In the case of oil terminals, the link to shore can be a relatively light pier or jetty structure carrying the pipelines through which the cargo is pumped ashore, with a roadway for access by no more than average-size road vehicles, which will probably be used in small numbers or even only one at a time. Because the ship itself carries the pumping machinery for delivering the cargo ashore, heavy mechanical gear for cargo handling is not required.
In the case of bulk carriers bringing solid commodities, such as iron ore, the problem is more complicated. Hoisting grabs for lifting the ore out of the holds are necessary, even though transit between ship and shore can still be effected by continuous conveyors, corresponding to pipelines. Heavier foundation work is probably necessary at the berthing point to carry this machinery, and, for this reason, ore terminals have not been built as far out in deep water as oil terminals. It seems unlikely that the size of ore carriers will reach anything like the dimensions already attained by supertankers.
The employment of piled structures to meet these requirements is almost universal, and a variety of techniques have evolved for handling and sinking into the seabed the long heavy piles required. At the sites likely to be chosen, penetration by piles may not be easy, particularly in places where most of the reasonably accessible deepwater sites tend to be located on the rockier shores.
One problem that arises is that of shelter in adverse weather conditions. While the ships themselves are reasonably robust, the relatively fragile berthing structures might break up, setting the ship loose, possibly without power immediately available, threatening disaster. As the cost of building breakwaters to protect sites in the depth of water required is likely to be prohibitive, the search has been for natural shelter. In the British Isles the sheltered creeks of the western shores, such as Milford Haven, Wales, have become valuable. Milford Haven had known little shipping other than fishing fleets since the early 19th century, but in the early 1970s it boasted four bulk oil terminals. Two supply refineries were built on the spot; the third pumps to a refinery 60 miles away
Another aspect of the terminals is the need for protection against the effects of unavoidable collision impacts. A slight impact from a vessel of these dimensions, by reason of the large kinetic energy of such a mass, can cause considerable damage to the light berthing structure. Much ingenuity and theoretical analysis have gone into devising fendering systems that will absorb this energy. Some systems use the displacement against gravity of large masses of material disposed pendulumwise in the berthing structure as the energy absorbent; others use the distortion by direct compression, shear, or torsion of heavy rubber shapes or sections; still others rely on the displacement of metal pistons against hydraulic or pneumatic pressure. The common feature of all the devices is that at least part of the energy absorbed is not dissipated but is used immediately to return the ship to its correct berthing position. This feature is not exhibited by the older forms of fenders, which relied on the compression and, in extreme cases, on the ultimate destruction of coiled rope or timber to absorb the impact. A major question is the exact ship velocity to be allowed for, the determination of which is primarily an exercise in probability, balancing the economics of designing to a specified velocity against the cost of repairs after impacts at greater velocities. The key factor is the frequency of such impacts, which can be determined only by experience.
Cargo ships can be distinguished by the type of cargo they carry, especially since the means of handling the cargo is often highly visible. As noted below (see Ship operation: Cargo handling), the trend is toward specialization in this regard. One consequence is a proliferation in types of cargo vessel. The present discussion is limited to a few types that are represented by large numbers of ships and are distinctive in appearance.
Ships that carry liquid cargo (most often petroleum and its products) in bulk are made distinctive by the absence of cargo hatches and external handling gear. When fully loaded they are also readily distinguishable by scant freeboard a condition that is permissible because the upper deck is not weakened by hatches. In essence, the tanker is a floating group of tanks contained in a ship-shaped hull, propelled by an isolated machinery plant at the stern. Each tank is substantially identical to the next throughout the length of the ship. The tanks are fitted with heating coils to facilitate pumping in cold weather. Within the tanks are the main, or high-suction, pipes, running several feet from the bottom to avoid sludge. F3elow them, low-suction piping, or stripping lines, removes the lowest level of liquid in the tank. Tanks are filled either through open trunks leading from the weather deck or from the suction lines with the pumps reversed. Because tankers, except for military-supply types, usually move a cargo from the source to a refinery or other terminal with few maneuvers en route, the machinery plant is called on only to produce at a steady rate the cruise power for the ship; consequently, considerable use of automatic controls is possible, thus reducing the size of the crew to a minimum. In view of the simplicity of inner arrangement, the tanker lends itself to mass production perhaps more than any other ship type. Because of the limited crew requirements and the low cost per ton for initial building and outfitting, the tanker has led the way in the rapid expansion in the size of ships. The decline of crude oil prices after the petroleum crisis of 1979 led in turn to a decline in preferred tanker size, but at that time a few ships had reached 1,300 feet (400 metres) in length, 80 feet in loaded draft, and a deadweight of 500,000 tons.
Along with the great increase in numbers and size of tankers have come specialized uses of tankers for products other than oil. A major user is the natural gas industry. For shipment, gas is cooled and converted to liquid at -260° F (-162° C) and is then pumped aboard a tanker for transit in aluminum tanks that are surrounded by heavy insulation to prevent
absorption of heat and to keep the liquid from evaporating during the voyage. The cost of these ships is rather high, because steel cannot be used for the containers. The cold liquid, in contact with steel, would make that material as brittle as glass. Aluminum is therefore used, sometimes backed by balsa wood, backed in turn by steel. A special nickel-steel alloy known as Invar also has been used in this application.
Like tankers, container ships are characterized by the absence of cargo handling gear, in their case reflecting the usual practice of locating the container-handling cranes at shore terminals rather than aboard ship. Unlike the tanker, container ships require large hatches in the deck for stowing the cargo, which consists of standardized containers usually either 20 or 40 feet in length. Belowdecks, the ship is equipped with a cellular grid of compartments opening to the weather deck; these are designed to receive the containers and hold them in place until unloading is achieved at the port of destination. The ship is filled to the deck level with containers, the hatches are closed, and one or two layers of containers depending upon the size and stability of the ship, are loaded on the hatch covers on deck.
In a few hours the ship can be filled with containers destined for another port and can be under way. An additional economy is the low cost of the crew of the ship while it is in port awaiting loading or unloading. Further, because each ship can make more trips than before, container fleets require fewer vessels. There is also less pilferage and, hence, lower insurance rates and, finally, the assurance to the shipper that the shipment will not require any further handling until it arrives at its destination.
Among the disadvantages is the fact that each ship does not carry quite as much total volume of cargo with containers as with regular bulk stowage, because the containers themselves take space and, since they are square in shape, do not fill in all the nooks and crannies created by a ship-shaped hull form. Further, a rather substantial capital investment is needed in port facilities, such as special berths, weight-handling equipment, storage areas, and links to land transportation, all of which must be made by the ports that receive or ship via container ship if its full potential savings are to be realized.
Container ships are moderate-size merchant vessels built for speeds of greater than about 20 knots. Much use is made of small, compact, diesel power plants to provide more space for containers. Special equipment includes mooring winches to ensure accurate positioning of the ship under cranes in port and special tanks to list (tip) and trim (level) the ship to permit a symmetrical loading or unloading without excessive list or trim.
An extension of the container ship concept is the barge-carrying ship. In this concept, the container is itself a floating vessel, usually about 60 feet long by about 30 feet wide, which is loaded aboard the ship in one of two ways: either it is lifted over the stern by a high-capacity shipboard gantry crane, or the ship is partially submerged so that the barges can be floated aboard via a gate in the stern.
Roll-on/roll-off ships, designed for the carriage of wheeled cargo, are always distinguished by large doors in the hull and often by external ramps that fold down to allow rolling between pier and ship. Because vehicles of all kinds have some empty space - and in addition require large clearance spaces between adjacent vehicles - they constitute a low-density cargo (a high "stowage factor") that demands large hull volume. The general outline of the ship, in view of its relatively low density of cargo, is rather "boxy," with a high freeboard and a high deckhouse covering much of the ship's superstructure, to afford more parking decks. To ensure stability, fixed ballast is usually included in these ships, along with water ballast to adjust load and stability. The engineering plants are commonly twin engines of compact variety, such as geared diesel, and they are arranged so that the engine spaces are at either side of the ship, allowing valuable free space between them for vehicle passage.
Designed for the carriage of ore, coal, grain, and the like, dry-bulk ships bear a superficial likeness to container ships since they often have no cargo handling gear and, unlike the tanker, have large cargo hatches. The absence of containers on deck is a decisive indicator that a vessel is a dry-bulk ship, but an observer may be deceived by the occasional sight of a dry-bulk ship carrying containers and other nonbulk cargo on deck. An incontrovertible indicator is the self-unloading gear, usually a large horizontal boom of open trusswork, carried by some bulk ships. On the Great Lakes of North America this gear is a near-universal feature of ships built since I960
General cargo ship
The once-ubiquitous general cargo ship continues to be built, though in modest numbers. Those built in the last third of the 20th century are usually fitted with deck cranes, which give them an appearance distinct from the more specialized ship types.
I . Shipping Documentation (Грузовые документы)
1. Read and translate the phrases
Invoice, account, charges, note, receipt, to hand, to advise, consignor, to confirm, to await, to acknowledge, mate, document of title, consignment, ownership, negotiable, to trade, to endorse, endorsement, to prepay, on board, to damage, dirty, claused, to be responsible, buyer, security, superintendent, packing, to protect, in good condition.
2. Read and translate the text.
1. Now we can look at the main documents used in shipping. A freight
account is an invoice sent by the shipping company to the exporter stating
their charges. Once the goods are received on the dock, a shipping note , with
a receipt, is handed to the Superintendent of the docks, advising him that the
goods are to be shipped. A dock rece ipt , (sometimes called a wharfinger's
receipt) will be returned to the consignor confirming that the goods are stored
and awaiting shipment. Once the goods are on board the ship, a mate's receipt
may be sent, acknowledging that the goods have been loaded. The mates
receipt is often sent when the consignment is loaded directly, and serves as
a document of title until the bill of lading is ready.
The bill of lading
(b/l or blading) is the most important document in
shipping. It is a document of title, i.e. gives ownership of the goods to the
person named on it. If the words 'to order' are written on it, it means that it is a
negotiable document and can be traded. In this case it will be endorsed on
the back, and if the endorsement is blank, there will be no restrictions on
3. Л shipped bill of lading means that the goods have been loaded on to
the ship. Sometimes the words 'shipped on board' are used to mean the same
thing. In c.i.f. and с & f. transactions the words 'freight prepaid' are used to
signify that the costs of shipment have been paid.
4. Bills are also marked 'clean' to indicate that the goods were taken on
board in good condition. Dirty/ claused" indicates that on inspection there
was found to be something wrong with the consignment, e.g. packing, or the
goods were damaged. This statement protects the shipping company from
claims that they were responsible for the damage or bad condition of the
consignment. Usually two copies of the b/l are sent to the buyer or his bank,
by air and sea for security.
3. Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. What is freight account?
2. What does shipping note advise?
3. What is dock receipt?
4. Does mate's receipt acknowledge that the goods have been loaded?
5. What does Bill of lading show?
6. What types of bills of lading do you know?
4. Read the text and explain what the phrases mean:
To order, freight prepaid, shipped in board, clean, dirty/ claused.
Read the text and A) think of the suitable heading, B) write the
По мере того, как дата отправления судна в рейс приближается, в порту формируются грузы к погрузке. Портовый агент принимает груш в соответствии с букировками, соблюдая очередность их регистрации в системе. Имеющаяся информация по отправляемым грузам сличается с их наличием в порту. Если отправителем надлежащим образом оформлены все необходимые на вывоз документы, то агент готовит коносамент, поручение на отгрузку грузов и другие грузораспорядительные документы, которые оформляются и регистрируются в системе управления линией. Для подготовки коносамента агент переносит букировку груза в раздел "Export documentation". При этом основная информация по отправителю, получателю, наименованию и характеристикам груза, а также по фрахту переносится из раздела букировок.. Агенту требуется лишь проверить составляющие фактической отправки, уточнить условия оплаты фрахта в порту отправления на "Pre-Paid " или в порту доставки на "Collect" и внести «вменения, если они имеются.
II. Marine Insurance (Морское страхование)