1. Translate the following expressions into Russian.
Delivery, warehouses, supplies, packaging, stocking and inventory management, to encompass, handling and preparing orders, physical distribution, a major means, to reduce costs, to improve profit margins, financial, commercial and marketing operations, to entail, transportation costs, fixed price, to guarantee customer service, realm, location, factory, warehouse, to improve, needs, stock.
2. Read the passage through and find answers for the questions:
1. What is important in the first paragraph?
2. What is logistics!
3. What is the second section about?
4. What does the diagram illustrate?
I. Transport today is not just getting things from point A to point B. Today companies are becoming aware that the movement of goods from one location to another encompasses a whole realm of operations. These operations include not only transport and delivery, but the location of
factories and warehouses, supplies, packaging, stocking and inventory management, handling and preparing orders.
|The structure of its clientele|
The type of goods
produced and their
|The size and nature of the company|
2. This larger view of transport operations is often called logistics or
physical distribution. Business people now realize that tighter control
of logistical operations is a major means of reducing costs and improving
profit margins. Transport is used to be the poor relation of group
operations, the last wheel. Today companies are creating logistics
departments, divisions and even fully-fledged subsidiaries to control all
their logistical needs better.
3. The role of a logistics manager is to balance the cost of possession
of stocks with their transportation costs. He has the advisory role of
moderating the (often conflicting) demands of the company's financial,
commercial and marketing operations. A company's logistical strategy
should be based on four basic factors:
There is no problem in getting any product to any client at any time. The problem is how to do it at the most efficient cost to the company and the client. A logistical system can improve just-in-time delivery: delivery on a guaranteed date for a fixed price.
By Zsuzsanna Ardo, "English for Practical Management"
Now read the text carefully, looking up any new items in a dictionary or
reference book. Then answer the following questions:
1. What is transport today?
2. What does the term "logistics" illustrate?
3. What is the role of the logistics manager?
4. What basic factors is logistical strategy based on?
5. What does just-in-time delivery mean?
4. Read the text and write a summary in English.
Transport, energy, and the environment
This article is about transport using water-based vehicles. Ship transport is the process of moving people, goods, etc. by barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. This is frequently undertaken for purposes of commerce, recreation or military objectives.
A hybrid of ship transport and road transport is the historic horse-drawn boat. Hybrids of ship transport and air transport are kite surfing and parasailing. The first craft were probably types of canoes cut out from tree trunks. The colonization of Australia by Indigenous Australians provides indirect but conclusive evidence for the latest date for the invention of ocean-going craft; land bridges linked southeast Asia through most of the Malay Archipelago but a strait had to be crossed to arrive at New Guinea, which was then linked to Australia. Ocean-going craft were required for the colonization to happen.
Early sea transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, and often, in earlier times with smaller vessels, a combination of the two. Also there have been horse-powered boats, with horses on the deck providing power. Ship transport was frequently used as a mechanism for conducting warfare. Military use of the seas and waterways is covered in greater detail under navy.
Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, an inboard water jet. In shallow draft areas, such as the Everglades, some craft, such as the hovercraft, are propelled by large pusher-prop fans.
Although relatively slow, modern sea transport is a highly effective method of transporting large quantities of non-perishable goods. Transport by water is significantly less costly than transport by air for transcontinental shipping. In the context of sea transport, a road is an anchorage.
Microsoft Encarta 2006. 1993-2005
III. Materials handling equipment (Грузо -обрабатывающее оборудование )
1. Translate the following expressions into Russian.
Handling, to move, quantity, retail store, production facility, concern, speed, cost, equipment, size, shape, volume, weight, truck, conveyor, crane, forklift truck, aid, assists, heavy, slow, fatiguing, hand-powered platform, towing tractor, capacity, aisle, to power, manually, bulky, route, gravity-feed, power-feed, hand, steam, internal-combustion engine, electric motor, jib, derrick, bridge.
2. Read the text and translate.
Materials handling equipment
Product, or materials, handling is moving small quantities of goods
over short distances. It is an activity that takes place in warehouses,
production facilities, and retail stores, and also between transportation
modes. The concern is to move the goods with speed and low cost. A
variety of mechanical equipment is available for handling a wide range of
product sizes, shapes, volumes, and weights. The more popular types of
materials handling equipment are (I) trucks, (2) conveyors, and (3) cranes.
2. The forklift truck is the most popular of the mechanical materials-
handling aids. Trucks are mechanical assists for moving materials that if
moved by hand would be too heavy, too slow, or too fatiguing. These trucks
range from hand-powered platforms to towing tractors. Normal variations of
the forklift truck include (1) its lifting capacity, (2) its lifting height, (3)
whether it can operate in narrow aisles, (4) how it is powered (manually or
by mechanical power), and (5) the speed with which it moves.
3. Next in popularity is the conveyor for small, bulky items.
Conveyors are particularly useful for moving high-volume items along a
fixed route. There are two main types of conveyors: Gravity-feed and
power-feed. Crane is a machine for moving heavy objects both vertically
and horizontally. Cranes range in capacity from a few hundred pounds to
several hundred tons. Motive power may be furnished by hand, by steam or
internal-combustion engines, or by electric motors. In form, cranes are
classified as jib, derrick, or bridge.
3. Answer the questions:
1. What is product handling?
2. What is the concern of materials handling?
3. What are the popular types of materials handling?
4. What is truck?
5. What variations of trucks do you know?
6. What are conveyors used for?
7. What is crane?
8. How are they classified?
4. Read and translate the following word combinations.
Capacity, pound, motive power, steam, internal-combustion engine, jib, derrick, bridge, beam, pillar, to rotate, trolley, cantilever, mast, to counterweight, to brace, to run, to mount, gantry crane, elevated tracks.
Read the text, make up an annotation and note down the types of
1. The most prominent component of derrick cranes
is the jib, or
boom. It is a long beam that is structurally reinforced so that it will not
bend. A traveling jib crane is a crane in which the pulley system is
suspended from a trolley, or wheeled carriage, moving along the length of
the jib. Such traveling cranes usually have lifting capacities of from 5 to 250
tons. A potentially more powerful derrick is the floating crane . It is built on
a barge for such purposes as constructing bridges or salvaging sunken
2. The cantilever crane
used in the construction of ships and tall
buildings has a horizontal boom. This boom rests upon and can rotate about
a vertical mast. A cantilever crane is commonly used in shipyards.
3. Bridge crane
is another important class of cranes. The pulley
system is suspended from a trolley. It moves on tracks along one or two
horizontal beams. These beams are called the bridge and are supported at
both ends. The bridge itself can move along a pair of parallel rails. The
crane can serve a large rectangular area. A circular space can be served by a
rotary bridge crane . The overhead traveling crane is a bridge crane for
which the rails are mounted above the level of the ground or floor.
Overhead traveling cranes are commonly used indoors. If the construction
of overhead rails is impracticable, the ends of the bridge can be attached to
upright towers. These towers move on rails at the ground level. Such cranes
are called gantry, or goliath, cranes.
5. A commonly used type of small movable crane is the truck crane. This is a crane mounted on a heavy, modified truck. Such cranes frequently use unsupported telescoping booms. Truck cranes make up in mobility and ease of transport but they lack in hoisting capacity.
6. Look at the pictures of the cranes and define their types.
137. Read the text A) think of the most suitable heading, B) write a summary
of the text.
A forklift truck (often just called forklift) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials by means of steel forks inserted under the load. Forklifts are most commonly used to move loads stored on pallets.
A pallet is a flat transport structure made of wood or plastic (and in a few cases metal and paper) which can support a variety of goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by any mobile forklift or other jacking device. The goods are placed on top of the pallet, and can be secured to it by straps or stretch-wrapped plastic film. A pallet is sometimes colloquially called a skid, by back-formation from skid loader.
The forklift was developed in the 1920s by various companies including the transmission manufacturing company Clark (today known as Clark Material Handling Company) and the hoist company Yale & Towne Manufacturing (Today known as Yale Materials Handling Corporation. It has since become an indispensable piece of equipment in many manufacturing and warehousing operations.
8. Write a summary of the text and think of the suitable heading.
Развитие мировой экономики на современном этапе характеризуется интенсивными интеграционными процессами. Логистика учеными и специалистами рассматривается как развивающаяся сфера экономики и новое научное направление.
При построении Логистики системный подход находит свое выражение в объединении процессов снабжения, производства, транспорта, распределения и потребления. Техническая база логистики - это современная информатика и вычислительная техника. В реализации принципов логистики скрыты огромные потенциальные возможности повышения эффективности экономики и транспорта. Существенным элементом логистики, от которого зависит надежное функционирование всей логистической системы, является транспортная логистика. Движение материальных потоков обеспечивает объединение процессов снабжения, производства и потребления в единую систему.
Объектом изучения новой научной дисциплины «логистики» являются материальные и связанные с ними информационные и финансовые потоковые процессы. Широкое применение логистики в практике хозяйственной деятельности объясняется необходимостью сокращения временных интервалов между приобретением сырья и поставкой товаров конечному потребителю. Логистика позволяет
минимизировать товарные запасы, а в ряде случаев вообще отказаться от их использования, позволяет существенной сократить время доставки товаров, ускоряет процесс получения информации, повышает уровень сервиса.
IV. Warehouses (Склады )
/. Translate the following expressions into Russian.
Storage, owning, renting, leasing, storing in transit, private, public, requirements, commodity, bulk, liquid, low, temperature, household, articles, merchandise, facilities, receipt, the bill of lading, inventory, report, to store, to own, terms and conditions, contract, negotiable, nonnegotiable, to issue, endorsement, carrier, upon receipt, to file a claim, item, basis.
2. Read the text and translate § 2.
Any organization in need of storage space has a number of options.
These choices are (I) owning, (2) renting, (3) leasing, and (4) storing in
transit. Each offers a different level of cost, risk and managerial
involvement. Warehouses are generally classified into private or public. The
private warehouse is often built to specialized user needs. The public
warehouse must of necessity serve a wide range of user requirements.
2. Public warehouses can be classified into five basic types.
Commodity warehouses limit their services to certain commodity
groupings (as lumber, cotton, tobacco, and grain).
Bulk-storage warehouses offer storage and handling of products in bulk, such as liquid chemicals, oil, highway salts, and syrups. Mixing products and breaking bulk may also be part of the service.