TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1The value of the aerospace industry to the economy
1.3 The modern potential of the Russian aviation industry
3. SOLUTIONS strategic objective of development of domestic aviation
3.3 Samara Region
3.5 Penza region
Aerospace industry is a collection of enterprises engaged in designing, manufacturing and testing aircraft, missiles, spacecraft and ships, as well as their engines and avionics (electrical and electronic equipment, etc.). These companies are publicly owned or private owners. This industry has a great defense, overall economic and scientific importance for both developed and rapidly developing countries.
Features of the aerospace industry, is that the production equipment of one of the most intellectually wealthy and technically advanced industries of the country correspond to the complexity of its products. It is widely used and modern machines, and manual labor of highly qualified professionals. Research and development work preceded the issuance of all new types of products the aerospace industry, except for small civil aircraft (their production is often borrows the results of surveys from other areas of technology).
The pace of development of the aerospace industry has surpassed other sectors and become crucial for modern civilization.
Relevance of the research topic. Aerospace Industry has an important political and economic importance. It is largely determined by the industrial potential and prestige of the state: its companies supply their products to domestic and foreign markets, provide orders of other branches of the economy, providing many jobs. And today, when the use of specific features of rocket-space development has become a common practice in many areas of science, the military-industrial complex and the national economy, the efficient development of the domestic space is becoming increasingly important, especially for the maintenance of defense and Russia's competitiveness in the world.
For Russia, due to geopolitical reasons astronautics has always had and will have special significance. In today's world almost any large-scale socio-economic, scientific and defense programs cannot be effectively implemented without the use of possibilities of space-rocket industry.
The aim of the course work is to study the problems of strategy and solutions to problems existing in the aviation industry. The object of research is the development of the aerospace industry of the Russian industry in the province.
As you know, post-industrial economy - it's the economy, an essential condition for the functioning of which is the application of scientific knowledge, the use of substantial resources and funds for technical, scientific and technological development. Among the priorities of its development, such as information technology, biotechnology in medicine, nanotechnology, environment, nuclear research, and several others, always present in aviation and space. Therefore, the ineffective use and the more expensive the potential loss of the aerospace industry is one of the most serious issues facing the Russian high-tech industry in the reform.
Modern Russian aircraft industry is one of the most promising areas of the Russian economy over the next decade. Production and technological potential accumulated in the industry for decades of its existence, in many respects, especially in the military aviation sector is still greatly exceeds the achievements of leading industrialized countries.
The continued presence of Russian enterprises of the aviation industry on global markets, particularly in the international market of military aviation. The successful promotion of domestic aviation is associated with the tough competition with world leaders, united in large diversified aerospace and space corporation. Naturally, to preserve the sovereignty, economic development, including employment highbrow work, and social spheres of Russia with its vast territory will always be necessary to ensure independence in aviation technology for military aircraft, for the development of air-space communications, to maintain their infrastructure, and hence will need advanced aviation industry.
The existing international system of regulation of aviation activities and the ever-increasing requirements for aerospace technology, its reliability, safety, economy, environmental impact, require many innovations and legacies of basic and applied research and development.
From the perspective of the base of innovation and technological development of the Russian economy the significance of the aerospace industry cannot be overstated - so large scale and range of its scientific, technical and technological achievements and interests.
When towards the aviation industry was government consistent scientific and industrial policy, it is at the forefront - and in the scientific and technical level aerospace, and manufacturing scale. Industry was one of the world leaders in the development and manufacture of civil (the first jet and the first supersonic airliners - domestic) and military aircraft and helicopters for almost all types. Achieving good results provided a number of factors: the industry had a centralized management system, enjoyed the privilege of priority of resources (financial, personnel, logistics), developed in a balanced current and future plans and targeted programs within the industry-specific (not economic) means to maintain competition various scientific and engineering schools and industries, and carries out scientific-technical policy of uniform rules, requirements, state and industry standards, regulations, certification systems, etc.
Since the beginning of market-oriented economic reforms, to the liquidation of a large-scale policy of state support of the aviation industry was in deep crisis. Become critical factors in domestic demand and government funding, which fell sharply.
The process of radical transformation of the socialist economy into a capitalist needs to be managed. Dismantling of a centralized management system, providing fiscal, industrial, social stability of the economy, was not and could not be supported by the establishment in a short time the entire system of necessary and well-functioning market institutions to ensure its stable operation at all levels of the economy. As a result of major economic entities (enterprises) were found in the economic environment, devoid of mechanisms for their coordinated interaction. In these circumstances, the aviation industry, as well as before the military-industrial complex as a whole, got a number of problems that require quick decisions. One such problem - the lack of specialists in the organization of marketing networks, marketing, complex and quite specific products. During its production in a centralized system of governance was not necessary - the formation of state order, its financing and distribution has been the exclusive function of government. Another necessary condition for improving the efficiency of the industry is to improve the organization, management practices and technologies. In the Russian economy a single aerospace complex until finally formed, if we evaluate the degree of rationality of its institutional, scientific and industrial structure. Historically, aviation and space industry have evolved in terms of organizational and technological interaction is relatively independent.
After the reorganization of the management of the military-industrial complex in 1999 was the first step towards unification of aviation and space industry (the Russian Aviation and Space Agency) in the Aviation and Missile and Space Scientific-Industrial Complex of the economy. It should be noted that the organizational and financial problems in this process is not only difficult. No less challenging is the implementation of the unified scientific-technical policy. In the long run such a reorganization would create a new complete set of production which rightfully can be called the Russian aerospace industry. Currently, aircraft are basically due to past scientific, technical, engineering and technological reserve, the reserve is steadily dwindling. The chronic lack of financial resources, limited the narrow framework of state order and federal programs, leads to delays or suspension of promising research and development. In the absence of serious investment in innovation more difficult to compete with Western corporations.
The sharp decline, and in some areas - and the complete elimination of the state order have led to a fragmented operation of sub-aviation industry. Financial and economic situation in the military and civilian aircraft, engine and helicopter are quite different. In better shape now is a military aircraft because of its foreign trade contracts.
Aircraft industry - a series of scientific and industrial complexes of the closed design and manufacturing cycle consisting of design organizations, experimental and production of industrial enterprises, the central research institutes to develop, manufacture, repair and modernization of civil and military purposes, as well as ground equipment, ensuring the operation of this equipment. In addition, the industry has many general-purpose plants, providing the first and second level of cooperation Aircraft (radio and electronic equipment, apparatus, various units, units, normals, etc.), creates specific tooling and machine tools. The aviation industry in its broadest sense includes the whole range of areas of the design, production, operation, maintenance and repair of aircraft. Also in the field of so-called "other" businesses. They include corporations and holdings of various types, which combine retain legal independence of the enterprise, as well as children, mediation, provisioning, innovative company.
To improve the situation is being restructured AP ultimate goal - to generate in the years to Profiles, thematically and technically gravitate to one another structure: instrumentation, engine building, airframe holdings.
As a result of restructuring, many companies are derived from the aviation industry as a lost profile.
To solve the problem of expansion of space activities and to provide a permanent, independent Russia's withdrawal into outer space by Government of the Russian Federation on October 22, 2005 № 635 approved the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006-2015 (PCF-2015), which determine the prospects development of space vehicles of socio-economic, scientific, and dual-use for the upcoming 10-year period. The main objective of the program is to meet the growing needs of government agencies, regions, and the population in space systems and services. In addition, to implement the system, backed by financing decisions in bringing satellite services and information to the Russian consumers Roscosmos prepared the concept of the federal target program "The use of space activities for the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation and its regions for 2010-2015."
Developed and other targeted programs: - Federal Program "Global Navigation System", approved by RF Government Decree of 20 August 2001 № 587; - Federal Program "Development of the Russian cosmodrome in 2006-2015."
The problem of efficiency of space activities, especially in economy and social sphere, it is necessary not only to federal agencies, but also to the subjects of the Russian Federation. There are regions whose development is impossible without the use of space activities, such as further development of the Russian northern and circumpolar regions.
Space technologies penetrate more deeply into all spheres of society. Public authorities regions are increasingly using them to effectively manage their daily activities, improve the quality of services provided to citizens. The use of such technology in the modern information society is a prerequisite for ensuring compliance with government requirements and needs of the population. For several years, Roskosmos intensively developing cooperation at the regional level: agreements with more than 50 subjects of the Russian Federation in the use of space activities. Approved by the joint regional target programs Roskosmos with governments of Kaluga region, Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Republic of Tatarstan and other regions.
Under the Federal Space Program of Russia carried out a large amount of work aimed at creating conditions for real-time monitoring of mobile and stationary objects (vehicles, space launch facilities, nuclear power plants, chemical plants, etc.), as well as the use of space resources for the prediction of emergency situations, control dynamics of their development and possible consequences. But the development is the domestic aviation industry and civil aviation in Russia is one of the priority tasks of complex structural policy. State support of aircraft and air transport in Russia is carried out, in particular, on the basis of the federal target program "Development of Russian civil aviation in 2002 2010 and until 2015, which also has the status of a presidential. In the aircraft industry in Russia is currently being implemented strategy for development of the aviation industry for the period until 2015.
Under the development strategy of the aviation industry refers to an interrelated tasks, deadlines and resources of a set of targeted programs, individual projects and extracurricular activities of the institutional, legal, economic, political and diplomatic nature, providing an effective solution to the dynamic development of the aviation industry.
However, experience has shown that these programs do not provide measures for the development of small aircraft and does not contain specific proposals for addressing pressing problems, the elimination of the negative trends and to ensure the stabilization and improvement in development, production and operation of light aircraft. Lack of public policy approaches to support small aircraft, leading to an unjustified reduction in the use of civil aviation in the region and provides the necessary level of security.
Without the adoption of emergency measures by the government sharply increased demand will be met Aircraft imported. Therefore, one of the main objectives of the strategy of development of domestic aviation is the development of regional programs. Implementation of activities of federal programs will primarily be carried out in regions with significant scientific and technological reserve and production resources for the development of small aircraft.
To implement regional programs should be: - Providing conditions for creating a competitive aeronautical engineering and technology; - Creation of conditions for rapid deployment to the region or area of serial production of aircraft that will provide production flexibility with respect to the needs of the market;
- A significant increase in the revenue budgets of all levels; - The development of export potential of the region;
- Creation of new jobs;
- Providing an additional form of orders for other related industries in the region; - Create the image of the region as a center of high-tech aircraft.
To save the aircraft-building as a strategy to increase its competitiveness requires government support for the aviation industry.
But the state resources for the development of the aviation industry are limited and do not have other more or less effective alternative, but to highlight the priority areas and focus on them. Necessary economically feasible selection first of these areas, specific projects, and then ventures, distribution of public funds only among the working effectively. As an example, consider the region most promising in terms of strengthening and development of the aviation industry.
The annual outflow from the current fleet of aircraft and a further rise in demand for air travel, creating a real shortage of transportable facilities and expanding niche market for new aircraft of domestic production, including small aircraft: Agricultural, Specialty, sports, etc. Analysis of Russian market of light planes shows that the demand for them is growing. Aviation Industry Complex of the Voronezh region has a high technical potential, the level of applied technologies, the complexity and high-tech production processes and is able to produce competitive products in small aircraft. First of all, it's OAO Voronezh Aircraft Joint Stock Company, which can produce not only long-haul aircraft, but aircraft are small aircraft.