Chapter 1 Introduction
Exploration - a historical phenomenon. As craft, it is perhaps not the oldest, but surely the second. The variety of views of various historians on the social nature of intelligence and espionage combines them into one - they all agree on the fact that the secret services are at least 33 centuries. More precisely, they were born when the war began. In any military conflict, whether primitive slaughter or the Second World War, in varying degrees, of course, there is a tactical ruse, calculated to deceive the enemy. But in order to deceive and defeat the enemy, you need to know it. As a historical phenomenon, intelligence and espionage, as well as the war in different times takes different forms. Types and characters of scouts and spies change their color depending on the social and political system which they serve. History piled century in his piggy bank. In place of one of the formations came others, and the time changed the very concept of the secret service, and with it the essence of military and state secrets. Transformed and society's attitude to those who devoted his life to a dangerous profession. On the one hand, Noah, they were regarded as heroes of the invisible front, on the other - as despicable mercenaries. For centuries the word "intelligence" has been shrouded in reverence and deep respect, and the word "spy" was uttered with contempt and disgust. In the explanatory dictionary by Vladimir Dal: "Spy - the spy, spy, hidden spy, and a carrier ... Spy - soglyadat, lazutnichat, pry, listen, call that on the one hand, and send the opposite; serve as scout ... But Vladimir Dahl admits that "spying in wartime is allowed ...
Chapter 2 History of the Foreign Intelligence
Any State, as the organization of political power, as the unit of society, needs a mechanism which would protect it from encroachment on its sovereignty, integrity and power.
The most important part of this mechanism is intelligence.
Reconnaissance activities is to collect and analyze information about the alleged internal and external threats to the state and society, as well as in activities to prevent and eliminate these threats.
History of U.S. foreign intelligence began during the Second World War. According to Kim Philby, to this "secret information from other countries come in limited quantities as a result of" extraordinary "actions of American military attaches and diplomats."
In New York in 1940 was British focal point for the security of American supplies to Britain. William Stephenson, head of the organization, gave the main force in persuading Americans of the need to create your own intelligence service. He attracted interest in this from President Roosevelt. In 1942 it established the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), headed by General Donovan. At this time, involving close cooperation with British intelligence.
SSA was originally established as a research and analysis organization. Subsequently, it was to the same task to plan and carry out special operations.
After the war, all parts of SSA, except the secret intelligence service and service analysis, were dissolved. In 1945, the analytical units were transferred to the State Department, and the operational units - Ministry of War.
In his address to Congress on Mar. 12, 1947, President Truman declared that the communists threaten U.S. security. Based on the draft General Donovan, Truman recommended the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
It was openly functioning executive authority, although it lay as many duties of a secret nature.
In August 1961, was established by Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Its first director was appointed Lt. Gen. Joseph Carroll.
The main task of this organization was to ensure maximum coordination and effectiveness of intelligence work carried out by the army, air force and navy.
Chapter 3 Structure of the U.S. intelligence community
At present, according to official data in the structure of the U.S. intelligence community includes the following organizations:
I. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
II. The intelligence organizations of the Ministry of Defense
III. The intelligence organizations within the U.S. civilian agencies
IY. Headquarters Intelligence (intelligence community) or Central Intelligence.
I. Central Intelligence Agency CIA's number according to the press in 1989 exceeded 20 thousand people.
The budget of the CIA, also according to the press in 1989 amounted to $ 4 billion, and the entire community - about $ 25 billion in 1986, it was reported that the CIA's annual budget increased by 20%. In the same year in the Washington Post it was reported that in 1979 the entire intelligence budget of approximately $ 12 billion in 1986, he has more than doubled, and by 1990 will increase three-fold. In 1975, the Comptroller General of the Chief countable management (the audit arm of Congress) E. Staats has publicly stated that the budget for American intelligence (of all the intelligence organizations of the U.S.) may reach 5% of the total federal budget of the United States. In 1977, the Senate committee report for the first time, it was stated that the overall race moves into the national intelligence account for 3% of the total federal budget of the United States, the CIA and the cost is approximately 10% of the entire intelligence budget. Consequently, the total cost of U.S. intelligence in the early 90-ies were about $ 60 billion annually, while the CIA's expenditures - about $ 6 billion annually.
Structure of the CIA According to U.S. press reports the CIA consists of five major directorates and a number of independent units.
1. Operations Directorate - solves the problem of obtaining the information by human intelligence, organizes and conducts covert operations, carries out counter-intelligence software intelligence activities, is engaged in the fight against terrorism and narcotics.
The structure of the Directorate include:
- Management of foreign intelligence, supervises the operational divisions, which are divided into two groups: geographical divisions:
- Division of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe;
- Department of Latin America;
- Department of Middle East and South Asia;
- Africa Division - Department of East Asia.
Departments in areas of work:
- Department of Foreign resources (agent-operative work with the United States);
- Department of International Affairs (planning and conduct of covert paramilitary operations);
- Department of gathering information on the United States;
- Department of evasion;
- Division of businesses and others;
- Management of foreign counterintelligence - provides security intelligence and the CIA Central Intelligence th apparatus, carries out penetration of foreign intelligence services, queries defectors. In 1993, management created counterintelligence center to coordinate counterintelligence activities of all U.S. counterintelligence agencies.
- Office of covert operations - developing and implementing covert operations.
- Office of Technical Services (the "D") - provides technical support covert operations.
- Financial Planning Office - provides planning and funding of all activities of the Directorate.
- Center for Combating Terrorism - coordinates the activities of the CIA station in the fight against international terrorism.
- Center for Drug - performs analysis of all information on drugs, develops and conducts operational activities against the most dangerous drug-trafficking organizations.
2. Scientific and Technical Directorate - conducts research and development of technical means of gathering information, exploits them, maintains contacts with major research centers of the United States.
The structure of the Directorate include:
- Management of research and development of technical systems - is engaged in basic and applied research in various fields (artificial intelligence, process modeling, semiconductor systems, communications, etc.)
- Office of Development and Design has been developing and operating large-scale technical systems for collecting information
- Office of radio intercepts - operates and maintains the latest equipment to collect and analyze information
- Logistics Management - develops and manufactures various operational equipment (means of cryptography, eavesdropping, covert photography, etc.)
- Information service on foreign radio listens and record foreign radio and television programs - National Center for deciphering materials aerospace exploration.
3. Information Analysis Directorate-head under the division of the entire U.S. intelligence processing and analysis of intelligence information and training outputs intelligence for the president, the National Security Council and Congress.
The main output documents of the Directorate are:
- Memorandum warning "- information about the threat of attack or maturing crisis that could escalate into a major armed conflict;
- The daily intelligence reports and a weekly report to the president, vice-president, secretary, defense minister, presidential adviser on national security and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff;
- Daily review of national intelligence - is sent to 200 addresses;
- National intelligence estimates, containing an analysis and forecast of development of the most important problems.
The structure of the Directorate include:
- Office of Information Analysis by country, the former Soviet bloc
- Office of Information Analysis of European countries
- Office of Information Analysis for the Middle East and South Asia
- Office of Information Analysis of East Asia
- Office of Information Analysis in Africa and Latin America
- Manage current product and to provide analytical work produces information material of the Directorate.
In its structure there is a non-stop operations center tracking the maturing crisis situations that threaten U.S. security
- Management of scientific research in the field of armaments analyzes the technical aspects of weapons and space systems of other countries
- Management of global problems - is analyzing the economic, geographic and technological issues at the international level
- Office of Information Resources - provides information and referral functions, provides storage, retrieval and delivery of information, has a large fleet of powerful computers
- Manage the analysis of information on foreign leaders
- Department provide guidance and analytical work
- Department training assignments and assessments
- The Department of Arms Control.
4. Administrative Directorate - deals with recruitment for the CIA, training and retraining of personnel, ensures the safety of personnel and facilities of the CIA, has Cryptovox with residency, financial, health and economic services, develops and operates electronic information storage and retrieval of information.
The structure of the Directorate include:
- Office of Personnel
- Management training and retraining
- Office Safety
- Financial Management
- Manage storage and retrieval
- Management of computer equipment
- Medical Management
- Commercial management
5. Planning Directorate - established in 1989 engaged in planning and coordinating intelligence, tracking new requirements for intelligence information in connection with "tumultuous changes taking place in the world, and the need for rapid response to them." The structure of the Directorate in the press coverage.
6. Office of the Chief Counsel. The department gives advice and monitor compliance with the Constitution, laws, Criminal Code and existing rules and regulations.
7. Department inspector general. The Inspector General is appointed by the President and approved by the U.S. Senate. He is accountable to the U.S. president and Congress, but must coordinate their activities with the Director of the CIA. The department has its own budget and personnel autonomous apparatus. Division conducts inspections and investigations of the CIA unit, investigates complaints of staff.
8. Division of Financial Audit - monitors all financial activities of the CIA.
9. Secretariat of the CIA.
10. Financial planning department.
11. Department of History of the CIA.
12. Division shifroperepiski.
13. Board of Review of publications about the CIA.
14. Office of Public Affairs or pressluzhba CIA - carries out liaison with community organizations and the media.
15. Liaison Office with the legislature - the CIA is responsible for liaison with Congress, particularly the Commission on Intelligence of the Senate and House of Representatives is preparing responses to congressional inquiries, arranges for their visit to the CIA, speaking to them, intelligence officers, etc.
II. Intelligence unit of the Ministry of Defense
These intelligence units include:
- The intelligence unit in its defense ministry
- U.S. Army intelligence unit
- The intelligence unit of the Ministry of the U.S. Air Force - the intelligence unit of the Ministry of the Navy
1. Intelligence unit of the Ministry of Defense:
- Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) - is engaged in military and strategic intelligence. U.S. President's Executive Order number 12333 on December 4, 1981 "The intelligence activities of the United States" at DIA assigned task: to collect and analyze information to the Minister of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, other units of the Ministry of Defense, as well as appropriate for non-military departments to implement coordination of all intelligence organizations of the Ministry of Defense. According to press reports the number of DIA is more than 6 thousand people, including 1 thousand people working abroad in the military attashatah.
At the DIA about 80% of all appropriations for the exploration.
DIA has a complicated structure. In its submission includes a number of educational institutions.
- National Security Agency (NSA) is a division of the Ministry of Defense, while working in liaison with the CIA. Under the executive order number 12333 NSA organizes and collects information through electronic surveillance, as well as the development of codes and ciphers. ANB has one of the largest in the U.S. centers for data processing, supply the most powerful computers in the United States. According to press reports the number of NSA personnel, including troops, more than 120 thousand people.
The agency serves about 2 thousand radio intercept stations located around the world.
2. Intelligence unit of the Ministry of the U.S. Army:
- Intelligence of the Ministry of the Army. The structure consists of intelligence departments of Army Staff in all theaters of war.
- Intelligence and Security Command U.S. Army. Its structure consists of Command Security and Intelligence U.S. Army (joints and parts of the U.S. Army) at the theaters.
3. The intelligence unit of the Ministry of the U.S. Air Force - Air Intelligence Agency, consisting of a central office (which numbered according to the press in 1988 amounted to 2, 300 officers), and intelligence agencies in several theaters of military operations, and aviation commands, types of aircraft.
- National air and space exploration for the United States. According to press this administration budget exceeding $ 8 billion
- Command security and electronic warfare the U.S. Air Force, which according to press reports in 1983 were more than 10 thousand officers.
4. The intelligence unit of the Ministry of the Navy
- Intelligence Agency and the U.S. Naval units under his subordinates in the areas of operations of the fleets
- Command of Naval Intelligence
- Intelligence and Security Command U.S. Navy
- Intelligence of the U.S. Marine Corps
III. The intelligence organizations within the U.S. civilian agencies
By the intelligence organizations of the U.S. civilian agencies include:
- U.S. State Department's intelligence organizations
- Intelligence organizations of the Ministry of Commerce
- Intelligence organizations of the Ministry of Finance of the USA
- Intelligence organizations of the Ministry of Energy, USA
- FBI intelligence unit.
1. Exploration U.S. State Department
The Office of Intelligence and Research Department of State (IDA).
Under the executive order number 12333 IDA provides a collection of open methods of information necessary to conduct U.S. foreign policy, and prepare and distribute intelligence information.
However, IDA is coordinating with the other members of the intelligence community to collect information, and is also involved in covert operations. IBA asks the State Department officials after their return from zagrankomandirovok to obtain intelligence information, IBA participated in the development of the National Intelligence Program USA.
2. Intelligence unit of the Ministry of Commerce's
- Department intelligence ties
- Department of Intelligence Agency to facilitate export operations
- Department assess the possibilities of foreign ex tailor management
3. Intelligence unit of the Ministry of Finance of the USA
- Intelligence Support Division is responsible for collecting and analyzing intelligence information through the capacity of the Ministry of Finance, as well as coordinating with other organizations of the intelligence community.
Gather information abroad engaged attache Financial Officer of the diplomatic representation of the United States.
Under the executive order number 12333 from 1981, the collection of information is made public methods. Information is collected on the financial and monetary situation of foreign countries.
- Secret Service of the Ministry of Finance - provides protection to the President and Vice-President, members of their families, official guests of the government, the protection of government buildings and facilities. Service has 1, 5 thousand employees, it has been collecting intelligence and counterintelligence information on all U.S. and foreign organizations and individuals who may pose a potential threat to protected persons and objects.
4. Intelligence Unit of the Ministry of Energy
- The Department of Defense Intelligence Information Management for International Security Affairs - has its first intelligence apparatus overseas, but every employee in the Ministry of Energy, going abroad is obliged to return to provide a written report containing his collection of information to the Office of International Security Affairs.
According to the executive order of President number 12333 this department collects information on foreign energy, especially on the development and manufacture of nuclear weapons, nuclear energy.
5. FBI intelligence unit - is the management of the FBI counterintelligence. It has a duty to obtain intelligence information, using all the tacit means at its disposal, both in the U.S. and abroad. It is not only the intelligence gathering of foreign nations, but also assists in collecting foreign intelligence information to other organizations of the intelligence community.
IY. Headquarters intelligence community or the Central Intelligence.
The coordinating body of all U.S. intelligence. It includes representatives of all U.S. intelligence agencies. The head of the headquarters director of central intelligence, who is ex officio director of the CIA. Director of Central Intelligence shall appoint Directorate. In the composition of the staff of Staff Intelligence consists of eight committees (service line), and several management teams.
The budget, the number of staff are published officially. In 1989 the budget amounted to 23, 5 million dollars at the number of 224 persons.
Chapter 4 Legislation on intelligence
In the United States regularly published collections of regulations on the activities of the intelligence community.
In 1987 he was issued the next collection "Compilation on intelligence laws and relaited laws and executiwe orders of interest to the national intelligence community" in it - more than 100 existing regulations.
Principal regulations 11. National Security Act of 1947
This law was approved by the national security mechanism, consisting of the National Security Council, the Ministry of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency.
The same law, Article 102 was established by the CIA, headed by the Director of Central Intelligence, and obey the National Security Council, whose function is to coordinate the intelligence activities of all intelligence units and the idea of self-exploration.
Later this law was supplemented by three new sections, each of which consists of a series of self-made laws.
Section 5 - it included 2 adopted normative acts
1. Act on the Supervision of exploration, which establishes the control of the President of the implementation of covert operations.
2. Act 1988, reinforcing the re-President of the Congress regarding covert operations.
Section 6 - Law on the Protection of personal exploration in 1982
The law prohibits the disclosure of any information on manpower and agency of the CIA, and provides for strict penalties, including a very long prison terms, for any disclosure by any person, including congressmen.
Section 7 - Information about the CIA in 1984
This law intelligence derived from the application of the law in 1966 on freedom of information. Any information on the exploration should be published after consideration by the CIA.
12. Law on the CIA in 1949
Basically the law concerns the regulation of financial intelligence, its official activities, it has sections on information security and the CIA have sections that provide a simplified procedure for the adoption of American citizenship by persons who helped the CIA.
13. Pensions Act 1964 the CIA
All employees of U.S. government agencies use general state budget funds, and for the CIA that law provides for special pensions.
15. Law on the National Security Agency in 1959
14. Law on monitoring the activities of foreign intelligence services in 1978
There is a whole block of the laws governing the activities of intelligence services - is annually adopted a law on appropriations for U.S. intelligence activities. In these laws, except the approval of the actual budget provision for any but vye norms - extend or modify the rights of members of the intelligence community.
Executive orders of the U.S. President.
In American legal theory and practice, these executive orders BOXIES regarded as a kind of normative acts of executive power, forming part of federal law and are binding for all, without exception, U.S. government agencies.
The most important of the executive orders of the President on the activities of exploration is the order number 12333 from 1981
He defined the composition of the intelligence community and the challenges its members.
Chapter 5 Conclusion
To date, the intelligence community had the structure described above, but now, in connection with the collapse of the USSR, the changes in Eastern Europe and other events worldwide, as well as in connection with numerous high-profile failures and scandals, prepared by the radical restructuring of intelligence.
But in any case, intelligence will remain the most important component part of the soup of the American state.
Speaking January 4, 1994 at CIA headquarters before hundreds of mines by U.S. intelligence, U.S. President Bill Clinton said: "The intelligence is unique in the mission. No one knows this better than those who have the privilege of working in the White House Oval Office. By transferring the deposit CIA your photo with autograph, President Truman made her such an inscription: "Central Intelligence Agency, without which it can not get the U.S. president, from someone who knows about this firsthand.
Each of my day begins with questions about events that occurred before and during the night. Like my predecessors, I am compelled to seek answers to these questions, referring primarily to the intelligence community, since this is what prevents me and the entire nation on emerging threats, said the most important trends in the situation in the world. "
Then the President said: "The activities of intelligence is very important. The end of the Cold War, " enhances the security of the United States, because it is intelligence, acting in many ways, helped to win in this confrontation, and certainly not by chance one of the fragments of the Berlin Wall is a monument to territory of the CIA. But this one, an updated world is full of dangers and, judging by the many events, it becomes even more complex and more difficult for a proper understanding of the processes. The Administration has an acute need for more active information on the development of ethnic conflicts, the growth of militant nationalism, the threat terrorism and proliferation of all weapons of mass destruction.
Accurate and reliable intelligence information is the key to understanding each of these problems and without taking difficult decisions verified on crises or long-term processes in the world. "
Brief details of the persons who headed the CIA
Admiral. Since 1920, he served in the U.S. Navy. In 1932 he took part in the operation of U.S. forces in Nicaragua. In the 30's he worked in intelligence the United States Navy, then the naval attache in Paris. Participated in the howling is not against Japan. From 1946 re attaché in France. In 1947 he was appointed director of the CIA held this post until 1950.
Walter Bedell Smith.
General. Since 1928, U.S. military intelligence. In 1942 - Chief of Staff to General Eisenhower on the Mediterranean theater of operations. In 1946-1949. - U.S. Ambassador in Moscow. Since February 1953 Deputy Secretary of State. Director of the CIA from 1950 to 1953.
Scout professional. Younger brother of John Foster Dulles, U.S. Secretary of State in the Eisenhower. Most of his life devoted oss-_ 35 _ and then the CIA. Director of the CIA from 1953 to 1961 the first purely professional head of CIA covert operations.
Large bznesmen a multimillionaire. In 30 - 40-ies. - President of several companies. Director of the CIA from 1961 to 1965, was an influential figure in the last stages of the Kennedy Presidency. After retiring from the CIA became one of the directors of the American company "International Telephon & Telegraph".
Vice-Admiral. Since 1932, the U.S. Navy. In the last years of service in the Navy conducted a special program to develop submarines, armed with missiles "Polaris". After leaving in 1963, resigned, was appointed vice-president of a major military concern "Aerojet General Corporation", producing missiles. CIA Director from April 1965 to June 1966
Scout professional Helms ancestors on the paternal side emigrated to the U.S. from Germany. Father - one of the leaders of Aluminum consortium in America. In 1942 he enlisted in the Navy as a lieutenant.
In 1943, seconded to the CID. Since 1945, associated with Dulles, served as a resident in Western countries. One of the founders of the CIA. Supervised Special Operations Division since its inception. Director of the CIA from 1966 to 1973
A government official in 1950 graduated from Faculty of Economics at Harvard. from 1963 to 1969 worked at the RAND Corporation, headed the department of Strategic Studies. Since 1969 - Assistant Director of the Budget Bureau. In July 1971 he was appointed Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, USA. A long time engaged in the research questions nat. security, politics and finance. CIA Director from February to July 1973 After leaving the CIA was appointed Minister of Defense.
Scout professional. Began service in the CIA from November 1950 under the "roof" the diplomat worked for the CIA station in Stockholm, Rome and Saigon. Then headed the Far Eastern Division in Lenlgli. In 1972 he became deputy director of the CIA on "Planning", ie immediate supervisor of service that U.S. intelligence all covert operations. Director of the CIA from 1973 to 1976
George W. Bush.
Businessman, politician. From 1942 to 1945 served as a pilot on an aircraft carrier. After the war, selling oilfield equipment. He organized an oil company in Texas. From 1966 to 1970 - Member of Congress. A 1971-1972 U.S. Permanent Representative to the UN. Director of the CIA from 1976 to 1977
Admiral. From 1971 to 1972, head of systems analysis in the management of the commander of naval operations. From 1974 to 1975 - Commander of the 2 nd Fleet, U.S. Atlantic Fleet and the shock of NATO. Since 1975 - The commander of NATO forces in Southern Europe. Director of the CIA from 1977 to 1981
Scout professional. During the Second World War led the operation OSS in the European theater of military operations. After many years practiced law on Wall Street, founded a number of companies, has acquired millions. From 1981 to 1987 - the CIA director, the first time in the history of American intelligence was elevated to the rank of a Cabinet Minister.
Lawyer and politician. Military service from 1943 to 1946 took place in the U.S. Navy Reserve.
Since 1949, he graduated from the Faculty of Law. Washington, worked in a private law firm - until 1956, when he was appointed District Attorney (Eastern District of Missouri).
Since 1971 - District Judge since 1973 - a judge of the Federal Court of Appeal. In 1978 - 1987 gg. - Director of the FBI. In 1987
following the resignation on health grounds W. Casey, and the failed appointment of Secretary Gates, has been appointed director of the CIA.
Currently, the Central Intelligence Agency is headed by John Deutch. There is reliable information about near his bias.
"National Security Act of 1947 ... gave exploration a more influential position in our government than that which belongs to the exploration of any other government."
"I am absolutely convinced of the need to preserve the CIA's capabilities for covert operations ... There is a definite foreign policy, which requires a secret activities."
"I came to a deep conviction that we must maintain our exploration at the level of efficiency and continuously improve its effectiveness. We can not afford to weaken the CIA."
"In our country there is a powerful and dangerous secret cult cult intelligence.
The meaning of this cult in achieving foreign policy goals of the U.S. government secret and usually illegal means ... "
"It's nice to hear about the competence and high professional qualities of the CIA and other intelligence agencies ..."
"Our government, like others, really taking action in the field of covert operations, in order to carry out foreign policy and protect our national security ..."
"... We Americans are working in intelligence, are proud of it and those improvements that we have made in this ancient profession."