регистрация / вход

The magnificent seven

1. In September 1944 London was bombarded by the world's first ballistic missile, V2, "Vengeance Weapon No. 2". It did not make the slightest deflection in the course of the World War II, however gave an impetus to brainwork of American and Soviet rocketeers.

1. In September 1944 London was bombarded by the world's first ballistic missile, V2, "Vengeance Weapon No. 2". It did not make the slightest deflection in the course of the World War II, however gave an impetus to brainwork of American and Soviet rocketeers.

In the course of Hermes operation in 1945 American agents secretly took a group of German rocketeers away from the Soviets' occupation zone. The group was headed by Walter Dornberger, the leader of the Nazi missile project, and Werner von Braun, General Designer of A-4 missile (first name V-2). In addition, parts necessary for assembly of one hundred of missiles were taken across the Atlantic.

2. Sergei Korolyov, who was sent to Germany with the same mission, also managed to select some German specialists, documents and materials. One of such engineers was Helmut Grettrup, Braun's assistant in electronics. The last event on the "rocketry scene" in '45 was a trial launch of several V-2s, organized by General Eisenhower. Those launches were attended by the future General Designer of the Soviet rockets, Sergei Korolyov. A little after the ex-Allies cast the veil of secrecy and began to actively analyze their trophies. Mr. Braun and his companions tested A-4 missile in White) Sands, New Mexico. Korolyov did the same on Kapustin Yar rocket range in Russia. Helmut Grettrup and 150 more engineers designed G-1 rocket, based on A-4 prototype.

Mr. Korolyov and his teammates clearly saw weak spots of A-4, however Stalin's order sounded unambiguously: the rocket had to be duplicated without any modifications. On September 1947 the first Soviet analogue, R-1, was launched in Kapustin Yar. Simultaneously, a new, improved missile was being designed, R-2. It was commissioned in 1951. Laterthe experimental rocket R-3Aand its following modification, R-5 were created. I_By the early '50s Soviet rocketeers had enough experience creating one-stage ballistic missiles. A group of German scientists headed by Mr. Grettrup also presented their project in 1947. Although the project offered quite advanced solutions, it was not approved and the Germans were soon repatriated.

3. In 1947, Mr. M.K. Tikhonravov, a Head of the group studying multistage rockets at the Research Institute of Artillery, proposed to use a bunch, or a "packet" of R-3 rockets as the first stage. This was named "packet design". During the years 1949-1950 Tikhonravov group designed a project of a two-stage packet-design rocket. Calculations proved that this rocket was able to deliver three tons to a distance of 3000 km and, what is more important, a spacecraft could be lifted to the Earth orbit. In the beginning of 1953 the Soviet Government commanded to start a project on creation of R-7, a two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile.

4. Concurrently with the creation of "the seven", a spacecraft was also being designed. By the end of 1955 the preliminary project was ready and creation of Sputnik began. According to the project, the satellite had to weigh some 1400 kg and bear 300 kg of scientific equipment. However, parameters of the supposed carrier did not allow the lift this much load. The decision was made to cut the weight of a satellite at the expense of scientific equipment.

5. As we remember, first-rate German specialists and parts of rockets were brought to the United States. In 1946 at the White Sands Range the first launch of A-4 rocket was made. The Americans started developing their rocketry program and Werner von Braun had no small share in it. He was the General Designer of a two-stage rocket named Bumper, where A-4 itself served as the first stage. On July 24,1950, Bumper was launched from a new range located on the Canaveral Cape. In the same year Research Center moved from the White Sands to the Redstone Arsenal, located in Huntsville, Alabama and Mr. Braun's team began to work on the Redstone rocket which also was a further modification of A-4.

Back in Peenemuende, Germany Werner von Braun already matured plans of orbiting a satellite for spying upon adversary. These were plans to create a two-stage powerful rocket based on A-4, which would be able to develop the first cosmic velocity with spaceborne payload. That project died adorning.

In 1948 the Secretary of Defense of the U.S. announced the intentions to orbit a shell-satellite in the nearest future, for military purpose, of course. This project required colossal expenses on both creation of a booster rocket and a spacecraft. It was just about the time when semiconductor transistor was only patented; electronics would have become miniature much later.

In 1951 members of the British Interplanetary Society issued their work titled "Minimum Satellite", where a concept of orbiting of a satellite was described at utilization of existing technologies and components. One of the problems encountered by creators of a two-stage rocket was startup of the second-stage engines in weightlessness. Liquid propellant would not flow to where it was necessary. To make a solid fuel stage, a completely new class of solid propellants had to be created. In a packet design rocket the engines of the both stages could be started up already on earth which led to some loss in hoist capacity, but added much robustness.

The Second International Geophysical Year was proclaimed since July 1957 through December 1958. Within the framework of this event the U.S. and the USSR were going to launch their first satellites. The Americans announced their intention in July 1955. The ad hoc committee chose the Vanguard project, proposed by the Naval Research Laboratory.

However, in 1955 Dwight Eisenhower, the then President of the U.S., announced about the priority of military projects. This made the civil program Vanguard a matter of secondary importance. The Martin Company (now Lockheed Martin), where Vanguard rocket was being created, obtained the order on creation of Titan ballistic missile. The most of the company's resources were retargeted to the military project.

In February 1956 the Vanguard rocket was ready. The 'Martin Company and NRL carried out a number of trial launches from December 1956 to October 1957. The launch of a satellite was scheduled to December 1957.

While the Martin Company built their Vanguard, Mr. Braun's team designed their Redstone rocket. A modified A-4 was used as the first stage, the second and third ones were packets of solid propellant accelerators. That rocket was first launched in September 1956. The carrier delivered a dummy warhead over a distance of 5300 kilometers.

6. In 1955 near Tyura-Tam station in Kazakhstan construction of a rocket range began, which later became Baikonur Spaceport. On May 15 the first "seven" started from this range. The first three launches failed. On August 21 the fourth launch was made. The rocket successfully started and several days after the debris of its head were found in prescribed region on Kamchatka Peninsula.

7. Americans realized that orbiting of the first satellite in the USSR was a matter of weeks. They even called a conference devoted to the subject. The conference was scheduled on October 4, 1957, but a few hours later the world was told the news: the USSR was the first state to launch an artificial satellite, Sputnik.

On December, 6 the Vanguard carrier exploded on a launchpad. The first American satellite, Explorer I, was orbited on January 31,1958, by a modified Redstone carrier named Jupiter C.

4



THE MAGNIFICENT SEVEN

In September 1944 London was bombarded by the world's first ballistic missile, V2, "Vengeance Weapon No. 2". It did not make the slightest deflection in the course of the World War II, however gave an impetus to brainwork of American and Soviet rocketeers.

In the course of Hermes operation in 1945 American agents secretly took a group of German rocketeers away from the Soviets' occupation zone. The group was headed by Walter Dornberger, the leader of the Nazi missile project, and Werner von Braun, General Designer of A-4 missile (first name V-2). In addition, parts necessary for assembly of one hundred of missiles were taken across the Atlantic.

Sergei Korolyov, who was sent to Germany with the same mission, also managed to select some German specialists, documents and materials. One of such engineers was Helmut Grettrup, Braun's assistant in electronics. The last event on the "rocketry scene" in '45 was a trial launch of several V-2s, organized by General Eisenhower. Those launches were attended by the future General Designer of the Soviet rockets, Sergei Korolyov. A little after the ex-Allies cast the veil of secrecy and began to actively analyze their trophies. Mr. Braun and his companions tested A-4 missile in White) Sands, New Mexico. Korolyov did the same on Kapustin Yar rocket range in Russia. Helmut Grettrup and 150 more engineers designed G-1 rocket, based on A-4 prototype.

Mr. Korolyov and his teammates clearly saw weak spots of A-4, however Stalin's order sounded unambiguously: the rocket had to be duplicated without any modifications. On September 1947 the first Soviet analogue, R-1, was launched in Kapustin Yar. Simultaneously, a new, improved missile was being designed, R-2. It was commissioned in 1951. Laterthe experimental rocket R-3Aand its following modification, R-5 were created. I_By the early '50s Soviet rocketeers had enough experience creating one-stage ballistic missiles. A group of German scientists headed by Mr. Grettrup also presented their project in 1947. Although the project offered quite advanced solutions, it was not approved and the Germans were soon repatriated.

In 1947, Mr. M.K. Tikhonravov, a Head of the group studying multistage rockets at the Research Institute of Artillery, proposed to use a bunch, or a "packet" of R-3 rockets as the first stage. This was named "packet design". During the years 1949-1950 Tikhonravov group designed a project of a two-stage packet-design rocket. Calculations proved that this rocket was able to deliver three tons to a distance of 3000 km and, what is more important, a spacecraft could be lifted to the Earth orbit. In the beginning of 1953 the Soviet Government commanded to start a project on creation of R-7, a two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile.

Concurrently with the creation of "the seven", a spacecraft was also being designed. By the end of 1955 the preliminary project was ready and creation of Sputnik began. According to the project, the satellite had to weigh some 1400 kg and bear 300 kg of scientific equipment. However, parameters of the supposed carrier did not allow the lift this much load. The decision was made to cut the weight of a satellite at the expense of scientific equipment.

As we remember, first-rate German specialists and parts of rockets were brought to the United States. In 1946 at the White Sands Range the first launch of A-4 rocket was made. The Americans started developing their rocketry program and Werner von Braun had no small share in it. He was the General Designer of a two-stage rocket named Bumper, where A-4 itself served as the first stage. On July 24,1950, Bumper was launched from a new range located on the Canaveral Cape. In the same year Research Center moved from the White Sands to the Redstone Arsenal, located in Huntsville, Alabama and Mr. Braun's team began to work on the Redstone rocket which also was a further modification of A-4.

Back in Peenemuende, Germany Werner von Braun already matured plans of orbiting a satellite for spying upon adversary. These were plans to create a two-stage powerful rocket based on A-4, which would be able to develop the first cosmic velocity with spaceborne payload. That project died adorning.

In 1948 the Secretary of Defense of the U.S. announced the intentions to orbit a shell-satellite in the nearest future, for military purpose, of course. This project required colossal expenses on both creation of a booster rocket and a spacecraft. It was just about the time when semiconductor transistor was only patented; electronics would have become miniature much later.

In 1951 members of the British Interplanetary Society issued their work titled "Minimum Satellite", where a concept of orbiting of a satellite was described at utilization of existing technologies and components. One of the problems encountered by creators of a two-stage rocket was startup of the second-stage engines in weightlessness. Liquid propellant would not flow to where it was necessary. To make a solid fuel stage, a completely new class of solid propellants had to be created. In a packet design rocket the engines of the both stages could be started up already on earth which led to some loss in hoist capacity, but added much robustness.

The Second International Geophysical Year was proclaimed since July 1957 through December 1958. Within the framework of this event the U.S. and the USSR were going to launch their first satellites. The Americans announced their intention in July 1955. The ad hoc committee chose the Vanguard project, proposed by the Naval Research Laboratory.

However, in 1955 Dwight Eisenhower, the then President of the U.S., announced about the priority of military projects. This made the civil program Vanguard a matter of secondary importance. The Martin Company (now Lockheed Martin), where Vanguard rocket was being created, obtained the order on creation of Titan ballistic missile. The most of the company's resources were retargeted to the military project.

In February 1956 the Vanguard rocket was ready. The 'Martin Company and NRL carried out a number of trial launches from December 1956 to October 1957. The launch of a satellite was scheduled to December 1957.

While the Martin Company built their Vanguard, Mr. Braun's team designed their Redstone rocket. A modified A-4 was used as the first stage, the second and third ones were packets of solid propellant accelerators. That rocket was first launched in September 1956. The carrier delivered a dummy warhead over a distance of 5300 kilometers.

In 1955 near Tyura-Tam station in Kazakhstan construction of a rocket range began, which later became Baikonur Spaceport. On May 15 the first "seven" started from this range. The first three launches failed. On August 21 the fourth launch was made. The rocket successfully started and several days after the debris of its head were found in prescribed region on Kamchatka Peninsula.

Americans realized that orbiting of the first satellite in the USSR was a matter of weeks. They even called a conference devoted to the subject. The conference was scheduled on October 4, 1957, but a few hours later the world was told the news: the USSR was the first state to launch an artificial satellite, Sputnik.

On December, 6 the Vanguard carrier exploded on a launchpad. The first American satellite, Explorer I, was orbited on January 31,1958, by a modified Redstone carrier named Jupiter C.

4



ВЕЛИКОЛЕПНАЯ «СЕМЕРКА»

В сентябре 1944 года на Лондон упала первая в мире баллистическая ракета "Фау-2". Для человечества это было вступление в ракетную эпоху (правда, оно узнало об этом несколько позже), для жителей Лондона - новая опасность.

Ракета "Фау-2" не оказала сколько-нибудь существенного влияния на ход второй мировой войны. Зато она дала обильную пищу для размышлений американским и советским ракетчикам.у

Поэтому в 1945 году была проведена операция "Гермес", в ходе которой из советской зоны оккупации были вывезены специалисты-ракетчики во главе с Вальтером Дорнбергером, руководителем немецкой ракетной программы, и Вернером фон Брауном, главным конструктором А-4. Также за океан были вывезены детали, достаточные для сборки ста ракет.

Однако Королеву, который был направлен в Германию с теми же целями, тоже достались материалы, детали ракет и специалисты. В частности, в его распоряжение был предоставлен Хельмут Греттруп - главный специалист по электронике в Пенемюнде.

Последним "ракетным" событием в Европе в сорок пятом году стал пробный пуск нескольких ракет "Фау-2", проведенный по инициативе генерала Эйзенхауэра. На этих пусках присутствовал бу­дущий генеральный конструктор советских ракет С.П. Королев. После чего бывшие союзники отгородились завесой секретности и начали активно изучать трофеи. Браун со своей командой проводил тестовые пуски ракет А-4 в Уайт Сэндз, штат Нью-Мексико. Королев занимался тем же самым на полигоне Капустин Яр. Хельмут Греттруп и еще около 150 специалистов проектировали на базе А-4 ракету Г-1.

Тем временем в 1947 году при НИИ Артиллерийских наук М.К. Тихонравовым была создана группа по изучению многоступенчатых ракет. Именно тогда Михаилу Клавдиевичу пришла в голову мысль использовать в качестве первой ступени связку или пакет ракет Р-3, такая схема и получила название пакетной. В конце 1947 года результаты работы группы Тихонравова были доложены Королеву, и сильно его заинтересовали. Работа над пакетной схемой была продолжена. В течение 1949-1950 гг. группой Тихонравова был разработан проект двухступенчатой ракеты, где первую ступень представлял собой пакет из трех ракет Р-3. Согласно расчетам, эта ракета могла доставить груз массой 3 тонны на расстояние до 3000 км, а главное - вывести космический аппарат на околоземную орбиту. В начале 1953 года вышло постановление Совета министров о начале проектных работ по созданию двухступенчатой межконтинентальной баллистической ракеты Р-7.

Параллельно с созданием "семерки" шло проектирование космического аппарата. К концу 1955 года предварительный проект был готов, и с января 1956 года началось создание спутника. Согласно проекту спутник должен был весить около 1400 кг и нести на себе 300 кг научной аппаратуры. Однако характеристики предполагаемого носителя не позволяли ракете вывести на орбиту подобную нагрузку. К тому же создание самого аппарата явно затягивалось. Было принято решение уменьшить массу спутника за счет научной аппаратуры.

Как мы помним, в Соединенные Штаты были вывезены первоклассные немецкие специалисты и детали ракет. В 1946 году на полигоне Уайт Сэндз был произведен первый пуск ракеты А-4. Американцы начали развивать свою ракетную программу. Вернер фон Браун играл в ней не последнюю роль. Он был главным конструктором двухступенчатой ракеты "Бампер", где первой ступенью была собственно ракета А-4. 24 июля 1950 года ракета "Бампер" была запущена с нового полигона, находящегося на мысе Канаверал. Примерно в это же время исследовательский центр был перенесен из Уайт Сэндза в Редстоунский арсенал, находящийся в городе Хантсвилл, штат Алабама. Группа Брауна начала разрабатывать ракету Redstone, также являющуюся дальнейшей разработкой концепции А-4.

Планы запуска ИСЗ для наблюдения за противником фон Браун вынашивал еще в Пенемюнде. На основе А-4 предполагалось создание двухступенчатой мощной ракеты, способной достичь первой космической скорости с полезной нагрузкой на борту. Этот проект не был даже доведен до эскизов.

В 1948 году министр обороны США заявил о намерении в ближайшее время вывести на орбиту спутник-снаряд. Разумеется, тоже военного назначения. Этот проект требовал огромных затрат как на создание ракеты-носителя, так и на создание собственно аппарата. Только-только был запатентован полупроводниковый транзистор, и электронике еще предстояло стать миниатюрной.

В 1951 году члены Британского Межпланетного Общества издали работу "Minimum Satellite", в которой излагалась концепция запуска спутника с использованием уже существующей техники и элементной базы.

Одной из проблем, с которой столкнулись создатели двухступенчатой ракеты – запуск двигателей второй ступени в состоянии невесомости. Заставить жидкость в состоянии невесомости течь в нужном направлении никак не удавалось. Для создания твердотопливной ступени было необходимо разработать принципиально новый класс твердых взрывчатых веществ. На ракете, построенной по пакетной схеме, можно было еще на Земле запускать двигатели обеих ступеней, что вело к некоторой потере грузоподъемности, однако сильно повышало надежность.

С июля 1957 по декабрь 1958 года проводился Второй Международный Геофизический Год. В рамках этого мероприятия намечалось и было реализовано множество различных. В рамках МГГ Америка и Советский Союз собирались запустить первый искусственный спутник Земли. Американцы объявили о своем намерении в июле 1955 года. Комиссией, созданной по этому поводу, был выбран проект "Авангард", представленный Naval Research Laboratory.

Однако в 1955 году президент Дуайт Эйзенхауэр объявил о приоритете разработок, направленных на создание межконтинентальной баллистической ракеты. Таким образом, гражданская программа "Авангард" оказалась "в загоне". Компания Martin Company (сейчас Lockheed Martin), где создавалась ракета "Авангард", получила заказ на создание баллистической ракеты Titan. При этом большая часть ресурсов компании была направлена на военный проект.

К февралю 1956 года ракета "Авангард" была создана. Martin Company и NRL провели ряд испытательных пусков в период с декабря 1956 года по октябрь 1957. Запуск спутника был намечен на декабрь 1957 года.

В то же самое время, пока Martin Company создавала "Авангард", команда Брауна вела разработку ракеты Redstone. Как мы уже говорили, в качестве первой ступени использовалась модифицированная ракета A-4, в качестве второй и третьей - связки из твердотопливных ускорителей. Первый пуск этой ракеты был произведен в сентябре 1956 года. Ракета доставила макет боеголовки на дальность свыше 5300 километров.

В 1955 году в районе станции Тюра-Там началось строительство ракетного полигона, именно это место потом станет известно как Байконур. 15 мая с этого полигона стартовала первая "семерка". Первые три запуска провалились. 21 августа был произведен четвертый запуск. Ракета удачно ушла со старта, и через несколько дней обломки головной части были найдены в заданном районе на Камчатке.

Американцам стало понятно, что запуск первого искусственного спутника Земли для Советского Союза - вопрос нескольких недель. Было решено созвать экстренное совещание по этому поводу. Место проведения - Редстоунский исследовательский центр, время проведения... 4 октября 1957 года, но через несколько часов все средства массовой информации сообщили, что Советский Союз произвел запуск первого искусственного спутника.

6 декабря на стартовой площадке взорвался носитель "Авангард". Модифицированной ракетой Redstone, названной Jupiter С, 31 января 1958 года был запущен первый американский спутник Explorer I.

5



ВОПРОСЫ К ТЕКСТУ


    1. What can you tell us about the world’s first ballistic missile, V2?

    2. What Sergey Korolyov a pioneer in the Soviet rockets creation? Your option on the point.

    3. Why was the group studying multistage rockets organized in1947?

    4. What are the stages in creation of Sputnik?

    5. Which are the stages of developing the rocketry program the United State?

    6. When did the Soviet racketeers celebrate their success?

    7. Is it true that the USSR was the first state to launch an artificial satellite Sputnik?


  1. Первая в мире баллистическая ракета Фау-2 была создана в 1944 году как «ракета возмездия».


Но она не оказала никакого воздействия на ход второй мировой войны.


Тем не менее, она (Фау-2), дала толчок для размышления американским и советским ракетчикам.


  1. В 1945 году был произведен пробный запуск нескольких Фау-2, организованный генералом Эйзенхауэром.


Будущий главный конструктор советских ракет Сергей Королев присутствовал на тех запусках.


В сентябре 1947 года был произведен первый пуск советского аналога Р-1 с полигона в Капустином Яру.


К началу 50-х годов у советских ракетчиков было достаточно опыта, чтобы создать одноступенчатые (типа Р-1) ракеты.


  1. В 1953 году начался проект по созданию ракеты Р-7. То была 2-х ступенчатая межконтинентальная баллистическая ракета.


  1. В 1955 году был готов проект космического корабля, и началось создание спутника.


  1. В 1946 году на полигоне Уайт Сэндз был произведен первый запуск ракеты А-4.


В 1948 году Америка объявила о намерениях вывести спутник-снаряд в военных целях. 31 января 1958 года был запущен американский спутник Explorer 1.


  1. 15 мая 1955 года первая «семерка» стартовала с космодрома Байконур.


Первые три запуска провалились.


21 августа четвертый запуск был произведен. Он был успешным.


  1. 4 октября 1957 года миру сообщили новость: СССР был первым государством, который запустил искусственный космический корабль, спутник.


  1. The world’s first ballistic missile, V-2 was developed as “Vengeance Weapon No 2 “.


But it did not make any deflection in the course of World War II.


However it gave an impetus to brainwork for American and Soviet racketeers.


  1. In 1945 (nineteen forty five) was a trial launch of several V-2s organized by General Eisenhower.


The future General Designer of the Soviet Rockets, Sergey Korolyov, attended those launches.


On September 1947 (nineteen forty seven) the first analogue R-1 was launched in Kapustin Yar.


By the early fifties Soviet racketeers had enough experience to create one-stage ballistic missiles.


  1. In 1953 (nineteen fifty three) the project on creation of R-7 started. That was a two-stage intercontinental ballistic missile.


  1. In 1955 (nineteen fifty five) the project of a spacecraft was ready. And the creation of Sputnik began.


  1. In 1946 at the White Sands Range the first launch of A-4 rocket was made.


In 1948 the U.S. announced the intentions to orbit a shell-satellite for military purpose.


  1. On May 15, 1955 (nineteen fifty five) the first “seven” started from the rocket range Baikonur.


The first three launches failed.


On August 21 the forth launch was made.


  1. On October 4, 1957 (nineteen fifty seven) the world was told the news: the USSR was the first state that launched an artificial satellite, Sputnik.

2


ОТКРЫТЬ САМ ДОКУМЕНТ В НОВОМ ОКНЕ

ДОБАВИТЬ КОММЕНТАРИЙ [можно без регистрации]

Ваше имя:

Комментарий