Human Travel Systems Essay, Research Paper
Human Travel Systems
We would like to take you on a marvelous trip through the skeletal system. In this trip you will view such sites as the working joints and bones and also the composition of the bone. We can t give away the whole trip quite yet so sit back and enjoy the ride.
First we enter the body by being miniaturized and we will enter as given a shot into the tibia. Now that we are inside the bone we will look at how the bone is built, and made up of. Bones are very strong. They are compared to concrete, or cast iron. Some bones can withstand pressure of 220kg pscm. About 45% of the material of a bone are nonliving. The minerals are usually calcium and phosphorus; they give the bone strength. Living cells & blood make up 30% and 25% water. Bones have three layers. The first is a thin covering of cells that form a tough protective membrane are the bone. A membrane called the periosteum surrounds individual bones. The second layer is a hard, white, rocklike mineral. The last layer of the bone is the marrow. It is lighter than the other materials. Although all bones don t have the same three layer setup. Short bones and many flat bones are mostly sponge, surrounded by a thin layer of hard bone. As children grow up they go through a transformation with their bones called ossification. When this processes happens the cartilage turns to bone.
Next we hike up the steep yet very hard bone. As we go up the bone to get to the femur we must go over a hinge joint. A hinge joint is one of four of the major joints. The hinge joint allows only a back and forth movement, it is like a door hinge. Some examples of hinge joints are elbows and knees. Another type of joint is the ball & socket joint. This joint allows movement in nearly all directions. It gets its name because the ball like end of one bone fits into the socket like end of another bone. Some examples of the ball and socket joint are your hips and shoulders. The next joint that we observe is the pivot joint. This joint allows a rotating or rolling motion. The two top vertebrae form this type of joint, which allows you to roll and rotate your head. The last major joint is the gliding joint. This joint allows the bones to slide forward, backward and sideways. The two examples for this joint are the wrists and ankles.
We are going to stop our hike for a minute and take a look at the terrain as a whole. We first notice that the human skeleton is an endoskeleton. Although there are two types of skeletons that make up the human body. The first one is the axial skeleton; this is the main part of our skeleton system. The axial skeleton is made up such things as the skull, ribcage, backbone, and then breastbone. The other skeleton is the appendicular skeleton. This skeleton makes up the rest of your skeletal system. It s basically your arms, legs, fingers and shoulder blades. Let s also look at some of the functions of the skeletal system. One of the functions is support, without support the body would be shaped a lot differently. Another function is to help the body move. The third job of the bones is protection. The strong bones in the body help keep the utile organs in the body safe.
Lets now continue our trip up the skeletal system. Oh no some one in our group fell and it looks like the fractured their leg. The bones in our bodies aren t indestructible, even though some times we might take them for granted. There are many different injuries that you can do to your bones. One of them is a fracture. A fracture is when the bone completely breaks. The best way to heal a fracture is to have it reset and put into a cast. Usually casts stay on anywhere from 2 to 5 months. With fractures it is also good to eat healthy so that the body gets the nutrients it needs to heal the bone faster. Another type of injury is stress or hairline fracture. With these injuries they usually will put it into an air cast or a splint. You should also just rest it and also eat nutritious. There are also disorders that can occur in your skeletal system. One well-known disorder is hunchback, a humped condition of the dorsal spine resulting from an extreme curvature of the spine. Although scoliosis alone rarely creates a hunchback appearance. When curvature results from collapsed vertebrae, the person loses height along with developing the curvature. As a result of the spinal deformity in hunchback, the ribs become contorted, compressing or displacing the lungs and other structures within the chest cavity and thrusting the collarbone and shoulder blades into distorted positions. Deformations take place in the hips and other parts of the body in its effort to maintain balance as well. Treatment for a hunchback condition is varied. Sometimes hunchback can be corrected with plaster casts and braces if diagnosed before the skeletal frame has completed its growth. Another example is the rickets. This is a nutritional disorder characterized by skeletal deformities. Rickets is caused by a decreased concentration of a mineral in our bones and cartilage due to low levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. The type of skeletal deformities depends largely on the child’s age when the vitamin-D deficiency occurs. A child who has not yet learned to walk develops vertebral curvatures, and a walking child develops leg curvatures. Well we better end our tour here, the group member that feel fractured his leg, and he needs to reset it and eat healthy.
I hope you enjoyed the tour of the skeletal system. And I hope you come back soon, remember the skeletal system is the best system in the human body. With out it we would be nothing. Thank you again and drive home safely.