted political reforms

C- There are many views on the events of 1848 among historians

1- Trevelyan: it was a chance for liberal reforms that was lost

2- Namier: it was the start of the German ultra- nationalism that led to the rise of

Adolf Hitler and the start of nations waging wars to crush other nations

3- Langer: “1848 led to grave political and social

conflicts; national antagonisms and wars that might otherwise have been avoided.”

4- Meinecke: the 1848 revolutions were on a comparatively high moral level

5- Moraze: the revolutions were a socio-economic

phenomenon and were a great victory for the middle class

IV Paris: The Specter of Social Revolution in the West

A- The July 1830 Monarchy did not really solve problems

or provide deeply needed reforms

1- From 1830 on republicanism continued to grow increasingly socialistic tendencies

a) although they were only active in Paris, the extreme centralization of France

and the role of Paris enabled them to lead and

dominate the movement through out the nation

2- Politics in the Orleanist government was unreal

a) basic issues weren’t dealt with due to the narrow interests (3% of the adult

male population) represented in the Chamber of Deputies

b) even most of the bourgeoisie were unrepresented

c) there was widespread graft and corruption

d) the revolutionary movement was divided: radicals wanted universal manhood

suffrage and a republic; liberals wanted a broadening

of the electorate within a constitutional monarchy

e) Louis-Philippe opposed any reforms and did not ally himself with the liberals

B- The February Revolution in France

1- A small, single incident precipitated the revolution; reformers planned to hold an

anti-king banquet in Paris on February 22, 1848

a) on February 21, the King forbid it and barricades sprang up

b) the National Guard refused to fire on the people

c) the King promised some electoral forms- but it was too late

d) rioting broke out near the house of the

King’s minister Guizot, and spread through out the city

e) on February 24 Louis-Philippe abdicated and fled to England

2- Armed republicans stormed the Chamber of Deputies

a) liberals had hoped to continue the house of Orleans

b) the republicans ruled France with a 10 man

committee until a constituent assembly could be elected

c) 3 of the committee were socialists, and

under strong pressure from “red” workers

3- Louis Blanc, the socialist leader wanted the

committee to enact immediate economic and social changes

a) the socialist minority in the government couldn’t do it

b) the compromise worked out was that

“National Workshops” would be established

c) a plan for a 10 hour work day was rejected

d) the issue of a “fair share”

4- The National Workshops were a form of

unemployment relief, not worker-owned factories as Blanc had wanted

a) workers were put on national defense projects

b) great numbers of unemployed Paris men were in the workshops: March

25,000; April 66,000; June 120,000; plus an additional 50,000 that

were not in the workshops

c) there were 200,000 unemployed men in a city of 1,000,000

5- The Constituent Assembly was elected with

universal male suffrage in April and met May 4

a) it selected a 5 man board to run France

b) it was anti-socialist and anti-Blanc

c) Paris was not France; the middle class and skilled workers resented an income

tax that could reach 45% to support the workshops

6- It was the City versus the Country- as usual

a) Paris was the largest and most revolutionary city in Europe

b) the Paris workers were starving under miserable conditions; they thought that

they could not wait for slow legal reforms

c) by 1848 violent revolution was a tradition in France

C- The June Days of 1848

1- It was the nationally elected Constituent

Assembly versus the socialist controlled National Workshops

a) workers were concentrated in a few

locations and subjected to radical propaganda and plans

b) May 15, the workers stormed and tried to destroy the Constituent Assembly;

hoping to establish a new government of their own

c) the National Guard drove out the workers and restored order

d) the Assembly prepared to shut down the Workshops; the workers would either

have to join the army or leave Paris

2- In the bloody June Days of 24-26, 1848 the regular army under General

Cavaignac crushed the armed workers in stiff street fighting at the barricades;

10,000 insurgents were killed and another 11,000 were shipped off to the colonies

3- The June Days of class warfare terrified Europe

a) the radical workers increased their hatred of the bourgeoisie and their

capitalistic system, and felt that it only existed by armed force

b) the middle and upper class feared being murdered in their beds

4- In England the February Revolution revived the Chartist movement

a) 6,000,000 signatures appeared on Chartist petitions

b) the Chartists started to arm and prepared to rebel in London

c) a Chartist Convention met- would it declare itself a Constituent Assembly?

d) the Duke of Wellington (still around) swore

in 70,000 volunteers to defend the realm

e) Parliament rejected the petition and the crisis passed with the help of

government infiltration of the movement

e) a mixed feeling of complacency still existed in England; people still had faith in

their institutions

D- The Emergence of Louis-Napoleon in France

1- In France General Cavaignac ruled as a dictator

as the Constituent Assembly drafted a republican constitution

a) the French desired a strong executive to

keep power, and elections with universal male suffrage had the following results:

Lamartine- “moralism and idealism”- 18,000

Cavaignac- a disciplined republic- 1,500,000

Ledru-Rollin- “social republic”- 370,000

Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte- “?”- 5,400,000 won by a landslide

2- Louis-Napoleon, born in 1808 was the son of Louis, the former King of Holland;

in 1832 he resolved to restore his family’s position and Empire; his attempted

coup d’etats in 1836 at Strasbourg and 1840 at Boulogne failed; he escaped

prison in 1846

a) considered to be an anti-capitalist friend

of the common man- yet he stood for order

3- Growth of the Napoleonic Legend

a) Louis wrote “Napoleonic ideas”

b) Frenchmen dreamed of past glories

c) Hugo and Thiers glorified Napoleon

d) 1836- The Arch of Triumph was dedicated

e) 1840- Napoleon was buried at Les Invalides

f) the name of Bonaparte had a magic effect in France

4- Thus Louis-Napoleon became president by a great popular mandate

a) the Legislative Assembly replaced the Constituent Assembly

b) with universal manhood suffrage it produced a 2/3 majority for the

monarchists, but it was split between Orleanists and Bourbonists

(curse of the Royalists)

c) the republicans had the remaining 1/3 of the seats, but were split between

socialists (180 seats) and regular republicans (70 seats) who felt that the main

issue should be the reform of government and not society

5- The President and the Assembly looked to purge republicanism of socialism

a) in June of 1849 an abortive socialist insurrection was put down; 32 socialist

deputies were expelled from the Assembly, and censorship was imposed

b) in 1850 the poorest 1/3 of the electorate was disfranchised

c) 1850 the Falloux Law placed schools under the control of the Church because

they feared that “lay teachers have made the principle of

social revolution popular in the most distant villages”

d) it was an anti-republic republic!; in 1850 it sent troops to Rome to destroy

Mazzini’s republic and restore the Pope to power; they stayed until 1870

6- Bonaparte was needed by the extreme conservatives

a) they looked upon him as a “care-taker”

government until the Bourbon-Orleanist dispute could be settled

b) Bonaparte turned to the radicals for support to increase his power base; in

1851 he urged the restoration of universal suffrage

c) On December 2, 1851 (Austerlitz Day) he

carried out his coup, ensuring control of the army and police

d) declared universal suffrage and dissolved

the Assembly, while 150 were killed in fighting in Paris

e) on December 20, 1851 Bonaparte was elected

President for 10 years 7,439,216 to 646,737

f) the next year he proclaimed himself Napoleon III

7- The Second Republic was dead

a) it killed itself with its fear of radicalism and self-doubt

b) liberalism, constitutionalism and monarchism also died

c) France was now ruled by a demagogue and dictator: Napoleon III

d) what did France want? even the French did not know

V Vienna: The Nationalist Revolution in Central Europe and Italy

A- The Austrian Empire in 1848

1- In 1848 the Habsburg Empire was Europe’s second most populous state

a) it was made up of many ethnic groups:Germans, Magyars, Czechs, Poles,

Ruthenians, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Dalmatians,

Rumanians, and Italians

b) these people in most places were completely intermixed

c) the Germans inhabited all of Austria and parts of Bohemia and Hungary

d) the Czechs inhabited Bohemia and Moravia

e) the Magy


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