Locke And Newton Essay, Research Paper
Locke and Newton
The scientific revolution was used to describe a change in intellectual thought during the 16th and 17th centuries. This change formed the dividing line between the medieval world and the early modern world. Science basically became invented during this revolution. The change was in two major areas: biology and astronomy. Before the 17th century the major concern was with physiology and anatomy. Two figures that play a major role in the development in science in the 17th century, are John Locke and Sir Isaac Newton.
Sir Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthrope, as an only child. Newton went to Cambridge, 1661, while the Scientific Revolution was advancing. The works of modern science were appearing. Like others of his time Newton began his own separate education by studying Aristotle work. Soon, Newton learned Descartes and other philosophers who were contrast to Aristotle. Newton wrote a set of notes called, Certain Philosophical Questions in 1664. This was the beginning of Newton s scientific career.
Newton s Questions revealed that he had discovered the new conception of nature. This set down the framework of the scientific revolution. Besides all of Newton s scientific work, he had also begun his own studies in mathematics. Within a little more than one year, Newton had mastered literature from La G ometrie to the application of algebraic techniques. He discovered the binomial theorem an then developed calculus. Newton was known as the leading mathematician in Europe.
He then turned to religion and theology in his explorations. He wrote a manuscript attempting to prove the Trinitarian passages in the Bill of Rights were latter-day corruptions. Newton refused to publish this with fear that his views of anti-Trinitarian would become known. Newton was also a leader in English science. In London, he assumed the role of patriarch of English science. He was elected president of the Royal society, in 1703 and also named one of the eight foreign associates to the French Acad mie des Sciences.
John Locke was born in Somerset, England, in 1632. In 1652, he entered Christ Church, Oxford. Locke became interested in following science and medicine outside of his studies. In 1661, Locke took over a portion of his father s estate, which insured a good income. His student ship would eventually came to an end because he refused to take holy orders. Locke refused teaching positions and continued to educated himself. Locke became a personal doctor to Anthony Ashley Cooper. Who later became a close friend and advisor.
Locke became interested in philosophy. He read Ren Descartes and other modern philosophers and also had an interest in experimental science. Locke s greatest work, which took 20 years to write, was called, The Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In the essay, Locke discusses the theory of knowledge.
Locke is also known for his political thoughts during the scientific revolution. Locke was appointed to the Board of Trade, in 1696, by William III. His most important work on political philosophy is called Two Treatises of Government. The first treatise is written against Sir Robert Filmer s Patriarcha. The second and more important treatise, defines political power as a right of making laws, with penalties of death, and consequently all less penalties for the regulating and preserving of property of employing the force of the community in the execution of such laws, and in the defense of the commonwealth from foreign injury, and all this only for the public good.
Locke is known as the first philosopher of the Enlightenment. Locke formulated the classic expression of liberalism, which was to inspire both the American Revolution and the authors of the U.S. Constitution. His work within religion, and philosophy spread through out the 17th century and also gave framework to the scientific revolution.
Both Newton and Locke were extremely important figures during the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Locke s influence in modern philosophy was profound with his application of empirical analysis to ethics, politics and religion. Newton s work within politics, philosophy and mathematics set us towards the improvement and knowledge of science.