TRADITIONS & CUSTOMS OF GREAT BRITIAN .
Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions.In Britian traditions play more importaint part in the life of the people than in some other countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. It has been the law for about three hundred years that all the theatres are closed on Sundays no letters are delivered only a few Sunday papers are publshed. To this day English families prefer cotage houses with gardens to flats in a modern house with central heeting.English people like gardens.Sometimes the garden in front of the house is a little square covered with cement
painted green (in imitation of grass) and a box of flowers. In English houses the fire-place has always been the centre of interest in a room.For many months of the year people like to sit round the fire and
watch the dancing flames.Fire places are decorated with woodworks,there is a painting or a mirror over it.Above the fire there is usually a shelf with a clock and some photographs. Holydays are especially rich in old traditions and are different incotland,Wales and England.Christmas is a great english national holyday and in Scotland it is not kept at all exeept by clerks in banks,all the shops and factories are working.But 6 days later on the New Year's Eve the
Scots begin to enjoy themselves.People invite their friends to their houses and sit the old year out and the new year in.In England on new Year's Eve a
lot of people go to Trafalgar Square,at midnight,they all cross their arms join hands and sing.People have parties too,they drink toarts to the New
Year Children are happy to have presents.
Four times a year the offices and banks in Britain are closed on Monday. These public holidays are known as Bank Holidays.The British like to spend
holidays out of the town in the open air.They go to the sea-side or to amusements parks. Londoners often visit the Zoo,outside London they take their families to Hamsted Heath ['hнmstid'hi@] a large natural park too.There is usually a big fair with many different amusements for children merry-go-round,swings puppet shows,bright baloons.
One must also speak about such holidays ass All Fools Day,Hallowe'en Bonfire Night,St.Valentines Day and such tradition as Eisteddfod (a festival
of which culture).
SCIENC E IN OUR LIFE
Today we see the world in which social,industrial and political order has been greatly influenced by science.The development of science has increased man's know-ledge of nature. Modern experimental science began about 400 year ago.Man learned to use the energy of fire water.Later man made steaw serve him.Nowdays man uses thermonuclear energy and that of autimatter. I'd like to dwell on electronics as not a day passes without the apearnce of a new eletronic device.The first great progress in electronics came with the invention of the vacuum tube or valve in 1904.it made broad casting possible.the development of electronics during World War II gave us radars
and electronic computers. The first general purpose computer for scientific use was invented in
1949.Today computers have become common they can do fantastic things. Computer can condukt experiments in places which are too dangerous for
people.Some computers are used in carves and mines to replace workers.Besides thay can be designed for special purposes. Thay can solve mathimatical
problems,make bank aubuts,play chess.New supercomputers solve problems in many branches of industry,science and culture.They are videly used in submarine navigation and in modern hospital.Now much is being done to create artifical intellect.Science has brought in to being a new atomic technologies.Elektric enginearing and radio enginearin have been created in the some way.
Science and technology have acheeved great progress in spase research.There have been space flights,the launching of interplanetary stations in the
direction of Mars,Radar contacts with the planets Mercury and Venus.Science enters own flats.Many people have already forgotten what the world was like
before television.several generations of children have grown up with TV as a baby-sitter,teacher and companion. A lot of kitchens in our flats are so well equipped that they look like a control room.We are so used to all these that we can't (emmigenc) our life
The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland issituated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands,Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousands small islands. Theirtotal area is over 244 000 square kilometres.The United Kingdom is one of the world's smaller countries. Itspopulation is over 57 million. About 80 percent of the population is urban.The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales,Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff,Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England,Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everydayspeech Great Britain is used in the meaning of the United Kingdom ofGreat Britain and Northern Ireland. The capital of the UK. is London.The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the North Seaand the British Channel. The *western coast of Great Britain is washedby the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north ofScotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. The South, whichhas beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north andwest of England are mountainous, but the eastern, central and south-eastern parts of England are a vast plain. Mountains are not very high.Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343 m). There are a lotof rivers iri Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is thelongest rive?, while the Thames is the deepest and the most importantoae. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the GulfStream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the wholeyear round.The UK. is a highly developed industrial country. It produces andexports machinery, electronics, textile. One of the chief industries ofthe country is shipbuilding. *The UK is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and theQueen as Head of State.
Abraham Lincoln is the most famous example of the **Americandream». Many Americans think that in their country a man may risefrom the lowest to the highest position in th*irland. That was exactly
what Lincoln did.He was born in 1809 in a small farm in Kentucky. When Abrahamwas quite young, the family moved to the wild forest land of Indiana. He
hardly had any education; he only learned to read and write and dosimple arithmetic. In 1830 Abraham left his father's farm and went toSpringfield, Illinois. There he became a clerk in a store and worked hardto improve his education. In 1836 he became a lawyer.
He entered politics, too, and in 1834 became a candidate to theParliament of Illinois. He soon became a force in the political life. In1847 he went as a Congressman to the National Assembly (NationalParliament).
Slavery was then becoming a burning questions American politics.Many people in the Northern states wanted to abolish it, the Southern states
opposed the abolition. The Southerners said that it would mean economicruin for them. The reason was that the prosperity of the South was based on
cotton-growing, and only Negroes worked there. The
Southerners threatenedthat if the North didn't cease
its fight against slavery, the Southern states
would leave the Union. They wanted to form an independent «confederacy»*.In 1860 Lincoln was elected President of the USA. In 1861 seven
states left the Union and elected their own President, Jefferson Davis.The Confederacy was formed.
Lincoln was strongly against slavery and even more strongly againstthe break-up of the Union. In 1862 the American Civil War betweenthe North and the South began.At first the war went badly for the North. The Southerners headedby General Robert Lee and Colonel Jackson won some brilliantvictories. But Lincoln did not lose courage. On April, 9 General Lee
surrendered. The Civil War was over. Lincoln tried to convince formerenemies that they should live in peace.
On April, 14 the President and his wife visited a theatre in Washington.During the performance Lincoln was shot by an actor who supportedConfederacy. Abraham Lincoln died next morning.People admire Lincoln for political moderation. They admire him
because he tried to preserve the nation. He is a symbol of Americandemocracy.
London is the capital of the United Kingdom, its economic, politicaland cultural centre. It is one of the world's most important ports andone of the largest cities in the world. London with its suburbs has a
population of about 11 million people.London has been a capital for nearly a thousand years. Many of its
ancient buildings still stand. The most famous of them are the Tower ofLondon, where the crown jewels are kept, Westminster Abbey and St.Paul's Cathedral. Most visitors also want to see the Houses of Parliament,
Buckingham Palace (the Queen's home with its Changing of the Guards)and the many magnificent museums.Once London was a small Roman town on the north bank of theThames. Slowly it grew into one of the world's major cities.Exchange and the Bank of England are here, too. The East End is thedistrict where mostly working people live. The old port area is now called«Docklands». Thereare now new office buildings in Docklands, and
Different areas of London seem like different cities. The West End is
a rich man* world of shops, offices and theatres. The City of London is
the district where most offices and banks are concentrated; the Royal
thousands of new flats and houses.By the day the whole of London is busy. At night, offices are quiet
and empty, but the West End stays alive, because this is where Londonerscome to enjoy themselves. There are two opera houses here, severalconcert halls and many theatres, as well as cinemas. In nearby Soho the
pubs, restaurants and night clubs are busy half the night.
Like a*l big cities, London has streets and concrete buildings, butIt also has many big parks, full of trees, flowers and grass. In the middleofHyde Park or Kensmgtoa Gardens you will&inkthat you are in the
country, miles away.Many people live outside (be centre of London in the subulbs, andthey travel to work in shops and offices by train, bus or undergrouad
Moscow is the capital of Russia, its administrative, economic,political and educational centre. It is one of Russia's major cities withthe population of about 9 million people. Its total area is about 900thousand square kilometres.The city was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgonlky and was firstmentioned in the chronicles in 1147. At that time it was a small frontiersettlement. By the 15th century Moscow bad grown into a wealthy
city.In the 16th century, under Ivan the Terrible, Moscow became thecapital of the state of Muscovy. In the 18th century Peter the Greattransferred the capital to St. Petersburg, but Moscow remained the heart
of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attackin 1812. During the war of 1812 three quarters of the city were destroyedby fire, but by the middle of the 19th century Moscow was completely
rebuilt.The present-day Moscow is the seat of the government of the RussianFederation. President of Russia lives and works here; government offices
are located here, too.Moscow is a major industrial city. Its leading industries are engineering,chemical and light industries.Moscow is known for its many historical buildings, musems and artgalleries, as well as for the famous Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. There
are more than 80 museums in Moscow, among them the unique PushkinMuseum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery, the Andtey Rublyov-Museum of Early Russian Art and many others.Moscow Is a city of science and learning. There are over 80 higher
educational institutions in the city, including a number of universities
Peter the Great
Peter 1, or Peter the Great was one of the most outstanding rulersand reformers in Russian lustory. He was Tsar of Russia and becameEmperor in 1721. First he ruled together with his brother, Ivan, and his
sister, Sofya. In 1696 he became a sole ruler.He was a healthy, lively and clever child. He loved miEtary games
and enjoyed carpentry, blacksmithing and printing. At the age of 17he was married.Peter I is famous for drawing Russia further to the Cast. He also
transferred the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Petertravelled much in Western Europe amd tried to carry western customsand habits to Russia. He
introduced western technology. Hecompletely changed the Russian government and military system:
he increased the power of the monarch and reduced the power ofthe boyars and the church.In foreign policy. Peter I waged a war with Turkey ( 1695-1696) and
the Great Nothern War with Sweden ( 1700-1721), and a war with Persia(1722-1723). In these wars, he wanted to get access to the Baltic, BlackSea and the Caspian Sea. He managed to get the shores of the Baltic Sea
and and the Caspian Sea.Peter I played a great part in Russian history. After his death, Russiawas much more secure and progressive than it had been before his
Pushkin is the most important Russian writer of all time, likeShakespeare in England or Dante in Italy. Pushkin provided thestandards for Russian arts and literature in the 19th century.Pushkin was born in Moscow in 1799 into an upper-class family.In 1811 he entered a lyceum at Tsarskoye Solo. The education offered
at the lyceum shaped Pushkin's life.He graduated from the lyceum in 1817 and began to work in the
foreign office in St. Petersburg.In 1820 the foreign office transferred Pushkin to Ekaterinoslav, and
later to Odessa for writing anti-tsarist poetry. In 1824, for his lettersagainst the tsar, he was exiled to Mikhailovskoye. In 1824, Tsar Nicholas Iallowed Pushkin to return to Moscow.Pushkin felt in love with Natalya Goncharova,-who was lfrthen, andin 1830 they got married. His wife was suspected of an affair withBaron Georges d'Antes; this became the subject of gossip. Pushkinchallenged d'Antes to a duel. Pushkin was wounded and died twodays later.Pushkin was Russia's greatest poet. In his works he was first
influenced by 18th century poets, and then by Lord Byron. Finally hedeveloped bis own style, which was realistic but classical in form.His earliest long poem was romantic «Ruslan and Lyudmila»(1818-1820). А
series of verse tales followed- «The Prisoner of the
Caucasus», «The Robber Brothers», «The Fountain ofBakhchisarai»,and «The Gypsies». They were inspired by Syren's poetry.In 1823 Pushkin began writing his masterpiece «Eugene Onegin», a
novel in verse. «Eugen Onegin» became the linguistic and literarystandard. It is a commentary on the life of the early I 9th century Russia.It is noted for brilliant verse.He also wrote other long poems, including «Bronze Horseman»(1833), the finest collection of lyrics in Russian literature.Pushkin created also a number of masterpieces in drama and prose.«Little Tragedies» and «The Stone Guest» are among the best works inthe world history of drama. Pushkin's love to Russia's past resulted inhis historical drama, «Boris Godunov» (1825). «Tales of the Latel.P.Belkin», «Dubrovsky», «The Captain's Daughter» are the most
important of his prose works. Pushkin's use of Russian influenced the ofgreat Russian writers Turgenev, Goncharov, Tolstoy.Pushkin's early death shocked the country. Pushkin, called by many«the sun of Russian literature», belongs among the foremost poets and
writers of the world.
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. The vast territoryof Russia lies in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia.Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. The oceans are:
the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific. The seas are: the White Sea, theBarents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others.Russia borders on many countries, such as Mongolia and China in the
south-east, Finland and Norway in the north-west, and so on.The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, fromhigh mountains to deep valleys. The main mountain cbains are the Urals,the Caucasus and the Altai. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes
on its territory. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Ob, theYenisei and the Lena in Asia. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal.Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and its water is the purest on earth.The Russian Federation is rich in natural and mineral resources.It has deposits of oil, gas, coal, iron, gold and many others.The current population of Russia is more than 150 million people.The European part of the country is densely peopled, and most populationlive in cities and towns and their outskirts.
The capital of Russian Federation is Moscow, with the populationof about 10 million people.Russia is a presidedtial republic. It is one of the leading powers in
The United States of America
The Unites States of America are situated in the central part of theNorth American continent. Its western coast is washed by the PacificOcean and its eastern coast - by the Atlantic Ocean.The total area of the USA is over nine million square kilometres.The population of the USA is more than 236 million people; most ofthe population lives in towns and cities.The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climatic
regions. The Goldest regions are in the north and north-east. The southhas a subtropical climate.The United States is a land of rivers and lakes..The northern state
of Minnesota is the land of 10 000 lakes. The longest
rivers in the USAare the Mississippi, the Missouri and the Rio Grande. The highestmountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the SierraNevada.
The United States are riebiia natural and mineral resources. Itproduces copper, oil, iron ore and coal. It is a highly-developedindustrial Bad agricultural coubtry.There are many big cities in the USA, such as New York, Chicago,Los Angeles, Philadelphia and others. The national capital isWashington, D.C. Its population is about 3,4 million. Washington was
built in the late eighteenth century especially as the centre ofgovernmeat. It was named after George Washington.The USA became the world teading country at the beginning of thetwen*eth century.