Smoking Essay, Research Paper
Title: SmokeCategory: otherDescription:Body of paper: SmokingSmoking is the inhalation and exhalation of the fumes of burning tobacco. The dried leaves of the plant are smoked in a pipe or in cigar form, but mostly in cigarettes. About 50 million Americans currently smoke a total of 570 billion cigarettes each year. At first smoking was considerd harmless, but labortaory and clinical research has since proven smoking greatly increases a smokers risk of dying from several diseases, chief of which is lung cancer. European explorers arriving in the western hemisphere observed native Americans smoking the leaves of the tobacco plant in pipes, and the practice was introduced into England in the 1500’s, mostly in the forms of pipes, cigars, and snuff. This pattern was changed in the 20th century, when smokers were consuming mass quantities. The general attitude of society was that smoking relieved tensions and produced NO ill effects.Epidemiologists sooon noticed, however, that lung cancer had increased dramatically beginning about 1930. The American cancer society and other organizations initiated studies comparing deaths among smokers and nonsmokers over a period of several years. All such studies found increased mortality among smokers, both form cancer and other causes. They also found that many of the chemicals contained in cigarettes are cancer causing. In 1962 the U.S. government appointed a panel of ten scientists to study the available evidence. Their conclusions were included in the 1964 surgeon general’s report, which stated that “cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action.”(Microsoft Encarta.) The first action was the inclusion of a warning on cigarette packages starting in 1964. The warning read: “WARNING: The Surgeon General has determined that cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health.” In 1971 all Cigarette advertizing was banned from television and radio. During the 70’s and 80’s laws were passed requiring nonsmoking sections in public areas and work places.
Medical studies have shown that overall mortality is twice as high in middle-aged men who smoke as among those who did not. The death rate is higher for those people who smoke more cigarettes per day and for those who have smoked longer. The American Cancer Society estimated that in 1988 cigaretts were responsible for 30 percent of all U.S. cancer mortality. Chief among cancers caused by smoking is lung cancer, which accouts for 28 percent of all U.S. cancer deaths. Additionally, smoker have a fivefold increased risk for cancer of the larynx, oral cavity, and esophagus; about one-third of all cancer of the bladder, kidney, and pancreas are attributed to smoking also. Smoking aslso causes a fivefold increase in the risk of dying from chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and a twofold increase in deaths form diseases of the heart coronary arteries. Smoking also increases the risk of a stroke. Other research has provided that mothers who smoke more frequently give birth to premature or underweight babies, probably because of a decrease in blood flow to the placenta. If a nonsmoker lives in a smokers enviroment there is increased chance of getting lung cancer and other diseases. Forther studies are being conducted by the American Cancer Society and the Surgeon General and the Enviromental Protection Agency. This paper was written by Chad and they can be reached at Cmc20@hotmail.com.