Методические указания по английскому языку

Пояснения к выполнению контрольных работ. Количество контрольных работ, выполняемых на каждом курсе, устанавливается учебным планом университета.

Пояснения

к выполнению контрольных работ.


  1. Количество контрольных работ, выполняемых на каждом курсе, устанавливается учебным планом университета.

  2. В данном пособии предлагается для студентов 6 вариантов контрольных работ. Выполняются они в соответствии с цифрами студенческого шифра (четные или нечетные).

  3. Выполнять контрольные работы следует в отдельной тетради. На обложке тетради напишите свою фамилию, номер шифра, курс и факультет.

  4. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены чернилами, аккуратно, четким почерком. Слева справа оставьте поля для рецензии преподавателя.



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Поля Английский текст Русский текст Поля

  1. Контрольные работы должны быть выполнены в той последовательности, в которой они даны в настоящем пособии.

  2. Выполненные контрольные работы направляйте для проверки и рецензирования в установленные сроки на кафедру “Английский язык”.

  3. Если контрольная работа не соответствует указанным требованиям, она возвращается без проверки.


Подготовка

к зачетам и экзамену.


  1. Прочитать необходимые текстовые материалы и понять основной смысл прочитанного.

  2. Просмотреть материал выполненных контрольных работ.


  1. Просмотреть перечень необходимых вопросов для собеседования по разговорной тематике.


  1. Просмотреть газетный материал на английском языке, пользуясь словарем.


  1. Прочитать и понять, с помощью словаря, тесты по специальности.



    1. Варианты контрольных работ

Вариант 1


1. Переведите текст:

Cosmic Flight.

We live in a wonderful age when the most daring dreams of man are coming true. For many centuries cosmic flights were but a dream. October 4, 1957 became a remarkable day throughout the world. The first space satellite was put into orbit around the Earth. Tsiolkovsky's "utopian" dream has been realized. Each cosmic flight on a manned spaceship is really a great event. The satellite is a small space laboratory. Its aim is investigating radiation as well as the effects of the state of weightlessness on the human organism.

2. Переведите слова и выражения:

daring, to put into orbit, space satellite, manned spaceship, investigating, the state
of weightlessness, radiation.

3. Переведите предложение:

Многие века космические полеты были всего лишь мечтой.

4. Переведите предложение:

Первый космический спутник был запущен 4 октября 1957 года.

5. Переведите предложение:

Each manned spaceship is a small cosmic laboratory.


6. Выбрать правильный вариант:

The most... dreams of people are coming true.
a) remarkable b) daring c) wonderful

7. Выбрать правильный вариант:

Each cosmic ... is really a great event,
a) satellite b) spaceship c) flight

8. Закончить предложение:

For many centuries cosmic flights were....

a) "utopian" dream b) but a dream

9. Закончить предложение:

The first space satellite was put into orbit....

a) around the Earth b) around the moon

10. Составить предложение:

is, on, organism, aim, investigating, the, its, radiation, human

11. Составить предложение:

flight, manned, really, event, cosmic, a, is, remarkable, each, on, spaceship, a.

12. Ответить на вопросы:

1. When was the first space satellite launched?

2. What is a satellite?

3. Who was the first cosmonaut in the world?


Вариант 2


  1. Переведите текст:

"Ulugbek"

The great scientists of Central Asia were not only outstanding thinkers, who confirmed to the world faultless of their ideas on understanding the Universe. Central Asia also had some of the remarkable astronomers, who made careful observations under natural phenomena. Among Samarkand's astronomers of the 15-th century was Ulugbek who made himself famous by his observations needed for science. Having studied Astronomy under famous scientists Ulugbek began intensively observing the sky. He built enormous observatory in Samarkand. Observatory was equipped by the most modern tools of that time.

2. Переведите слова и выражения:

scientists, outstanding thinkers, to confirm, faultless, the Universe, remarkable, observations, intensively, enormous observatory, modern tools.

3. Переведите предложение:

Ученые Центральной Азии были не только выдающимися мыслителями, но и замечательными астрономами.

4. Переведите предложение:

Обсерватория Улугбека в Самарканде была оборудована самыми современными приборами.

5. Выбрать правильный вариант:

Samarkand's astronomers achieved the great accuracy in their ......

a) ideas

b) observations

c) instruments

6. Выбрать правильный вариант:

The catalogue " Starry tables "contained ........ position of 1018 stars in the sky.

a) precise

b) geographic

c) different

7. Вставить предлоги:

Astronomy was subject..... major concern ..... him.

8. Вставить предлоги:

Ulugbek's contemporaries were fascinated..... the magnificence ..... the observatory.

9. Вставить предлоги:

Ulugbek widely used definitions .... geographic coordinates .... different places .... Central Asia .... practical purpose.

10. Составить предложение:

of, astronomers, known, all, world, were, works, the, Samarkand's, widely, the, over.

11. Ответить на вопросы:

1) What was Ulugbek famous for?

2) What was the great achievement of Ulugbek in Samarkand?


Вариант 3

1. Переведите текст:

The Electric Current

When a conductor joins two points of different potential, electricity flows from one to the other along the conductors until the potentials are equal. This process is very rapid, and with good conductors is completed in a fraction of a second. While it lasts, an electric current is said to flow from one point to the other. By convention, the direction of the current is said to be that from the higher to the lower potential, i.e. the direction in which positive charges would travel, but actually, owing to their much greater mobility, it is the negative electrons which move, and it is their mo­tion which constitutes the current.

2. Переведите на русский язык:

conductor, potential, rapid, direction, positive, charge, mobility, motion, negative, current.

3. Переведите предложения:

1) Electricity flows from one potential to the other until the potentials are equal.

2) An electric current flows from one point to the other.

3) The motion of the negative electrons constitutes the electric current.

4. Выбрать правильный вариант слова:

When a conductor joins two points of different potential... flows from one to the other.

a) process

b) electricity

c) motion

5. Выбрать правильный вариант:

This process is very ... and is completed in a fraction of a second.

a)large

b)slow

c) rapid

6. Выбрать правильный вариант:

The direction of the ... is that from the higher to the lower potential

a) current

b) electricity

c) charge

7. Закончить предложение: The electric current passing through a wire ....

a) will cool that wire

b) will heat that wire

8. Закончить предложение:

By connecting wires to the top and bottom discs Volta ....

a) was able to get electric current

b) was able to heat a conductor

9. Закончить предложение:

When an electric current flows along a conductor, ....

a) the latter becomes strong

b) the latter becomes heated

10. Составить предложение:

from, to, along, flows, potential, the, conductor, electricity, one, other, the.

11. Перевести на английский язык.

1) Направление тока осуществляется от высшего к низшему потенциалу.

2) Электричество течет от одного потенциала к другому, пока потенциалы равны.

3) Именно движение отрицательных электронов образует электрический ток.


Вариант 4

1. Переведите текст:

Faraday's Experiment

Faraday knew from his long study of electricity that magnetism should be able to produce a current, as well as vice versa. In spite of his various failures, the idea of producing a current directly by magnetic action remained firm in his thoughts. One of his friends said later how at this period of his long life Faraday used to carry about with him in his pocket a small rough model of electro-magnetic appara­tus. This consisted simply of an inch-long straight iron core with some turns of copper wire wound round it. The basic idea he had in mind was this: if an electric current in a wire can produce a magnetic effect, why should not a magnet near a conducting wire produce an electric current?

2. Перевести на русский язык:

electricity, magnetism, various, directly, magnetic, action, real­ly, successful, immediately, reaction.

3. Переведите предложения:

1) Faraday knew that magnetism should be able to produce a current.

2) He had produced electricity through magnetism which had never been done before.

3) Faraday used to carry about with him a model of electromagne­tic apparatus.

4. Выбрать правильный вариант слова:

In spite of his various.... Faraday was sure that magnetism should be able to produce a current.

a) failures b) purposes c) magnets

5. Выбрать правильный вариант:

Anyone who has a coil of wire, a.... magnet and a sensitive current indicator may repeat Faraday's experiment.

a. ) big b) bar c) copper

6. Выбрать правильный вариант:

Amplifying the current, the scientist.... the necessary results

a) deflected b) got c) switched on

7. Закончить предложение:

Faraday's basic idea was that a magnet near a conducting wire should be.....

a) on opposite sides of the ring b) able to produce an electric current

8. Закончить предложение: Faraday separated each turn.....

a) by string for insulation purposes b) fed from the battery

9. Закончить предложение: Faraday wound long coils of thin copper wire....,

a) he was disappointed b) on opposite sides of the ring

10. Составить предложение:

by, produce, wanted, electricity, Faraday, to, electromagnetism.

11. Перевести на английский язык:

1) Идея получения тока непосредственно действием магнита не ос­тавляла его мыслей,

2) Обычно Фарадей носил в кармане маленькую модель электромагнитного прибора.

12. Ответить на вопросы:

1) What was Faraday famous for?

2) What was his idea?

3) What can you say about a small model of electro-magnetic apparatus,

Вариант 5


1. Переведите текст:

The Discovery of Magnetic Induction.

The discovery in 1820 that there was a close connection between electricity and magnetism was very exciting -until then, the two subjects had been considered as quite independent. The first discovery was that currents in wires make magnetic fields; then in the same year, it was found that wires carrying current in a magnetic field have forces on them. In 1840 Faraday discovered - electric effects exist only when there is something changing. If one of a pair of wires has a carrying current, a current is induced in the other, or if a magnet is moved near an electric circuit, there is a current. We say that currents are induced.

2. Переведите слова и словосочетания:

Discovery, magnetic induction, wires, magnetic fields, current, electric effects, induced, an electric circuit, connection, electricity and magnetism.

3. Переведите предложения:

1) Electricity and magnetism subjects had been considered as quite independent subjects.

2) If currents make magnetic fields, people suggested that magnets might also make electric fields.

4. Выбрать правильный вариант:

For the atom to be electrically neutral, the number of protons must be....... to that of

electrons.

a) more b) equal c) less

5. Выбрать правильный вариант:

We know Isaac Newton to express the connection between........ and motion in the form

of several laws.

a) electricity b) current c) force

6. Выбрать правильный вариант:

Before Faraday's discovery the only usable source of........ was the galvanic battery.

a) electricity b) magnetism c) conduction

7. Закончить предложение:

Artificial magnets may be made by placing.........

a) a magnet to be magnetised into a battery

b) a piece of iron or steel to be magnetised into a coil

8. Закончить предложение:

Faraday wanted to produce electricity by.........

a) Electromagnetism b) electric circuit

9. Составить предложение:

Was, carrying, a, have, them, discovery, that, current, magnetic, forces, the, wires, in, field, on.

10. Составить предложение:

A, electricity, and, had, as, was, between, magnetism, subjects, considered, independent, there, connection, and, these, been, quite.

Вариант 6

1. Переведите текст:

Generating an Electric Current

Alessandro Volta, a professor of physics, established the true source of the electric current. He demonstrated that it could be produced by the action of dissimilar metals. In 1800 he developed the first electric battery, a device known as a voltaic pile. Although he tried a number of different materials he found that the best results were obtained when he used silver and zinc as the two metals. The pile consisted of a series of small disks of these and of cardboard, the latter having been soaked in a salt solution.

2. Переведите слова и словосочетания:

source, dissimilar, device, a voltaic pile, silver, zinc, cardboard, soaked, salt solution, series.

3. Переведите предложения:

1) The electric current could be produced by the action of dissimilar metals.

2) A voltaic pile consisted of a series of small disks and of cardboard.

4. Выбрать правильный вариант:

Alessandro Volta established the true... of the electric current,

  1. material

  2. source

  3. field

5. Выбрать правильный вариант:

During his experiments Volta developed the first electric...

  1. battery

  2. source

  3. device

6. Выбрать правильный вариант:

By connecting... to the top and bottom discs Volta got electric current

a) discs b) wires c) bars

7. Закончить предложение:

An electric current is a flow of electrons along...

a) the particles were electrons

b) a metal wire or a conductor

8. Закончить предложение:

There are many measuring devices e. g....

a) galvanometers, voltmeters and others

b) slight changes every day

9. Закончить предложение:

The method of producing electricity directly from heat attracts...

  1. problem of life

  2. attention of scientists

10. Составить предложение:

that, current, produced, action, metals, demonstrated, the, could, by, of, Volta, electric, be, the, dissimilar


    1. Тексты для чтения и перевода.

Read and translate the texts:

Uzbekistan Chooses Its Way.

The proclamation of Independence on September 1-st 1991 was landmark in the history of the Republic. Uzbekistan is a multi-national country inhabited by more than 130 nations and nationalities.

Uzbekistan's present day economy is diversified consisting of agricultural and manufacturing industries including the gas and oil industries, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, coal and uranium fields, engineering, cotton-ginning, textiles, canning and others. Uzbekistan possesses the largest economic potential and highest growth figures amongst the republics of Central Asia in both industrial and agricultural development. An important place in the Republic of Uzbekistan's economy is given to the rural sectors and especially the cotton growing industry. Uzbekistan ranks 4th in the world's gross cotton yield stakes. The substantial scientific-technical potential, both in the industrial and agricultural development sectors, has been created in the Republic. Uzbekistan maintains foreign trade connections with many countries in the world, participates in various international exhibitions and festivals, enjoys the memberships of many international organizations, banks and funds. At present over 120 countries of the world have recognized the Republic of Uzbekistan and diplomatic relations have been established with more than 60 of them. In Tashkent - the capital of independent Uzbekistan - there are 27 embassies, a UN mission and the opening of a further number of embassies is planned. Broad opportunities have been opened up for the involvement of the Republic in an international division of labour and for the extension of foreign trade, ties having been obtained through independence and sovereignty. Uzbekistan today has a developed infrastructure. The total length of railroads is over 3.5 thousand kilometers, connecting all the large economic centres of the Republic, ensuring entry to the CIS and other countries. There are over 40 thousand kilometers of highway. Uzbekistan is a Republic where traditions and principles of world community are highly honoured and being a full member, the Republic concentrates its efforts on the elaboration and realization of independent economic and social policies directed at renewing life, the intensive development of the national economy, the improvement of the peoples' well-being and its rapid integration into the world economic structure. The peoples of Uzbekistan look ahead with optimism.


Tashkent.


The early information about our city you can find in ancient Eastern annals of the 2 century- BC. Caravans going by the Great Silk Road passed Chach (the ancient name of Tashkent). Convenient geographical position favoured the city in its turning into the capital of the state.

At the end of the 10-th and the beginning of the 12-th century people more often called Chach by another name - Tashkent, which means "Settlement made of stone".

The monuments of medieval architecture harmonize with the modern architectural constructions. This combination differentiates Tashkent from many other cities. So does the hospitality, cordiality of Uzbek people.

Tashkent always welcomes guests. International meetings, symposiums,
conferences, festivals are held here. The city has many friends-sister cities; Karachi,
Seattle, Tunis, Patiala, Birmingham. That's why Tashkent is considered to be "the city of
friendship and brotherhood".

Today Tashkent - is the, capital of Uzbekistan, cultural center of the country. There are 9 theatres, Conservatory, museums, such as Art Museum, Museum of history of Uzbekistan. Tashkent has shady parks with queen fountains, concert, art exhibition halls, stadiums, swimming pools, libraries, gardens.

Opera and Ballet theatre named after Navoi looks like the palace from the outside. The palace where music reigns. Plays are on here almost every evening. And during a year the theatre presents 2-3 premiers at spectators' disposal. The building was constructed in 1947. The figures of Uzbek traditional monumental architecture are used in the facade decoration.

Exhibits in the exhibition hall of Uzbekistan Artists Union change continually. Light, roomy halls are put not only at famous artists disposal, but that of youths as well. There is an exhibition hall in the centre of the city. It was opened in 1974.

While making a city tour in Tashkent, you cannot help paying attention at the peculiarities of modern buildings. Each of them is the part of the national culture. The facades of buildings are decorated with the elements of national ornament. Architects try to take into account the national traditions. For example, one of the blocks was built in a way neighbours can easily contact with each other, using special galleries. Builders create modern blocks trying to be close to the feel of makhalla (community). The modern construction - TV tower is not standard. It is the highest construction in Central Asia. And it is adjusted to the seismicity 9. Its height - 375 meters. On the height of 100 meter? and 220 metersthe tower is girdled with telecasting station for 5 programs, broadcasting station, meteorological station. There is also observation site, where you can enjoy the magnificent view of the city, revealing bars and restaurant here. At the restaurants you will be served with the dishes of Uzbek cuisine. The interior is decorated with national paintings.

Tashkent is the only city in Central Asia, which has underground. The construction of it started in 1973 and in 1977 the first line began to operate. Tashkent Underground - it is 30 stations and they differ from each other. Architectural and artistic decoration of station depicts its name. The leading architects and artists of Uzbekistan took part in designing of the stations. Underground is a favourite means of transport of people in Tashkent. You can go to any part of the city in no time (The interval between trains is 240 seconds ).


Great Britain.


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland- this is the official name of Great Britain. It is composed of the island of Great Britain, the northeastern part of Ireland and multitude of small islands. Great Britain separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. In the west the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea wash Great Britain.

The Atlantic Ocean and the seas washing Great Britain as well as the south western winds affect the climate of the country making it maritime and damp.

The North and West of G. B. are mountainous. The Pennines located in the central part of the island of G. B. stretch from north to south. Many short rivers flow down the Pennines.

Northern Ireland presents a hilly extremity of the Central Plain.

The United Kingdom comprises England and Wales, which occupy the greater part of the island of G. B., Scotland in the North of G. B., and Northern Ireland situated in the north-east of Ireland.

The principal part of G. B. is England. Northern Ireland enjoys the rights 0f an autonomous region. The territory of G. B. is divided into counties - Lancashire, Yorkshire, etc.

The English nation arose as a result of the amalgamation of the native population of the British Isles-Celts with the Germanic tribes of angles and Saxons who repeatedly invaded Britain, and with the Normans who lived in the North of France and conguered Britain in the middle of the 11-th century. The present descendants of the Celts - Scotchmen, Welsmen and Irishmen constitute less than one fifth of the total population of the country.

The population of G. B. speaks English.

G. B. is a country of highly developed culture. The eminent physicist Newton, the famous naturalist Darwin greatly contributed to science, while the works of great master of tragedy Shakespeare, the poet Byron and the novelist Dickens enriched world literature and art.

G. B. is a highly developed industrial country. Coal-mining, metallurgical, textile, shipbuilding, electrical engineering, automobile, aircraft and chemical industries are of great importance for Britain.

G. B. - is a constitutional monarchy. The head of the state is the king or the queen who ascend the throne by right of succession. The Englishmen say of their monarchs: "They reign, but don't rule. "

The monarch's power is limited by the Parliament consisting of two Chambers: the Chamber of Commons and the Chamber of Lords.

The Chamber of Commons is popularly elected and the Chamber of Lords is composed of high-born nobility who hold their title by right of succession.

The executive power is welded by the Cabinet presided by the Prime Minister. The post of the Premier is filled by the leader of the party which holds the majority in the Chamber of Commons.

There are two major parties in G. B. - the Conservative and the Labour.


The National Programme Of Personnel Training.


The National Programme of Personnel Training corresponds to provisions of the Decree of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On Education”, elaborated on the basis of the analysis of national experience, proceeding from the world achievements in the system of education and oriented on molding of new staff generation with high common and professional culture, creative and social activity, ability to orientate itself independently in socio-political life, capable to put forward and solve perspective tasks.

The aim of the present programme is the fundamental reforming of education system, elaboration of the national education system for training of highly qualified personnel up to the level advance democratic states and meeting the requirements of high spirit and morals.

The implementation of the aim demands the development of mutually beneficial international collaboration in personnel training.

The international legal base for cooperation in for personnel training is created, prior directions of international cooperation are being realized, international education structures are developed, exchange of scientific researches and teaching staff and students are widened. The base for international recognition of national decree on education is prepared. The activity of concerned Ministries and Departments, Embassies of Uzbekistan for the sake of intensive attraction the direct and indirect foreign investments for specialists training is intensified.


Revival of spiritual values and national self-consciousness.

No society can see its perspective without the development and strengthening its spiritual potential, spiritual and moral values in consciousness of people.

The cultural values of the nation, its spiritual heritage have been a powerful source of spirituality for the peoples of the East during millennia. In spite of rigid ideological pressure during a long period, the people of Uzbekistan have managed to preserve their historical and cultural values and their local traditions, that were carefully transferred from generation to generation.

From the first days of our independence, the major problem, raised on state policy level has been to revive that huge, invaluable spiritual and cultural legacy that was formed by our ancestors during many centuries.

But we were aware that the simple deny of values of the former system posed a danger of political and cultural extremism which did not imply any creative programme. At the same time, spontaneous and thoughtless return to the values, traditions and tenor of the past can lead to another extreme: to the denial of modern life, to the denial of the necessity to modernize the society.

Historical memory, restoration of an objective and truthful history of the nation, native territory, territory of the state is given an extremely important place in the revival and growth of national self-consciousness, and if you agree also the national pride.

Historical experience, succession of traditions - all this should become those values, on which new generations are brought up.

Static Electricity.

We shall give an account of the electrification of bodies in terms of atomic structure. The atoms, normally containing equal numbers of electrons and protons (units of negative and positive charges respectively), are broken up, and electrons pass from one body to another, leaving the former positively and the later negatively charged. This is not the normal condition of matter, and at the first opportunity the positively charged body acquires electrons and the negatively charged body expels electrons, so as to recover the neutral state.


The Electric Current.

When a conductor joins two points of different potential, electricity flows from one to the other along the conductor until the potentials are equal.

This process is very rapid, and with good conductors is completed in a fraction of a second. While it lasts, an electric current is said to flow from one point to the other. By convention, the direction of the current is said to be that from the higher to the lower potential, i. e. the direction in which positive charges would travel, but actually, owing to their much greater mobility, it is the negative electrons, which move, and it is their motion, which constitutes the current. It is unfortunate that, before the existence of electrons was thought of the conventional direction of the current should have been wrongly chosen, but it is now too late to alter the convention. The student must bear in mind that when a current is said to flow from A to B, what actually happens is that electrons flow from B to A.


Magnetism.

The existence of magnets shows that matter can be active. Everyone knows something of the property of certain pieces of iron steel - and to a smaller extent, cobalt and nickel- by which they can attract other pieces of iron and steel and hold them up against gravity; and there is, in fact, a naturally occurring oxide of iron, knows as "lodestone" which has the same property. If we suspend a magnet by its center so that it hangs horizontally, and then bring the end of another magnet near one of its ends, we find that the suspended magnet is either attracted or repelled; while if we present the other end of the second magnet to the same end of suspended one, the reverse happens-there is either repulsion or attraction. On the other hand, either end of the magnet will attract pieces of iron, which are not magnets.

Magnetic Polarity.

We have here a behavior somewhat similar to that of electrified. The magnitude of the force is again far greater than that of gravity; and there is the same attraction and repulsion between bodies affected, and only attraction between an affected and an unaffected body. We therefore speak of positive and negative magnetization if we wish. We do not, however, use these terms, but speak of two ends of the magnet as "north" and "south" poles. The reason for this is that a freely suspended magnet always hangs so that one end points approximately towards the north and the other approximately towards the south, and if we disturb it, it always returns to the position. We therefore speak of the north-speaking poles, and these names are usually abbreviated to north (N) and south (S) poles.

Conductors And Non-Conductors.

The ease with which this is done depends on the atomic constitution of the body. In some substances electrons move fairly easily, while in others they find movement difficult. This difference is expressed by what is called the electrical conductivity of the body. Substances through which electrons move easily are called good conductors. Generally speaking, among solids metals are good conductors and non-metals are poor conductors. If materials are arranged in the order of their conductivity it is found although there is no sudden transition from a group of very good to a group of very bad conductors, the atoms are restored to their normal state as fast as they are broken up, by the passage of electrons from the rod to the Earth to the rod, as the case may require. (The Earth must be regarded as containing free electrons and as being able to accommodate many more, without, observably electrified, owing to its great size. Any electrified body, whether charged positively or negatively, immediately becomes neutral when connected with the Earth either directly or through a conductor. ) It appears to be always the electrons that move, and not the positively charged atoms (or 'ions', as they are called). This would be expected, because of the much smaller mass of the electrons. If, however, a conductor be held by an insulating handle, so that electrons cannot pass between it and the hand. It also can be electrified by friction. In all experiments on frictional electricity the apparatus used must be quite dry, otherwise any electrification produced is destroyed, since moisture has conducting properties.

Permanent Magnetism.

The electric current consists simply of electrons or ions traveling round and round a circuit, and it may well be asked why, apart from the general thirst for knowledge, we should be interested to constructing vast machines in order to make invisible particles do the same thing over and over again. Two reasons have already been given: we can use such a process to produce chemical action, as in electrolysis and electroplating, and we can use it to produce light and heat. The third, and the most important reason of all, is that we can use it to produce magnetic force. It has already been said that a circular current acts as a magnet, but before considering the magnetic effects of a current in more detail we must examine the properties of the so-called "permanent" magnets - pieces of iron and steel which attract other pieces of iron and steel without any obvious connection with electricity at all, although, as already stated, we believe the force to be associated with the motion of electrons within the magnets.

Interpretation Of Magnetism.

We assume that an electron moving in an orbit is a small magnet. For simplicity, suppose the orbit is a circle in plane of this sheet of paper, and suppose the electron is revolving in a clockwise direction. Then the upper side of the paper is a S-pole and the lower side is a N-pole. If another similar orbit existed in a parallel plane just above the first, there would therefore be attraction between them and the orbits would approach one another, while if the second electrons were revolving in the opposite direction to the polarity they would be reversed and there would be repulsion. Each atomic electron revolving in its orbit is therefore a small magnet, and the magnetic properties of observable bodies must be expressed in terms of interaction of these intra-atomic magnets. Like the assumption of the existence of elementary particles in atoms, this is not orbitrary guesswork. We can experiment with electrically charged bodies of observable size moving in orbits, and we can find that they do in fact behave as magnets in the manner just described. It is therefore quite reasonable to suppose that the elementary charges behave similarly, and provide us with elements out of which we can build a satisfactory theory of magnetism.

III. Вопросы для зачета и экзамена.


1. Where do you study?

2. What faculty do you study?

3. What can you say about your future speciality?

4. Who is your best friend?

5. Where does your father (mother, sister, brother) work (study)?

6. When does your working day begin?

7. What do you usually do in the morning?

8. What do you have for breakfast (dinner, supper)?

9. How do you get to the University?

10. Till what time are you busy at the University?

11. How do you spend your leisure time?

12. How often do you go to the cinema?

13. What music (books, films) do you like?

14. Do you watch any programs on T. V?

15. What subjects do you study at the University?

16. What is your favorite subject?

17. When and where were you born?

18. Where do you live?

19. Why did you decide to enter the University?

20. When will you be able to speak English fluently?

21. Who is your favorite writer (poet, actor, sportsman)?

22. What books of this writer do you like best?

23. What famous American, British and Uzbek writers do you know?

24. Is your family large or small?

25. How old are your parents?

26. Have you many relatives (aunts, uncles, cousins)?

27. How many seasons are there in the year and what are they?

28. When does it often rain?

29. When do trees begin to burst into leaf?

30. What holiday does our Republic celebrate in spring?

31. How do you spend your time in summer?

32. Do you listen to the latest news every day?

33. What for do you study English?

34. What is your native city?

35. What was the ancient name of Tashkent?

36. What are the friends-sister cities of Tashkent do you know?

37. How many theatres are there in Tashkent? What are they?

38. What places of interest in Tashkent do you know?

39. When was Exhibition Hall opened and where is it situated?

40. What can you tell about the T. V. tower?

41. How many stations are there in Tashkent Underground and when was it opened?

42. What territory does the Republic of Uzbekistan occupy?

43. When did Uzbekistan become independent?

44. What does the independence for our Republic mean?

45. Where is Uzbekistan situated?

46. What is the climate of our Republic?

47. What can you say about the Constitution of our Republic?

48. Who is the President of Uzbekistan now?

49. How is the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan called?

50. What is the official name of Great Britain?

51. What parts does G. B. consist of?

52. What is the capital of G. B. ?

53. What sea separates G. B. from the European continent?

54. What climate has G. B. ?

55. What are the most important parts of London? Speak about each part.

56. Who is the Queen of G. B. ?

57. How is the residence of the Queen called?

58. What places of interest in London do you know?

59. Why do the Englishmen say about monarch's power: "They reign, but don't rule. »

60. What do the Londoners say about their city?

61. Where is the official residence of the Prime Minister of England situated?

62. What is Westminster Abbey?

63. What do you know about the parks of London?

64. What picture gallery is the largest in London?

65. What are the most famous Universities in G. B.?


Литература:


  1. Islom Karimov “Building the Future. Uzbekistan – its own model for transition to a market economy”.

  2. К. Иванова “English for students of electrical engineering”. Л. 1983.

  3. З. Павлова “Сборник общенаучных и технических текстов на английском языке”. М., Высшая школа, 1964.

  4. В. М. Макеева “Английский язык” (для неязыковых вузов). М., Высшая школа, 1968.


Содержание.


Пояснения к выполнению контрольных работ …………………………….. 3


Варианты контрольных работ ………………………………………………. 4

Тексты для чтения и перевода ……………………………………………… 10


Вопросы для зачета и экзамена …………………………………………….. 16


18



МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВЫСШЕГО И СРЕДНЕГО СПЕЦИАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

РЕСПУБЛИКИ УЗБЕКИСТАН


ТАШКЕНТСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

имени Абу Райхана Беруни


Методические рекомендации.

Контрольные работы

для студентов – заочников

энергетических специальностей


Ташкент 2002.


Составили: В.Д. Мусаева, О.М. Гордеева

Методические рекомендации: Контрольные работы для студентов – заочников энергетических специальностей (Ташкентский Государственный Технический Университет) составили: В.Д. Мусаева, О.М. Гордеева, Ташкент 2002.

Методические указания содержат варианты контрольных работ для студентов – заочников энергетических специальностей. Рекомендации снабжены необходимым текстовым материалом и пояснением для оформления контрольных работ и подготовки к зачетам и экзамену.

Кафедра “Английский язык”

Печатается по решению научно-методического совета Ташкентского Государственного Технического Университета имени Абу Райхана Беруни


Рецензенты: ст. пр. Бурдина Т.С. ( УНУ )

доц. Файзуллаева М.К. ( ТГТУ )

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