MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION
OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN
GULISTAN STATE UNIVERSITY
The English and Literature Department
Qualification work on speciality English philology
on the theme:
“Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words”
1.1 Theme actuality
After the Independence was proclaimed the Republic was faced with the necessity of creating new legislation corresponding with new realities, with the conditions of Independence and the Parliament coped with this task, there have been adopted new Laws and new Resolutions
For the first time in the history of our country, there adopted “The Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Education” and “The Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the National Programme of Personnel Training System”. The main objective of all reforms in the field of economic policy is the individual. Therefore the task of education, the task of rising up a new generation capable of national renaissance will remain the prerogative of the state and constitute a priority. At present great importance is attached to the study and teaching of foreign language. In our recent past, in most cases the Russian language but not the mother tongue served as mediator in the study of foreign languages. That is why in particular until the present, English-Uzbek and Uzbek-English Dictionaries had not been available.
That’s why it is necessary to learn and compare English, German and Uzbek lexicology, grammar and phonetics.
2. The main goal of the work is to study, compare and analyze the compound words of Uzbek, English and German, to classify the compounds according to morphological and lexical point of view.
3. The scientific decision of set aims and purposes will maintain the easiest way for better learning and understanding Uzbek, English and German.
4. The scientific novelty of the work . As we know, there aren’t enough manuals which compared the Uzbek and the English languages. The novelty of the work is that in the work one can find new approaches of comparing and classifying the compounds.
5 . The practical value
Work can be useful for all who interested in English. At the university information which taken from the work can be used as a ready – materials at the lectures of Lexicology, Stylistics, Comparative Typology.
6. Literature overview
Basic information of the qualification work is given from the manuals, articles, researches of great scholars such as: by I.V. Arnold A Course in modern English Lexicology by R.S. Ginzburg, The English Word and others. The information which is taken from Internet sites, World Book Encyclopedia and many other dictionaries also served as a source of information.
7. The structure of the work
Work consists of Introduction, Main part, Conclusion and the list of used literatures.
Compound words are words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms. In a compound word the immediate constituents obtain integrity and structural cohesion that make them function in a sentence as a separate lexical unit.
The structural cohesion and integrity of a compound may depend upon unity of stress, solid or hyphenated spelling, semantic unity, unity of morphological and syntactic functioning or, more often, upon the combined effect of several of these or similar phonetic, graphic, semantic, morphological or syntactic factors.
The integrity of a compound is manifested in its indivisibility, i.e. the impossibility of inserting another word or word group between its elements. If, for example, speaking about a “sunbeam” (English) кўкйўтал we can insert some other word between the article and the article and the noun, e.g. a bright sunbeam, a bright and unexpected sunbeam, because the article a is a separate word, no such insertion is possible between the stems sun & beam қора & кўл, for they are not words but morphemes.
In describing the structure of a compound one should examine three types of relations, namely the relation of the members to each other the relation of the whole to its members, and correlation with equivalent free phrases.
Some compounds are made up ofa determining and a determined part, which may be called the determinant and me determinate group. Thus, a blackboard, томорқа is very different from a blackboard, том орқа (сида). Its essential feature is being a teaching aid → ховли атрофида экин экиладиган Майдон →: not every board of a black color is a blackboard.
A blackboard may be not a board at all but a piece of linoleum or some other suitable material. Its color is not necessarily black: it may be brown or something else. Thus, blackboard → a board which is black. A chatterbox – оташқалб is not a box, it is a person who talks a great deal without saying anything important: the combination is used only figuratively. The same metaphorical character is observed in the compound slowcoach хомсемиз. It is also idiomatic as it does not name a vehicle but a person who acts and thinks slowly. A fuss – pot is a person easily excited and nervous about trifles. Thus for the original motivation of the idiomatic compound could be easily recreated. The following examples illustrate idiomatic compounds where it is not so obvious: “blackleg”, “strike breaker”, “blackmail” getting money or some other profit from a person by threats bluestocking “a woman affecting literary tastes and learning”
The analysis of the semantic relationship existing between the constituents of a compound presents many difficulties. Some authors have attempted a purely logical interpretation distinguishing copulative, existential, spatial and other connections. This scheme, however, failed to show the linguistic essence of compounds and was cumbersome and artificial.
A mistake common with many authors is treating semantic connections within compounds in terms of syntactic relations. Marchand, For instance, when analyzing the type house – keeping, backbiting, housewarming, book – keeping, sightseeing, etc. Writes: “In most cases the first word is the object. A subject/predicate relation underlies earth quaking, cock – crowing, cock – fighting, sun burning …. The first word is the predicate compliment in well – being and short – coming.”
N. G. Guterman very convincingly showed that such syntactic treatment should be avoided because syntactic ties are ties between words, whereas in dealing with compounds one studies relations within a word, the relations between the morphemes, its significant constituents. These two series of relations belong to different levels of abstraction and should not be mixed. In the compound spacecraft space – is not an attribute to – craft. It cannot possess syntactic functions, being not a word but a stem, So it is more convenient to consider it a determinant restricting the meaning of the determinate by expressing the purpose for which – craft – is designed or the medium in which it will travel. Surely, one could combine these two points of view using a more careful. Wording, and formulate it as follows: phrases correlated with compounds by means of transformational analysis may show objective, subject/predicate, attributive and adverbial relations. E.g. house – keeping: to keep house, well – being: to be well. In the majority of cases compounds manifest some restrictive relationship between the constituents; types of restrictions show great variety.
Some examples of determinative compound nouns with restrictive qualitative relations are given below.
The list is not meant to be exhaustive and serves only to illustrate the manifold possibilities.
Purpose of functional relations underlies such compounds as bathrobe, raincoat, ёмғирпўш, classroom – синфхона, notice – board, and suitcase.
Different place or local relations are expressed in dockland, garden – party, sea – front. Comparison is the basis of blockhead, butter – fingers, floodlight, and goldfish. The material or elements the thing is made of is pointed out silver wear, tin – hat, clay – pipe. Temporal relations underlie such compounds as night – club, night – duty, summer – house and day – train. Sex – denoting compounds are rather numerous: she – dog, he – goat.
II. Main part
2.1.1 Specific features of English, Uzbek and German Compounds
A compound is a word composed of more than one free morpheme. English compounds may be classified in several ways, such as the word classes or the semantic relationship of their components.
Examples by word class
|adjective||adjective||blue – green|
|preposition||adjective||over – ripe|
|verb||verb||freeze – dry|
|noun||preposition||love – in|
1) Since Uzbek is a mostly analytic language, unlike most other Germanic languages, it creates compounds by concatenating words without case markers. As in other Germanic languages, the compounds may be arbitrarily long. However, this is obscured by the fact that the written representation of long compounds always contains blanks.
For example in German there are a lot of long compounds with more than three words: die Bewußtseinserziehung
achtzehnhundertzwölf – 1812
On the contrary Uzbek compounds are short compounds.
Ex: кўзойнак, атиргул, бўтакўз, тоққайчи.
The way of forming Uzbek and English short compounds are the same, while German is not included to this group. There are three ways of forming short compounds
1. The solid or closed form in which two usually moderately short words appear together as one. Solid compounds most likely consists of short (monosyllabic) units that often have been established in the language for a long time. Examples are; housewife, lawsuit, and wallpaper.
Uzbekexamplesare: сувилон, тоғолча, гултувак.
This rule is also relevant to German compounds.
These are examples: Kraftwerk, die Kinderbibliothek.
2. The hyphenated form in which two or more words are connected by a hyphen . Compounds that contain affixes , such as house – builder and single – mind (ed) (ness) but if these words are written in Uzbek they will be written without hyphen: single – mindedness – ҳурфикрлилик.
As well as adjective - adjective compounds and verb – verb compounds, such as blue – green and freeze – dry, are often hyphenated. Some Uzbek verb – verb compounds are also hyphenated: сотиб - олди, бориб - келди.
But in German there is no hyphenated compound.
In addition to it there are some verb – verb compounds in German: kennenlernen, bleibenstehe.
Compounds that contain particles, such as mother – of – pearl and salt – and – pepper, mother – in – law, merry – go – round, are also hyphenated. But in German such kinds of particles are written together: Vergissmichnicht – forget – me – not – не забудка.
3. The open or spaced form consisting of newer combinations of usually longer, such as: distance learning, player piano, lawn tennis.
In Uzbek there are also such kind of open compounds: стол тенниси, масофавий ўқитиш.
But German is far from this rule: All German compounds words are written together.
A compound word possesses a single semantic structure. The meaning of the compound is first of all derived from the combined lexical meanings of its components, which as a rule; retain their lexical meanings, although their semantic range becomes considerably narrowed. The lexical meanings of thecomponents are closely fused together to create a new semantic unit with a new meaning that is not merely additive but dominates the individual meanings of the components. The semantic centre of the compound is found in the lexical meaning of the second component which is modified and restricted by the lexical meaning of the first, e.g. hand-bag is essentially 'a bag carried in the hand for money, papers, face-powder, etc.'; pencil-case is 'a case for pencils', etc.
The components are often stems of polysemantic words but there is no difficulty, as a rule, of defining which of the' multiple denotational meanings the stem retains in one or another compound word. Compound words with a common second component can serve as an illustration. Let us take words with a common second component, e.g. board-. Board - is the stem of a polysemantic word but it retains only one of its multiple denotational meanings in each compound word: in chess-board it retains the denotational meaning of ’a wooden slab', in pasteboard , cardboard it can be traced to the meaning of 'thick, stiff paper’ , in overboard to 'a ship's side', in notice-board , foot-board , key-board to 'a flat piece of wood square or oblong'; in school-board to 'an authorized body of men1 , in side-board , above-board to the meaning of 'table'. The same can be observed in words with a common first component, e.g. foot -, in foot-high , foot-wide the stem foot - retains the lexical meaning of 'measure'; in foot-print , foot-pump , foot-hold —'the terminal part of the leg'; in foot-path , foot-race the meaning of 'the way of motion'; in foot-note , foot -lights, foot-stone —the meaning of 'the lower part, base’ . It is obvious from these examples that the meanings of the sterns of compound words are interdependent and in each case the stems retain only one lexical meaning and that the choice of the particular lexical meaning of each component is delimited, as in free word-groups, by the nature of the other member of the word.1 Thus we may say that the combination of stems serves as a kind of minimal context distinguishing the particular individual lexical meaning of each component.
Both components, besides their denotational and co notational meanings possess distributional and differential types of meaning typical of morphemes2 the differential meaning, found in both components especially comes to the fore in a group of compound words containing identical stems. In compound nouns eye-tooth —'a canine tooth of the upper jaw’, eye-lash —'the fringe of hair that edges the eyelid', eye-witness —'one who can bear witness from his own observation', eye-glasses —'a pair of lens used to assist defective sight', eye-sore —'an ugly or unpleasant thing to see', eye-strain —'weariness of the eye', etc, it is the differential meaning of the second components—tooth-, glasses-, witness-, etc. that brings forth -the different lexical meanings of the stem . eye - and serves as a distinguishing clue between these words. We observe a similar significance of the differential meaning for the choice of the lexical meaning of the other component in words with the identical second component. In compound words, e.g. wedding-ring, nose-ring, ear-ring, finger-ring, key-ring, circus-ring, prize-ring , etc., it is not only the denotational but mostly the differential meaning of nose-, ear-, finger -, etc. that distinguishes wedding-ring —'a ring worn constantly as a distinctive mark of a married woman' from ear-ring —'an ornament worn in the lobe of ear', key-ring — 'a ring for keeping keys on', circus-ring —'an arena in a circus' and prize-ring —'an enclosed area for fighting'.