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Syntax and semantics of verbals in English

Grammatical overview of English verbals. General characteristics of English verbals. General characteristics of Participles. Syntax and Semantics of English Verbals. The functions of the Infinitive in the sentence. Syntax and semantics of participles.

Contents:

I. Introduction

1.1. General characteristics of the work

1.2. Definition of the term «Verbals»

II. Main Part

Chapter 1 Grammatical overview of English verbals

2.1.1. General characteristics of English verbals

2.1.2. The Infinitive

2.1.3. General characteristics of Participles

2.1.4. The Gerund

Chapter 2 Syntax and Semantics of English Verbals

2.2.1. The functions of the Infinitive in the sentence

2.2.2. Infinitive constructions

2.2.3. Syntax and semantics of participles

2.2.4 Predicative constructions with the participles

2.2.5. Syntactical role of the Gerund

2.2.6. Constructions with the Gerund

2.2.7. Control exercises on verbals using

III. CONCLUSION

IV. Bibliography


I. Introduction

1.1 General characteristics of the work

The theme of my qualification work sounds as following: “Syntax and Semantics of Verbals in English”. This qualification work can be characterized by the following:

2. Actuality of the theme.

Verbals are the forms of the verb intermediary in many of their lexico-grammatical features between the verb and the non-processual parts of speech. The mixed features of these forms are revealed in the principal spheres of the part-of-speech characterisation, i.e. in their meaning, structural marking, combinability, and syntactic functions. The processual meaning is exposed by them in a substantive or adjectival-adverbial interpretation: they render processes as peculiar kinds of substances and properties. They are formed by special morphemic elements which do not express either grammatical time or mood (the most specific finite verb categories). They can be combined with verbs like non-processual lexemes (performing non-verbal functions in the sentence), and they can be combined with non-processual lexemes like verbs (performing verbal functions in the sentence). This is the very problem of the verbals in English grammar. So, standing on such ground, I consider that this problem is actual enough to be investigated.

3. The tasks and aims of the work.

1. The first task of my work is to give definition to term “verbals”.

2. The second task is to characterize each type of verbals from grammatical point of view.

3. The aim of third is to describe syntactical functions of each verbal.

4. The last task is to describe constructions with this verbals and their semantic meaning.

4. The novelty of the work.

I consider that the novelty of the work is revealed in new materials of the linguists which were published in the Internet. One more novelty is that I will include in this work some control exercises on verbals using, which I had worked out and approbated during my pedagogical practice.

5. Practical significance of the work.

In my opinion the practical significance of my work is hard to be overvalued. This work reflects modern trends in linguistics and I hope it would serve as a good manual for those who wants to master modern English language. Also this work can be used by teachers of English language for teaching English grammar.

6. Ways of scientific investigation used within the work.

The main method for compiling our work is the method of comparative analysis, translation method and the method of statistical research.

7. Fields of amplification.

The present work might find a good way of implying in the following spheres:

1. In High Schools and scientific circles of linguistic kind it can be successfully used by teachers and philologists as modern material for writing research works dealing with English verbals.

2. It can be used by teachers of schools, lyceums and colleges by teachers of English as a practical manual for teaching English grammar.

3. It can be useful for everyone who wants to enlarge his/her knowledge in English.

8. Linguists worked with the theme.

As the base for my qualification work I used the works of such world-known linguists as V. Kaushanskaya, B.I.Rogovskaya, B.A.Ilyish, Gordon E.M., O.Jespersen and others [1] .

9. Content of the work.

The present qualification work consists of four parts: introduction, the main part, conclusion and bibliography. It also includes the appendix where some interesting Internet materials, tables, schemes were gathered. Within the introduction part, which includes two items we gave the brief description of my qualification work (the first item) and gave general notion of the term “Verbals”. The main part of our qualification work includes several items. There I discussed such problems as main features of English verbals, their syntactic functions, described their role sentence, and semantical meanings of constructions with verbals. In the conclusion to my qualification work I tried to draw some results from the scientific investigations made within the main part of my qualification work. In bibliography part I mentioned more than 20 sources of which were used while compiling the present work. It includes linguistic books and articles dealing with the theme, a number of used dictionaries and encyclopedias and also some internet sources.

1.2 Definition of the Term “Verbals”

The words of every language fall into classes which are called Parts of Speech. Each part of speech has characteristics of its own. The parts of speech differ from each other in meaning, in form and in function.

One of the parts of speech is the Verb. According to content, the verb can be described as word denoting action, the term “action” embracing the meaning of activity (to walk, to speak, to play, to study, process (to sleep, to wait, to live), state (to be, to like, to know), relation (to consist, to resemble, to lack) and the like. According to form, it can be described as a word that has certain grammatical features that are not shared by other parts of speech; they have the category of tense, aspect, voice. According to the function, verb can be defined as a word making up the predicate of the sentence.

The English Verbs can be divided into two main groups, according to the function they perform in the sentence – the finite forms and non-finite forms.[2]

The finite forms have the function of the predicate in the sentence and may also be called the predicate forms.

The non-finite or non-predicative forms can have various other functions. These forms are also called the verbals.

The non-finite forms or the verbals, unlike the finite forms of the verbs do not express person, number or mood.[3] Therefore, they cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence. Like the finite forms of the verbs the verbals have tense and voice distinctions, but their tense distinctions differ from those of the finite verb.

There are three verbals in English: the participle, the gerund, and the infinitive. In Russian there are also three non-finite forms of the verb, but they do not fully coincide with those in the English language.

In English the verbals have the following characteristic traits:

a) They have a double nature: nominal and verbal. The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a known.

b) The tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute like those of the finite verbs, but relative. The form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present, past or future. It shows only whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb or prior to it.[4]

In the sentence a verbal may occur.

a) singling (without accompanying words)

Eg. She went away smiling. – Она ушла, улыбаясь.

Readingisoutofquestion, Ican’tfixmyattentiononbooks. – О чтении не может быть и речи, я не могу сосредоточить свое внимание на книгах.

b) in phrase (i.e. with one or several accompanying words – an object or an adverbial modifier to the verbal). The phrases form syntactic units serving as one part of the sentence. A phrase should not be confused with a predicative construction. Between the elements of a phrase there is no predicate relation as it does not include a noun or pronoun expressed by a verbal.

Eg. Not to disquiet his sister, he had said nothing to her of the matter. – Чтобы не тревожить сестру, он ничего не сказал ей об этом.

c) in predicative constructions.

Eg. She heard him open the door and go out the yard. – Она услышала, как он открыл дверь и вышел во двор.

All the verbals can form predicative constructions. They consist of two elements: a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive). The verbal element stands in predicate relation to the nominal element. That is to say it stands in the subject and the predicate of the sentence. It most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence.

Eg. The sat down to supper, Jerry still talking cheerfully. – Они сели ужинать; Джери продолжал весело разговаривать.

“Jerry still talking cheerfully” is a predicate relation to the noun Jerry, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the participle.


II. Main Part

Chapter 1 Grammatical Overview of English Verbals

2.1.1 General Characteristics of English Verbals

The verb has finite and non-finite forms, the latter being also called verbals. The verbals, unlike the finite forms of the verb, do not express person, number or mood. Therefore they cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence.

Like the finite forms of the verb the verbals have tense and voice distinctions, but their tense distinctions differ greatly from those of the finite verb.

There are three verbals in English: the participle, the gerund and the infinitive.

In Russian we also have three non-finite forms of the verb, but they do not fully coincide with those in the English language (причастие, деепричастие, инфинитив).

The characteristic traits of the verbals.

The characteristic traits of the verbals are as follows:

1. They have a double nature, nominal and verbal. The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristicsof a verb with those of a noun.

2. The tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute (likethose of the finite verb), but relative; the form of a verbal doesnot show whether the action it denotes refers to the present pastor future; it shows only whether the action expressed by the verbalis simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb or prior to it.

3. All the verbals can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions consisting of two elements, a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive); the verbal element stands in predicate relation to the nominal element, i.e. in a relation similar to that between the subject and the predicate of the sentence. In most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence.

They sat down to supper, Manston still talking cheerfully. (Hardy)

Они сели ужинать; Мэнстон продолжал весело разговаривать.

Manston still talking cheerfully, is a predicative construction with a participle: the participle talking stands in predicate relation to the noun Manston, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the participle.

In the sentence a verbal may occur:

(a) singly, i.e. without accompanying words.

She... went away smiling. (Dreiser)

Она... ушла, улыбаясь.

Reading is out of the question — I can't fix my attention on books. (Collins)

О чтении не может быть и речи — я не могу сосредоточить свое внимание на книгах.

To decide is to act.

Решить — значитначатьдействовать.

(b) in phrases, i.e. with one or several accompanying words (an object or an adverbial modifier to the verbal). The phrases form syntactic units serving as one part of the sentence.

A phrase should not be confused with a predicative construction: between the elements of a phrase there is no predicate relation as it does not include a noun or pronoun denoting the doer of the action expressed by a verbal.

The windows of the drawing-room opened to a balcony overlooking the garden. (Mansfield)

Окна гостиной выходили на балкон, с которого был виден сад.

She tried to tranquillize him by reading aloud. (Gaskell)

Она пыталась успокоить его тем, что читала ему вслух.

Not to disquiet his sister, he had said nothing to her of the matter. (Hardy)

Чтобы не встревожить сестру, он ничего не сказал ей об этом.

(c) in predicative constructions.

My mistress being dead..., I had to look out for a new place.

(Ch. Bronte)

Так как моя хозяйка умерла, мне пришлось искать другое место.

There is no mistake about his being a genius. (Shaw)

Не может быть никакого сомнения в том, что он — гений.

She heard him unbar the door and go out into the yard. (Hardy)

Она слышала, как он отодвинул засов и вышел во двор.

2.1.2 The Infinitive

The infinitive representing an action in its most general form is often treated as an initial form of the verb[5] , but from the point of view of some linguists[6] the infinitive developed from the "Verbal noun,' which in course of time became verbalized, retaining at the same time some of its nominal properties. Thus in Modern English the infinitive, like the participle and the gerund, has a double nature, nominal and verbal.

1. The nominal character of the infinitive is manifested in its syntactic functions. The infinitive can be used:

(a) as the subject of a sentence.

To go on like this was dangerous. (Galsworthy)

(b) as a predicative.

Her plan was now to drive to Bath during the night. (Hardy)

(c) as an object.

I have never learnt to read or write. (Collins)

2. The verbal characteristics of the infinitive are as follows:

(a) the infinitive of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

He ... began to feel some curiosity ... (Eliot)

(b) the infinitive can be modified by an adverb.

I cannot write so quickly.

(c) the infinitive has tense and aspect distinctions; the infinitive of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions.

In Modern English the infinitive has the following forms:

Active Passive
Indefinite to write to be written
Continuous to be writing to be being written[7]
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect Continuous to have been writing to have been being written[8]

The tense and aspect distinctions of the infinitive.

Like the tense distinctions of all verbals those of the infinitive are not absolute but relative.

1. The Indefinite Infinitive expresses an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, so it may refer to the present, past or future.

I am glad to meet you. (Dreiser)

I was glad to see Mr. Paul. (Ch. Bronte)

Mr. Forsyte will be very glad to see you. (Galsworthy)

2. The Continuous Infinitive also denotes an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb, but it is an action in progress. Thus the continuous infinitive is not only a tense form, but also an aspect form, expressing both time relations and the manner in which the action is presented.

They happened, at the moment, to be standing near a small conservatory at the end of the garden. (Collins)

В этот момент они как раз стояли около небольшой оранжереи в конце сада.

3. The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb.

"I'm glad to have seen you," he said. (Dreiser)

«Я рад, что повидал вас», — сказал он.

An intimate friend is said to have dined with him that day. (Hardy)

Говорят, что в этот день у него обедал его близкий друг.

After such verbs as to mean, to expect, to intend, to hope used in the Past Indefinite, the Perfect Infinitive shows that the hope or intention was not carried out.

I meant to have gone there.

Я собирался пойти туда (но не пошел).

I meant to have given you five shillings this morning for a Christmas-box, Sam. I'llgiveityouthisafternoon, Sam. (Dickens)

Я хотел подарить вам пять шиллингов на рождество, Сэм; я подарю их вам сегодня, Сэм.

The same meaning can be conveyed by the Past Perfect of the finite verb followed by the Indefinite Infinitive.

I had meant to go there.

He had meant to marry me. (Eliot)

Он имел намерение жениться на мне.

Some English grammarians prefer the latter construction.

Note. — The idea, however, is often expressed in the following way: I meant to go there, but never did.

4. The Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes an action which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb. It is not only a tense form, but also an aspect form.

For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake and bread and jam. (Jerome)

Дней десять мы, казалось, питались только холодным мясом, печеньем и хлебом с вареньем.

The voice distinctions of the infinitive.

The infinitive of transitive verbs has special forms for the Active and the Passive Voice:

It is so glorious to love and to be loved... (Stone)

Так прекрасно любить и быть любимым.

In sentences with the construction there is the infinitive of some verbs can be active or passive without any change in the meaning:

There's no time to lose. (Dreiser)

There is no time to be lost. (Eliot)

There is nothing to fear (to be feared).

The use of the infinitive without the particle to (the bare infinitive).

In Modern English the infinitive is chiefly used with the particle to[9] . In Old English to was a preposition used with the infinitive in the dative case to indicate purpose (to writenne meant 'in order to write'). Later on to was re-interpreted as the formal sign of the infinitive and came to be used not only to denote purpose but in other cases as well. Still there are cases when the so-called bare infinitive (the infinitive without the particle to) is used.[10] They are as follows:

1. After auxiliary verbs.

I don't understand the meaning of this passage.

We shall go there at once.

2. After modal verbs except the verb ought.

If one cannot have what one loves, one must love what one has (Wilson)

3. After verbs denoting sense perception, such as to hear, to see, to feel etc.

In a few minutes they heard him ascend the ladder to his own room. (Hardy)

Через несколько минут они услышали, что он поднимается но лестнице в свою комнату.

I never saw, you look so before. (Hardy)

Я никогда не видел, чтобы вы так хорошо выглядели.

I felt my heart jump. (Heym)

Я почувствовал, что у меня ёкнуло сердце.

The verb to be after the verb to feel is used with the particle to: I felt this to be very true.

(Dickens) Я чувствовал, что это совершенно верно.

4. After the verb to let.

Let us be the best friends in the world! (Dickens)

5. After the verb “to make” in the meaning of 'заставлять' and the verb “to have” in the meaning of 'заставлять, допускать, велеть'.

What makes you think so? (Carter)

Что заставляет вас так думать?

I... had them take my baggage. (Hemingway)

Я... велел им взять мой багаж.

The verb to have in the meaning of 'допускать' is chiefly used after the modal verbs will and would in negative sentences.

I will not have you call him Daniel any more. (Trollope)

Я не допущу, чтобы вы продолжали называть его Даниэлем.

1 would not have you think that I am selfish. (Trollope)

Я не допущу, чтобы вы считали меня эгоистом.

6. After the verb to know when its meaning approaches that of to see, to observe (the verb to know never has this meaning in the Present Indefinite).

I have so often known a change of medicine work wonders. (Shaw)

Я так часто замечала, что перемена лекарства творит чудеса.

In this case, however, the particle to is sometimes used:

I have never known her to weep before. (Cronin)

Я никогда, раньше не видел, чтобы она плакала.

After the verbs ‘to hear’, ‘to see’, ‘to make’ and ‘to know’ in the Passive Voice the to-Infinitive is used.

He was heard to mention your name several times.

Слышали, как он несколько раз упомянул ваше имя.

They were seen to leave the house early in the morning.

Видели, что они рано утром вышли из дома.

The child was made to obey.

Ребенказаставилислушаться.

Sir Pitt Crawley was never known to give away a shilling or to do a good action.

Никто никогда не видел, чтобы сэр Питт Кроули дал кому-нибудь шиллинг или сделал доброе дело.

7. After the verb to bid.

I bowed and waited, thinking she would bid me take a seat. (E. Bronte)

Я поклонился и подождал, думая, что она предложит мне сесть.

The verb to bid is obsolete and is not used in colloquial speech.

8. After the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but, nothing but, cannot choose but.

You had better go to bed and leave the patient to me. (Shaw)

Вы бы лучше легли спать и оставили пациента на моем попечении.

I would rather not speak upon the subject. (Hardy),

Я бы предпочел не говорить на эту тему.

I would sooner die here, .at your feet ... than see you married to such a one as that. (Trollope)

Я предпочел бы умереть здесь, у ваших ног ..., чем видеть вас замужем за таким человеком.

1 cannot but think so. (Trollope)

Я не могу не думать так.

There was nothing left for him to do but watch and wait.

Единственное, что ему оставалось, — это наблюдать и ждать.

She does nothing but make scenes from morning till night. (Shaw)

Она только и делает, что устраивает сцены с утра до ночи.

I looked long at that picture, and could not choose but look. (Ch. Bronte)

Я долго смотрела на эту картину и не могла не смотреть на нее.

‘Had better’, ‘would rather’, ‘to do nothing but’ belong to colloquial English, whereas cannot but and cannot choose but are characteristic of elevated style.

9. In sentences of a special type (infinitive sentences) beginning with why.

Why not come and talk to her yourself? (Reade)

Почему бы нам самой не прийти поговорить с ней?

The particle to is often used without the infinitive if it is easily understood from the context.

He and his three men could not defend Rollingen even if they wanted to. (Heym)

Он и трое его солдат не могли бы оборонять Роллинген, даже если бы захотели.

The particle ‘to’ may be separated from the infinitive by an adverb; this is the so-called split infinitive. It is hardly ever used in colloquial English.

He was unable, however, to long keep silence. (Galsworthy)

Он был, однако, не в состоянии долго молчать.

2.1.3 General Characteristics of Participles

The participle is a non-finite form of the verb which has a verbal and an adjectival or an adverbial character.[11]

There are two participles in English — Participle I and Participle II, traditionally called the Present Participle and the Past Participle.

These traditional terms are open to objection on the ground that Participle I does not necessarily refer to the present, just as Participle II need not refer to the past. The difference between them is not a difference in tense, but chiefly a difference in voice.

Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing[12] to the stem of the verb; the following spelling rules should be observed:

(a) If a verb ends in a mute e, the mute e is dropped beforeadding the suffix -ing: to give — giving, to close — closing.

(b) If a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a vowel renderinga short stressed sound, the final consonant is doubled before addingthe suffix -ing: to run — running, to forget — forgetting, to admit—admitting.

A final l is doubled if it is preceded by a vowel letter rendering a short vowel sound, stressed or unstressed: to expel—expelling, to travel — travelling.

(c) The verbs to die, to lie and to tie form Participle I in the following way: dying, lying, tying.

A final у is not changed before adding the suffix -ing: to comply — complying, to deny — denying.

The formation of Participle II.

According to the way in which the Past Indefinite and Participle II are formed, verbs are divided into three groups: regular verbs, irregular verbs, and mixed verbs.

1. Regular verbs. They form the Past Indefinite and Participle II by adding -ed to the stem of the verb, or only -d if the stem of the verb ends in -e.[13]

to want —wanted

The pronunciation of -ed (-d) depends on the sound preceding it. It is pronounced:

[ıd] after t, d:

wanted [wɔntıd], landed [lændıd]

[d] after voiced consonants except d and after vowels:

opened ['əupənd], played [pleıd];

[t] after voiceless consonants except t:

worked [wə:kt].

The following spelling rules should be observed:

(a) Final у is changed into i before the addition of -ed if it is preceded by a consonant.

to carry — carried

у remains unchanged if it is preceded by a vowel.

to enjoy — enjoyed

(b) If a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a short stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled.

to stop —stopped

Final r is doubled if it is preceded by a stressed vowel.

to occur —- occurred

Final r is not doubled when preceded by a diphthong,

to appear — appeared

Final l is doubled if it is preceded by a short vowel, stressed or unstressed:

to compel — compelled

2. Irregular verbs. Here belong the following groups of verbs:

(a) verbs which change their root vowel.

to sing —sang — sung

(b) verbs which change their root vowel and add -en for Participle II.

to speak —spoke —spoken

(c) verbs which change their root vowel and add -d or -t.

to sell —sold —sold

(d) verbs which change their final -d into -t.

to send —sent —sent

(e) verbs which have the same form for the Infinitive, Past Indefinite and Participle II.

to put — put — put

(f) verbs whose forms come from different stems.

to be — was, were — been

to go — went — gone

(g) special irregular verbs.

to have — had — had

to make — made — made

to do —did —done

(h) defective (anomalous) verbs.

can — could

must

ought

may — might

will — would

shall — should

3. Mixed verbs, their Past Indefinite is of the regular type, and their Participle It is of the irregular type:

to show — showed — shown

As has already been stated, the participle has a verbal and an adjectival or adverbial character. Its adjectival or adverbial character is manifested in its syntactic functions, those of attribute or adverbial modifier. (Some participles have lost their verbality altogether and have become adjectives: interesting, charming, alarming, etc., complicated, distinguished, furnished, etc.

E.g. an interesting book, a charming girl, the alarming news; a complicated problem, a distinguished writer, a furnished apartment.)

I hated the hollow sound of the rain pattering on the roof. (DuMarnier) (attribute)

Мне был отвратителен глухой шум дождя, стучавшего по крыше.

And then she turned to the title-page, and looked at the name written in the schoolboy hand. (Ch. Bronte) (attribute)

Затем она открыла книгу па титульном листе и посмотрела на имя, написанное ученическим почерком.

The verbal characteristics of the participle are as follows:

1. Participle I of a transitive verb can take a direct object.

Opening the door, he went out on to the terrace. (Galsworthy)

2. Participle I and Participle II can be modified by an adverb.

Leaving the room hurriedly, he ran out. (Thackeray)

Deeply affected, Priam Farll rose and left the room. (Bennett)

3. Participle I has tense distinctions; Participle I of transitiveverbs has also voice distinctions. In Modern English Participle Ihas the following forms:

Active Passive
Indefinite writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

The tense distinctions of the participle.

Like the tense distinctions of all the verbals, those of the participle are not absolute but relative.

Participle I Indefinite Active and Passive usually denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; depending on the tense-form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.

When reading The Pickwick Papers, one can't help laughing.

When reading The Pickwick Papers, I couldn't help laughing.

When reading The Pickwick Papers, you will roar with laughter.

He looked at the carpet while waiting for her answer. (Galsworthy)

Он смотрел на ковер, ожидая ее ответа.

Me returned to the hut, bringing in his arms a new-born lamb. (Hardy)

Он вернулся в хижину, неся на руках новорожденного ягненка.

Being left alone, Pauline and I kept silence for some time. (Ch. Bronte)

Оставшись одни, мы с Полиной некоторое время молчали.

Sometimes Participle I Indefinite denotes an action referring tono particular time.

The last turning had brought them into the high-road leading to Bath. (Hardy)

После последнего поворота они вышли на дорогу, ведущую (которая вела) в Бат.

Participle I Perfect Active and Passive denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb.

Mr. Bumble, having spread a handkerchief over his knees..., began to eat and drink. (Dickens)

Мистер Бамбл, разостлав платок на коленях..., стал есть и пить.

They were, indeed, old friends, having been at school together.(Walpole)

Они и в самом деле были старыми друзьями, так как вместе учились в школе.

It should be noted that a prior action is not always expressed by Participle I Perfect: with some verbs of sense perception and motion, such as to see, to hear, to come, to arrive, to seize, to look, to turn and some others, Participle I Indefinite is used even when priority is meant.

Turning down an obscure street and entering an obscurer lane, lie went up to a smith's shop. (Hardy)

Свернув на темную улицу и войдя в еще более темный переулок, он подошел к кузнице.

Hearing a footstep below he rose and went to the top of the stairs. (Hardy)

Услышав шаги внизу, он встал и вышел на лестницу.

Participle II has no tense distinctions; ithas only one formwhich can express both an action simultaneous with, and prior to the action expressed by the finite verb; thelatter case is morefrequent.

His sister's eyes fixed on him with a certain astonishment, obliged him at last to look at Fleur. (Galsworthy)

Взгляд сестры, устремленный на него с некоторым недоумением, заставил его, наконец, взглянуть на Флер.

I was reminded of a portrait seen in a gallery. (DuMaurier)

Мне вспомнился портрет, который я видела в картинной галерее.

In some cases Participle II denotes an action referring to no particular time.

He is a man loved and admired by everybody.

The voice distinctions of the participle.

Participle I of transitive verbs has special forms to denote the active and the passive voice.

When writing letters lie does not like to be disturbed.

Being written in pencil the letter was difficult to make out.

Having written some letters he went to post them.

Having been written long ago the manuscript was illegible.

Participle II of transitive verbs has a passive meaning, e. g. a broken glass, a caged bird. Participle II of intransitive verbs has no passive meaning; it is used only in compound tense-forms and has no independent [unction in the sentence unless it belongs to a verb which denotes passing into a new state, e. g. a withered flower, a faded leaf.

2.1.4 The Gerund

The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the same time its nominal character. The gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb, and coincides in form with Participle I.[14]

As a natural result of its origin and development the gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the gerund are as follows:

1. The gerund can perform the function of subject, object and predicative.

They say smoking leads to meditation. (Collins) (SUBJECT)

I like making people happy. (Shaw) (OBJECT)

The duty of all progressive mankind is fighting for peace. (PREDICATIVE)

2. The gerund can be preceded by a preposition.

I am very, very tired of rowing. (Hemingway)

3. Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun.

"I wonder at Jolyon's allowing this engagement," he said to Aunt Ann. (Galsworthy)

«Меня удивляет, что Джолион допустил эту помолвку», — сказал он тетушке Энн.

Is there any objection to my seeing her? (Galsworthy)

Кто-нибудь возражает против того, чтобы я повидался с ней?

The verbal characteristics of the gerund are the same as those of the participle:

1. The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object.

1 had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. (Swift)

2. The gerund can be modified by an adverb.

She burst out crying bitterly. (Hardy)

3. The gerund has tense- distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. The forms of the gerund in Modern English are as follows:

Active Passive
Indefinite writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

There is no gerund in the Russian language and the English gerund is rendered in Russian in different ways:[15]

(a) by a noun.

Dancing had not begun yet... (Mansfield)

Танцы еще не начались.

(b) by an infinitive.

She had tea with Cipriano before leaving. (Lawrence)

Перед тем как уйти, она выпила чаю с Чиприано.

It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. (Galsworthy)

Бесполезно прятать голову под крыло.

(c) by “деепричастие”.

And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. (DuMaurier)

И, не дожидаясь ее ответа, он повернулся и вышел.

On seeing Bella he stopped, beckoned her to him, and drew her arm through his. (Dickens)

Увидев Беллу, он остановился, подозвал ее к себе и взял под руку.

(d) by a subordinate clause.

He regretted now having come. (Galsworthy)

Теперь он сожалел, что пришел.

It should be observed that though the active forms of the gerund may be rendered in different ways, the passive forms are nearly always rendered by a clause.

As she contemplated the wide windows and imposing signs, she became conscious of being gazed upon. (Dreiser)

Когда она рассматривала широкие витрины и внушительные вывески, она почувствовала, что на нее смотрят.

After having been informed of the conference in my lady's room he immediately decided on waiting to hear the news from Frizinghall. (Collins)

После того как ему сообщили о совещании в комнате миледи, он сразу решил подождать, чтобы узнать новости из Фризингхолла.

The tense distinctions of the gerund.

The tense distinctions of the gerund; like those of the participle, are not absolute but relative.

1. The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; depending on the tense form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future.

He can swim for any number of hours without tiring. (Hichens)

Он может плыть много часов подряд, не уставая.

She walked on without turning her head. (Hardy)

Она шла, не поворачивая головы.

2. The Perfect Gerund denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb.

She denies having spoken with him.

Она отрицает, что говорила с ним.

He was ashamed of having shown even the slightest irritation. (Bennett)

Ему было стыдно, что он проявил раздражение, хотя и очень слабое.

However, a prior action is not always expressed by a Perfect Gerund; in some cases we find an Indefinite Gerund. This occurs after the verbs to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank and after the prepositions on (upon), after, and, without.

I don't remember hearing the legend before. (Hardy)

Я не помню, чтобы я когда-нибудь слышала эту легенду.

You must excuse my not answering you before. (Collins)

Вы должны извинить меня за то, что я не ответил вам раньше.

I thank you for restraining me just now. (Ch. Bronte)

Я благодарен вам за то, что вы сейчас помогли мне сдержаться.

On leaving the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. . (Collins)

Выйдяиздома, мынаправилисьвтень.

The Perfect Gerund may also be used after the above mentioned verbs and prepositions.

He did not remember having been in that room. (Galsworthy)

Он не помнил, чтобы когда-нибудь был в этой комнате.

The voice distinctions of the gerund.

The gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and the passive voice.

He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. (Maugham)

Он не любил ни читать вслух, ни слушать чтение.

It is to be observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning.

"The slums want attending to, no doubt," he said. (Galsworthy)

«Без сомнения, трущобами надо заняться», — сказал он.

He realized that his room needed painting.

Он понял, что его комнату надо покрасить.

Differences Between Gerund and the Participle/Verbal Noun

The gerund and the participle.

In most cases the differentiation between the gerund and the participle does not present any difficulty.

Unlike the participle the gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used in the function of a subject, object, and predicative. In the function of an attribute and of an adverbial modifier both the gerund and the participle may be used, but the gerund in these functions is always preceded by a preposition.

There are cases, however, when the differentiation between the gerund and the participle presents some difficulty; for instance, it is not always easy to distinguish between a gerund as part of a compound noun and a participle used as an attribute to a noun. One should bear in mind that if we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person or thing denoted by the noun does not perform the action expressed by the ing-form: e.g. a dancing-hall (a hall for dancing), a cooking-stove (a stove for cooking), walking shoes, a writing-table, etc.[16]

If we have a participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the noun performs the action expressed by the mg-form: e.g. a dancing girl (a girl who dances), a singing child, etc.

However, there are cases which admit of two interpretations; for example a sewing machine may be understood in two ways: a machine for sewing and a machine which sews; a hunting dog may be a dog for hunting and a dog that hunts.

The gerund and verbal noun.

The gerund should not be confused with the verbal noun, which has the same suffix -ing. The main points of difference between the gerund and the verbal noun are as follows:

1. Like all the verbals the gerund has a double character— nominal and verbal. The verbal noun has only a nominal character.
2. The gerund is not used with an article.

The verbal noun may be used with an article.

The making of a new humanity cannot be the privilege of a handful of bureaucrats. (Fox)

I want you to give my hair a good brushing. (Hardy)

3. The gerund has no plural form.

The verbal noun may be used in the plural.

Our likings are regulated by our circumstances. (Ch. Bronte)

4.

The gerund of a transitive verb takes a direct object.

He received more and more letters, so many that he had given up reading them. (Priestley)

A verbal noun cannot take a direct object; it takes a prepositional object with the preposition of.

Meanwhile Gwendolen was rallying her nerves to the reading of the paper. (Eliot)

5.

The gerund may be modified by an adverb.

Drinking, even temperately, was a sin. (Dreiser)

The verbal noun may be modified by an adjective.

He (Tom) took a good scolding about clodding Sid. (Twain )

Chapter 2 Syntax and Semantics of English Verbals

2.2.1 The Functions of the Infinitive in the Sentence

The infinitive can be used in different syntactic functions. A single infinitive occurs but seldom: in most cases we find an infinitive phrase, i.e. an infinitive with one or several accompanying words.

The infinitive as a subject.

To doubt, under the circumstances, is almost to insult. (Ch. Bronte)

Сомневаться при таких обстоятельствах — это почти означает нанести оскорбление.

То acquire knowledge and to acquire it unceasingly, is the first duty of the artist. (Thurston)

Приобретать знания, и приобретать их непрерывно, — вот первый долг художника.

From these examples we can see that the infinitive as a subject can be rendered in Russian by an infinitive, by a noun, or by a clause.

Though the infinitive as the subject sometimes precedes the predicate, cases when it follows the predicate are far more common; with the infinitive in the latter position, the sentence opens with the introductory it, which serves as an introductory subject. The introductory it is not translated into Russian.[17]

It is useless to discuss the question. (Eliot)

Бесполезно обсуждать этот вопрос.

It was pleasant to be driving a car again. (Braine)

Было приятно снова вести машину.

The infinitive as a predicative.

My intention is to get into parliament. (Trollope)

Моя цель — пройти в парламент.

The infinitive can also be used as part of a predicative.

The abode of Mrs. Betty was not easy to find. (Dickens)

Жилище миссис Бетти было нелегко найти.

The infinitive as part of a compound verbal predicate.

(a) With modal verbs, modal expressions, and verbs expressing modality the infinitive forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

We must not leave him by himself any longer. (Dickens)

The train was to leave at midnight. (Hemingway)

(b) With verbs denoting the beginning, duration, or end of an action the infinitive forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

Imprisonment began to tell upon him. (Dickens)

Before daylight it started to drizzle. (Hemingway)

The infinitive as an object.

Leila had learned to dance at boarding school. (Mansfield)

After the verbs to allow, to order, to ask, to beg, to request, to implore, to teach, to instruct we often find two objects, one of which is expressed by an infinitive.

After waiting some time, Mrs. Clements ... ordered the cabman to drive back to her lodgings. (Collins)

He asked me to walk in. (Collins)

The infinitive used as an object can be preceded by the introductory object it. The introductory object is not translated into Russian.

He found it utterly impossible to leave the spot. (Hardy)

Он считал совершенно невозможным покинуть это место.

The infinitive as part of a complex object.

I never saw you act this way before. (Dreiser)

Я никогда раньше не видел, чтобы вы так поступали.

The infinitive as an attribute.

The use of the infinitive as an attribute is far more extensive in English than in Russian: in Russian it modifies only abstract nouns, whereas in English it modifies both abstract and class nouns, indefinite pronouns (somebody, something, anybody, anything, etc.), ordinal numerals and the adjective last.

The infinitive as an attribute is rendered in Russian by an infinitive (chiefly after abstract nouns), by a subordinate clause or by a finite verb serving as the predicate of a simple sentence (after ordinal numerals and the adjective last).

I have not had time to examine this room yet. (ConanDoyle)

У меня еще не было времени осмотреть эту комнату.

Bathsheba was not a woman ... to suffer in silence. (Hardy)

Батшеба была не такая женщина, которая стала бы страдать молча.

The infinitive used as an attribute often has a modal significance — it expresses an action thought of as obligatory or possible.

I've got my wife and little boy to look after. (Dreiser)

У меня есть жена и ребенок, о которых я должен заботиться.

There must be a lot of things in this world to make you very unhappy. (Thurston)

В этом мире, должно быть, много такого, что может сделать вас несчастным.

Tess was no insignificant creature to toy with and dismiss. (Hardy)

Тэсс была не такое незначительное существо, с которым можно поиграть и бросить.

Sometimes the infinitive used as an attribute implies a more or less prominent idea of purpose.

Here is a nice book to read before going to bed.

Вот книга, которую хорошо почитать перед сном.

Here is a charming little cottage to spend the summer in.

Вот очаровательный коттедж, is котором можно хорошо провести лето.

The infinitive as an adverbial modifier.

(a) The infinitive can be an adverbial modifier of purpose.

Laws were not made to be broken, laws were made to stay within. (Heym)

Законы были созданы не для того, чтобы их нарушать, а для того, чтобы им подчиняться.

The infinitive as an adverbial modifier of purpose can be introduced by in order and so as.

Sometimes you retreat in order to advance. (Heym)

Иногда отступают для того, чтобы вновь перейти в наступление.

(b) The infinitive can be used as an adverbial modifier of result. This chiefly occurs after adjectives modified by the adverbs enough and too.

His eyes were sharp enough to look after his own interest. (Heym)

Глаза у него были достаточно зоркие, чтобы позаботиться о собственной выгоде.

The infinitive as an adverbial modifier of result is also to be found in sentences of the following type:

He was so weak as to be unable to work.

Он был так слаб, что не мог работать.

As the above examples show the result expressed by the infinitive is often negative.

(c) The infinitive can be an adverbial modifier of comparison (manner); in most cases with an additional meaning of purpose.

In this function it is introduced by the conjunction ‘as if’ or ‘as though'.

She nervously moved her hand towards his lips as if to stop him ... (Dickens)

Она нервно протянула руку к его губам, как будто хотела остановить его.

(d) The infinitive can be used as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances.

She was driven away, never to revisit this neighbourhood. (Ch. Bronte)

Она была вынуждена уехать и больше не вернулась в эти места.

I am sorry to have raised your expectations, Mr. Blake, only to disappoint them. (Collins)

Мне очень жаль, что я пробудил в вас надежду, мистер Блейк, только для того, чтобы затем отнять ее.

Some grammarians maintain that in sentences of this type the infinitive performs the function of an adverbial modifier of result (consequence).

The infinitive as parenthesis.

Well, to cut a long story short, they thought it would be more economical to live at the villa. (Maugham)

Короче говоря, они решили, что будет дешевле жить на вилле.

Не was rude, to say the least of it.

On был груб, чтобы не сказать больше.

2.2. 2 Infinitive С onstructions

In Modern English we find the following predicative constructions with the infinitive:

(1) the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction;

(2) the Subjective Infinitive Construction;

(3) the or-to-Infinitive Construction.[18]

The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.

The Objective with the Infinitive is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object.

In translating the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction into Russian we nearly always use a subordinate clause.

He's a wonderful teacher and I've never seen him lose his temper or get angry about anything. (Wilson)

Он замечательный учитель, и я никогда не видел, чтобы он вышел из себя или рассердился из-за чего-нибудь.

However, sometimes a sentence containing the Objective-with-he-Infinitive Construction is rendered by a simple sentence.

... the bombings at night made the old walls shake to their foundations. (Heym)

... от ночных бомбежек старые степы содрогались до самого основания (бомбежки заставляли стены содрогаться).

1. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting sense perception, such as to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observe, to notice, etc.

I haven't heard anyone call me. (Wilde)

Я не слышал, 'чтобы кто-нибудь меня звал.

I saw Brown enter the room. (Braine)

Я видел, как Браун вошел в комнату.

After verbs of sense perception only the Indefinite Infinitive Active is used. If the meaning is passive we use Participle II.

I saw the fire slowly conquered. (Collins) Я видел как пожар постепенно потушили.

If a process is expressed Participle I Indefinite Active is used.

He saw Fleur coming. (Galsworthy)

The verb to see is followed by a clause and not by the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction when it is not really a verb of sense perception, i.e. when it means 'to understand'.

I saw that he did not realize the danger.

Я видел (понимал), что он не сознает опасности.

After the verbs to see and to notice the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is not used with the verb to be; a subordinate clause is used in such cases.

I saw that he was pale.

When the verb to hear is not a verb of sense perception, i.e. when it means 'to learn', 'to be told', a clause or a gerund (and not the Objective-with-the-Infinitive) is used.

I hear that he left for the South (of his having left for the South).

Я слышал (мне сказали), что он уехал на юг.

2. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting mental activity, such as to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to imagine, to find, to feel, to trust, etc.

After verbs of mental activity in the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction the verb to be is generally used. (This restriction does not apply to the verb to expect.) The use of this construction after most verbs of mental activity is more characteristic of literary than of colloquial style.

I know you to be the most honest, spotless creature that ever lived. (Hardy)

Я знаю, что вы самое честное и безупречное существо из всех, когда-либо живших на свете.

I believe him to have no conscience at all. (Hardy)

Я считаю, что у него совершенно нет совести.

After verbs of mental activity the Perfect Infinitive is used but seldom.

The doctor found his heart to have stopped two hours before.(Hardy)

Доктор установил, что его сердце перестало биться два часа тому назад.

Note, — With the verbs to think, to consider, to find the same idea can be expressed without an infinitive.

Boldwood thought her beautiful. (Hardy)

She found the subject rather interesting (Dickens)

You consider yourself an impressive person, eh? (Shaw)

3. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs of declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report.

The surgeon pronounced the wound to be a slight one.

Врач сказал, что рана легкая.

She declared him to be the most disobedient child in existence.

Она заявила, что это самый непослушный ребенок на свете.

4. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting wish and intention: ‘to want’, ‘to wish’, ‘to desire’, ‘to mean’, ‘to intend’, ‘to choose’ (in the meaning of 'хотеть').

I want you to come and dine with me. (Dickens)

Я хочу, чтобы вы пришли пообедать со мной.

I particularly wished those books to be returned to-night. (Dickens)

Я очень хотел, чтобы эти книги были возвращены сегодня.

She desired me to follow her upstairs. (Ch. Bronte)

Она велела, чтобы я пошла за ней наверх.

5. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs and expression denoting feeling and emotion: ‘to like’, ‘to dislike’, ‘to love’, ‘to hate’, ‘cannot bear’, etc.

I dislike you to talk like that.

Я не люблю, когда вы так говорите.

I hate him to be flogged. (E. Bronte)

Я терпеть не могу, когда его бьют.

I cannot bear you to speak of that. (Eliot)

Я не могу выносить, когда вы говорите об этом.

6. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting order and permission: to order, to allow, to suffer, to have, etc.

Here we find the Objective with the Infinitive only if the object is expressed by a noun or pronoun denoting a lifeless thing or when the infinitive is passive. This restriction does not apply to the verbs to suffer and to have.

Mr. Merdle ordered his carriage to be ready early in the morning. (Dickens)

Мистер Мердль приказал, чтобы экипаж был готов рано утром.

She ... had never allowed the name of John Gordon to pass her lips. (Trollope)

Она никогда не позволяла себе произносить имя Джона Гордона.

Не ordered the boy to be put to bed. The teacher ordered the room to be aired.

After such verbs as "to order" and "to allow" the Infinitive in the Active Voice can be used only when these verbs are followed by an object denoting a person who is ordered or allowed to do something.

The dean allowed the secretary to change the time-table.

Here we find two direct objects and not the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.

Such sentences as "the dean ordered to change the time-table" are impossible in English whereas in Russian they are widely used.

"Деканразрешилизменитьрасписание".

So when translating such sentences into English we use the objective with the Infinitive Construction where the Infinitive is in the Passive Voice.

The dean allowed the time-table to be changed.

Mr. Dombey suffered Florence to play with Paul.

Мистер Домби неохотно разрешил (позволил скрепя сердце) Флоренс играть с Полем.

She suffered Mr. Franklin to lead her back into the room. (Collins)

Она позволила мистеру Франклину отвести себя обратно в комнату.

From these examples we see that the verb to suffer, when followed by the Objective with the Infinitive, is rendered in affirmative sentences by ‘неохотноразрешить’, ‘позволить’ (скрепясердце). In negative sentences it is rendered by ‘допускать’. The verb to have denotes permission only in negative sentences; it is very close in meaning to the verb to suffer and is translated in the same way.

7. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting compulsion: to make (in the meaning of 'заставить'). to cause (in the meaning of 'заставить', 'распорядиться'), to get (in the meaning of 'добиться'), to have (in the meaning of 'заставить; сказатьчтобы').

Light steps in the gravel made him turn his head. (London)

Легкие шаги по гравию заставили его повернуть голову.

The noise caused her to awake.

От шума она проснулась (шум заставил ее проснуться).

Site caused a telegram to be sent to him. (Galsworthy)

Она распорядилась, чтобы ему послали телеграмму.

8. Though the infinitive as a rule is not used with verbs requiring prepositions, the Objective with the Infinitive is widely used with the preposition ‘for’.

Occasionally it occurs with the preposition on or upon (after the verb to rely).

I rely on you to come in time.

Я рассчитываю, что вы придете вовремя.

I rely upon you not to go over to the opposition. (Dickens)

Я рассчитываю, что вы не перейдете на сторону противника.

The Subjective Infinitive Construction.

The Subjective Infinitive Construction (traditionally called the Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction) is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case.

The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate.

Edith is said to resemble me. (Dickens)

Говорят, что Эдит похожа на меня.

The Subjective Infinitive Construction is used with the following groups of verbs in the Passive Voice:

1. With verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, etc.

Mr. Bob Sawyer was heard to laugh heartily. (Dickens)

Слышно было, как смеется Боб Сойер.

The rider was seen to disappear in the distance.

Видно было, как всадник скрылся вдали.

If a process is expressed Participle I Indefinite Active is used.

Tess's father was heard approaching at that moment. (Hardy)

В этот момент они услышали, что подходит отец Тэсс.

2. With verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to consider, to knew, to expect, to believe, to suppose.

He was thought to be honest and kindly. (Dreiser)

Его считали честным и добрым человеком.

My father ... was considered by many to be a great man. (GowandD'Usseau)

Многие считали моего отца незаурядным человеком.

3. With the verb to make.

Little Abraham was aroused... and made to put on his clothes ... (Hardy)

МаленькогоЭбрахамаразбудилиизаставилиодеться.

4. With Verbs to say and to report.

The gods had given Irene dark-brown eyes and golden hair, which is said to be the mark of a weak character. (Galsworthy)

Боги наделили Ирэн темно-карими глазами и золотистыми волосами, что, как говорят, является признаком слабости характера.

From these examples we can see that in translating sentences containing the Subjective Infinitive Construction after verbs in the Passive Voice a complex sentence is mostly used: its principal clause is of the type which in Russian syntax is called 'indefinite personal' (неопределенно-личноепредложение).

After verbs in the Passive Voice the Subjective Infinitive-Construction is more characteristic of literary than of colloquial style, except with the verbs to suppose, to expect, to make; with these verbs the Subjective Infinitive can be found both in fiction and in colloquial language.

The Subjective Infinitive Construction is used with the word-groups to be likely, to be sure, and to be certain.

The parish is not likely to quarrel with him for the right to keep the child. (Eliot)

Приход вряд ли будет оспаривать у него право содержать этого ребенка.

Sentences of this kind are rendered in Russian by a simple sentence with a modal word. Note the difference between:

He is sure to come.

Онобязательнопридет.

He is sure of coming.

Он уверен, что он придет.

The Subjective Infinitive Construction is used with the following pairs of synonyms: to seem and to appear; to happen and to chance (the latter is literary); to prove and to turn out.

They seemed to have quite forgotten him already. (Hardy)

Они, казалось (по-видимому), уже совершенно забыли его.

Her eyes appeared always to gaze beyond, and far beyond. (E. Bronte)

Ее глаза, казалось, всегда были устремлены куда-то далеко-далеко.

Mrs. Cowperwood, in spite of the difference in their years, appeared to be a fit mate for him at this time. (Dreiser)

Несмотря на разницу в возрасте, миссис Каупервуд в этот период его жизни, по-видимому (казалось), была для ,него подходящей женой.

The infinitive in sentences with the Subjective Infinitive Construction cannot refer to a future action except with verbs and word-groups whose meaning allows of it: to expect, to be sure (certain), to be likely.

We are sure to come at the heart of the matter. (Dickens)

Мы обязательно доберемся до сути дела.

Не is expected to give us an answer to-morrow.

Ожидают, что он даст нам ответ завтра.

The for-to-Infiriitive Construction.

The for-to-lnfinitive Construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition for.

In translating this construction into Russian a subordinate clause or an infinitive is used.

The construction can have different functions in the sentence. It can be:

1. Subject (often with the introductory it).

For me to ask would be treason, and for me to be told would be treason. (Wilson)

Если бы я спросила, это было бы предательством; если бы мне сказали, это было бы предательством.

I sometimes think it is a shame for people to spend so much money this way. (Dreiser)

Я часто думаю, что стыдно людям тратить на это так много денег.

2. Predicative.

That was for him to find out. (Eliot)

Выяснить это должен был он.

3. Complex object.

Me waited for her to speak. (Hardy)

Он ждал, когда она заговорит.

He asked for the papers to be- brought.

Онпопросилпринестибумаги.

I am very anxious for Mr. Headstone to succeed in all he undertakes. (Dickens)

Мне очень хочется, чтобы мистеру Хедстону удавалось все, за что он берется.

4. Attribute.

The best thing for you to do is to bide here with your load. I'll send somebody to help you. (Hardy)

Самое лучшее, что вы можете сделать, — это подождать здесь с вашей поклажей. Япришлюкого-нибудьпомочьвам.

There was really nothing for him to do but what he had done. (Dreiser)

Ему действительно ничего не оставалось делать, кроме того, что он сделал (единственное, что ему оставалось сделать, было то, что он сделал).

5. Adverbial modifier:

(a) of purpose.

Here's the thermometer: they've left it for the doctor to see instead of shaking it down. (Shaw)

Вот термометр; его не стряхнули, чтобы доктор мог посмотреть температуру.

Не stepped aside for me to pass. (DuMarnier)

Он отошел в сторону, чтобы я могла пройти.

(b) of result.

The pleasure of accompanying you was too great a temptation for me to resist. (Collins)

Удовольствие сопровождать вас было так велико, что я не мог ему противиться.

But he had consented, and it was too late for him now to recede. (Trollope)

Но он уже дал согласие, и теперь было поздно отступать.

With the expressions to be sorry, to be glad the infinitive is used only if the subject of the sentence represents at the same time the doer of the action expressed by the infinitive.

1 am glad (pleased) to have got a ticket for the concert.

I am glad to have seen you. (Dreiser)

I am very sorry to have done a man wrong, particularly when it can't be undone. (Dickens)

In other cases a clause is used with to be glad and to be sorry.

I am glad you got a ticket for the concert.

2.2.3 Syntax and Semantics of Participles

Participle I

Participle I as an attribute.

Participle I Indefinite Active can be used as an attribute; in this function it corresponds to the Russian действительное причастие.

The fence surrounding the garden is newly painted.

Забор, окружающий сад, недавно покрашен.

We admired the stars twinkling in the sky.

Мы любовались звездами, мерцавшими на небе.

In some cases Participle I in the function of an attribute is rendered in Russian by a clause.

He came back and stood --resolute on the steps leading down to the street. (Cusack)

Он вернулся и стоял в нерешительности на лестнице, которая вела на улицу.

In the function of an attribute Participle I can be in preposition and in postposition, i.e. it can precede the noun it modifies, and follow it. Participle I in pre-position hardly ever has accompanying words.

The gate-keeper surveyed the retreating vehicle. (Hardy)

Привратник смотрел на удалявшийся экипаж.

Participle I in post-position as a rule has one or several accompanying words.

They dined outside upon the terrace facing Vesuvius. (Hichens)

Они пообедали на террасе, выходившей к Везувию.

Through the massive sunlight illuminating the hall at Robin Hill, the July sunlight at five o'clock fell just where the broad staircase turned. (Galsworthy)

Сквозь массивную стеклянную крышу, освещавшую холл в Робин Хилле, лучи июльского солнца в пять часов падали как раз на поворот широкой лестницы.

Participle I Indefinite Passive is very seldom used as an attribute.

There was one line being laid out to within a few blocks of his new home... which interested him greatly. (Dreiser)

Его очень интересовала линия, которую прокладывали в нескольких кварталах, от его нового дома.

Participle I Perfect Active and Passive is not used attributively.

Attention should be paid to the fact that Participle I in the function of an attribute cannot express priority; therefore, it often happens that when in Russian we have причастие in English we find a finite verb. Such is the case with the Russian действительное причастие прошедшего времени expressing priority; it is rendered in English by an attributive clause.[19]

Татьяна, с великим равнодушием переносившая до того мгновения все превратности своей жизни, тут, однако, не вытерпела, прослезилась. (Тургенев)

Tatiana, who had until that momentborne all the ups and downs of her life with great indifference, broke down, however, on this and burst into tears. '' (TranslatedbyDomb)

Бульба повел сыновей своих в светлицу, откуда проворно выбежали две красивые девки-прислужницы, прибиравшие комнату. (Гоголь)

Bulba bade his sons follow him into the little guest-chamber, whence two pretty serving-wenches, who bad been arranging the room, ran out. (Translated by Baskerville)

A clause, not a participle, is generally used in English even when the Russian действительное причастиепрошедшеговремениexpresses an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb.

Базаров закурил трубку и подошел к ямщику, отпрягавшему лошадей. (Тургенев)

Bazarov lit his pipe and went up to the driver who was unharnessing the horses. (Translatedby С. Garnett)

Матушка, знавшая наизусть все его обычаи..., всегда старалась засунуть несчастную книгу подальше. (Пушкин)

My mother, who knew all his habits, used to thrust the obnoxious volume into some remote hiding-place. (Translated 'by J. and T. Litvinov)

Occasionally, however, in rendering the Russian действительное причастие прошедшего времени, a participle is used in English. This is often the case when действительное причастие прошедшего времени refers to no particular time.

Заря уже занималась на небе, когда Соломин постучался в калитку высокого забора, окружавшего фабрику. (Тургенев)

Dawn was already beginning in the sky when Solomin knocked at the gate in the high fence surrounding the factory. (Translatedby С Garnett)

Потом он обратил внимание посетителей на висевшую над его головой картину, писанную масляными красками. (Тургенев)

Then he drew the attention of his guests to a picture hanging above his head, painted in oils. ('Translated by C. Garnett)

In many cases an attribute expressed by Participle I is detached, i.e. it acquires a certain independence in the sentence; the connection between the attribute and the word it modifies is loose. A detached attribute is usually separated by a comma.

It was the entrance to a large family vault, extending under the north aisle. (Hardy)

Это был вход в большой фамильный склеп, простиравшийся под северным приделом храма.

Participle I as an adverbial modifier.

All the forms of Participle I may be used as an adverbial modifier. Participle I Indefinite expresses an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb and corresponds to the Russian деепричастие несовершенного вида; Participle I Perfect expresses an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb and corresponds to the Russian деепричастие совершенного вида. In some cases Participle I in the function of an adverbial modifier is rendered in Russian by an adverbial clause.[20]

Participle I can be an adverbial modifier:

(a) of time.

Approaching Malta Street, Soho, Soames thought with wonder of those years in Brighton. (Galsworthy)

Приближаясь к Мальта Стрит в Сохо, Сомc с удивлением думал о годах, проведенных в Брайтоне.

Having closed the drawing-room door on him, Isabel awaited a little, absorbed in her own thoughts. (Collins)

Закрыв за ним дверь гостиной, Изабелла подождала немного, погруженная в свои мысли.

As has already been stated, with some verbs of sense perception and motion, such as to see, to hear, to come, to arrive, to enter, "to seize, to look out, to turn and some others, Participle I Indefinite is used even when priority is meant. In Russian деепричастие совершенного вида is used in such cases.

Anna... hearing his step, ran to the foot of the stairs to meet him. (Eliot)

Анна..., услышав его шаги, побежала вниз по лестнице встретить его.

Arriving there the visitor found everything that should be found at old manors. (Coppard)

Приехав туда, гость нашел все то, что обычно находят в старых поместьях.

Entering her room that evening, Elfride found a packet for herself on the dressing-table. (Hardy)

Войдя вечером в свою комнату, Элфрид нашла на туалетном столе сверток.

If the action expressed by Participle I Indefinite Active is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, the conjunction when or while is often used.

…it was possible for Urquhart, when making his toilet, to survey with pride an original willow pattern tea service. (Cronin)

Экхарт мог, пока он одевался, с гордостью любоваться чайным сервизом с настоящим китайским рисунком.

While waiting for the water to boil, he held his face over the stove. (London)

Дожидаясь, когдазакипитвода, оннаклонилсянадпечкой.

Participle I Indefinite of the verb “to be” is not used as an adverbial modifier of time. Clauses of the type 'Когда он был ребенком...,' 'Когда он был в Ленинграде...' may be translated When a boy.... When he was a boy..., When in Leningrad..., When he was in Leningrad. ..

(b) of cause.

Being of a more slender figure than Mr. Jarndyce, and having a richer complexion, Mr. Skimpole looked younger. (Dickens)

Так как мистер Скимпоул был стройнее мистера Джарндайса и так как цвет лица у него был лучше, он выглядел моложе.

Having been a little in that line myself, I understood it. (Shaw)

Так как я сам раньше некоторое время работал в этой области, я понимал это.

(с) of manner and attendant circumstances. In this function Participle I Indefinite is mostly used.

She balanced herself on the curbstone and began to walk carefully, setting heel to toe, heel to toe, and counting her steps. (Heym) (adverbialmodifierofmanner)

Она встала на край тротуара и осторожно пошла вперед, переступая с пятки па кончики пальцев и считая свои шаги.

Gwendolyn was silent, again looking at her hands. (Eliot)(adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances)

Гвендолин молчала, разглядывая свои руки.

It is not always easy to discriminate between an adverbial modifier of manner and an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances.

He has been in three revolutions fighting on the barricades.(Shaw)

Он принимал участие в трех революциях, сражаясь па баррикадах.

(d) of comparison. In this function Participle I is introduced by the conjunction as if or as though.

This was said as if thinking aloud. (Gaskell)

Это было сказано так, как будто он думал вслух.

... he was still on his guard, as though waiting for a furtherquestion from me. (DuMarnier)

Он все еще был настороже, словно ожидая, что я задам ему еще один вопрос.

Participle I as a predicative.

In this function Participle I is used but seldom; it is usually rendered in Russian by an adjective.

The effect of her words was terrifying.

Впечатление, произведенное ее словами, было страшно.

The whole damned day had been humiliating. (Priestley)

Весь этот ужасный день был унизительным.

Participle I as part of a complex object.

I saw that young man and his wife talking to you on the stairs. (Galsworthy)

Я видел, как этот молодой человек и его жена разговаривали с нами па лестнице.

Participle I as part of a compound verbal predicate.

Presently other footsteps were heard crossing the room below. (Hardy)

Вскоре они услышали, что через комнату вниз прошел еще кто-то.

Participial phrase as parenthesis.

Here we always find a participial phrase; a single participle is not used in this function.

Generally speaking, I don't like boys. (Dickens)

Вообще говоря, я не люблю мальчиков.

Judging by appearances, Mr. Bowmore looked like a man prematurely wasted and worn by the cares of a troubled life. (Collins)

Судя по внешности, мистер Баумор был человек преждевременно состарившийся и измученный тяготами жизни.

Participle II

Participle II as an attribute.

When used as an attribute Participle II of transitive verbs corresponds to the Russian страдательноепричастиеor действительноепричастиеof some verbs ending in -ся, е. g. a broken chair (сломанныйстул), a broken cup (разбитаячашка), a newspaper published in Moscow (газета, издаваемая в Москве), the problem discussed at the meeting (вопрос, обсуждавшийсянасобрании).

Participle II, as well as Participle I, can be used in preposition (without any accompanying words) and in post-position (with one or more accompanying words).

He answered through the locked door. (Wells)

Он ответил через закрытую дверь.

They turned into the large conservatory beautifully lit up with Chinese lamps. (Eliot)

Они свернули в большую оранжерею, красиво освещенную китайскими фонариками.

Participle II of intransitive verbs which denote passing into a new state, corresponds to the Russian действительное причастиеor to an adjective. However, only in a few cases Participle II of an intransitive verb may be used attributively, mostly Participle II of the verbs to fade, to wither, to retire, to fall, to vanish, e. g. faded leaves (увядшиелистья), a withered flower (засохшийцветок), a retired colonel (отставнойполковник), a fallen star (упавшаязвезда), the vanished jewels (пропавшиедрагоценности).

An attribute expressed by Participle II may be detached; in .this case it often has an additional meaning of an adverbial modifier:

The housekeeper had come out of her room, attracted by the violent ringing of the bell. (ConanDoyle)

Экономка вышла из своей комнаты, привлеченная неистовым звоном колокольчика.

Accompanied by his father and Steger, he (Cowperwood) ascended to his new room. (Dreiser)

Сопровождаемый отцом и Стеджером (в сопровождении отца и Стеджера), он поднялся в свою новую комнату.

Participle II as an adverbial modifier.

In this function Participle II is preceded by the conjunctions when, while, if, as if, as though, though, etc. It is generally rendered in Russian by an adverbial clause.

Participle II can be an adverbial modifier:

(a) of time.

When guestioned Annie had implied vaguely... that she was anxious about her brother-in-law. (Crohin)

Когда Энни стали расспрашивать, она дала понять..., что беспокоится о своем шурине.

(b) of condition.

It was a dreadful thing that he now proposed, a breach of the law which, if discovered, would bring them into the police court. (Cronin)

To, что он предлагал, было ужасно: это было нарушение закона, и, если бы оно открылось, их отдали бы под суд.

(c) of comparison.

As if torn with inner conflict and indecision, he cried. (Galsworthy)

Он плакал, словно его мучили внутренняя борьба и сомнения.

Mr. Kantwiseshook his head as though lost in wonder and admiration. (Trollope)

Мистер Кэитуайуз покачал головой, словно переполненный чувством удивления и восхищения.

(d) of concession.

... her spirit, though crushed, was not broken. (A. Bronte)

... хотя она и была подавлена, она не была сломлена.

Other grammarians view of the analysis of such word-groups as when questioned... , if discovered... , as if torn..., though crushed... is different. They consider such word-groups to be elliptical clauses and not participial phrases.

Participle II as a predicative.

In spite of himself, Val was impressed. (Galsworthy)

На Вэла это произвело впечатление, помимо его воли.

The inner gate was locked, and the lodge closed. (Dickens)

Внутренние ворота были заперты, и помещение привратника закрыто.

Participle II as part of a complex object.

She has found me unaltered; but I have found her changed. (Collins)

Она нашла, что я ничуть не переменился, а я нашел, что она изменилась.

2.2.4 Predicative constructions with the participle

In Modern English we find the following predicative constructions with the participle:

(1) the Objective Participial Construction;

(2) the Subjective Participial Construction;

(3) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction;

(4) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction.[21]

The Objective Participial Construction.

The Objective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case.

In the next berth she could hear her stepmother breathing heavily. (Hardy)

Ей было слышно как на соседней койке тяжело дышит ее мачеха.

The participle breaking is in predicate relation to the noun “stepmother”, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the participle.

In the Objective Participial Construction Participle I Indefinite Active or Participle II is used. In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object. It usually corresponds to a subordinate object clause in Russian.

The Objective Participial Construction may be found:

(a) after verbs denoting sense perception, such as to see, to hear, to feel, to find, etc.

Then he looked out of the window and saw clouds gathering. (Dreiser)

Потом он выглянул из окна и увидел, что собираются тучи.

1 heard my wife coming... (Conan Doyle)

She could feel her hands trembling exceedingly. (Hardy)

She found him waiting for her at her journey's end... (Dickens)

I saw the pony harnessed myself. (Collins)

(b) after some verbs of mental activity, such as to consider, to understand.

I consider myself engaged to Herr Klesmer. (Eliot)

Я считаю себя помолвленной с господином Клесмером.

(c) after verbs denoting wish, such as to want, to wish, to desire. In this case only Participle II is used.

The governor wants it done quick. (Bennett)

Отец хочет, чтобы это было сделано быстро.

(d) after the verbs to have and to get; after these verbs only Participle II is used.

In this case the Objective Participial Construction shows that the action expressed by the participle is performed at the request of the person denoted by the subject' of the sentence. ‘Thus had the piano tuned’ means 'I made someone tune the piano'.

I had my coat altered.

Я переделала пальто (т. е. поручила кому-то переделать его).

He ... had several bottles of wine brought ... (Dreiser)

Ему ... принесли несколько бутылок вина.

In interrogative and negative sentences the auxiliary verb to do is used:

Why don't you have your hair waved? (DuMaurier)

Почему вы не завьетесь (не сделаете завивку)?

Occasionally the meaning of the construction is different: it may show that the person denoted by the subject of the sentence experiences the action expressed by the participle.

The wounded man had his leg amputated.

Раненому ампутировали ногу.

The Subjective Participial Construction.

The Subjective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle (mostly Participle I) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case, which is the subject of the sentence.

In rendering this construction in Russian a complex sentence is generally used; the principal clause is of the type which in Russian syntax is called 'indefinite personal' (неопределенно-личное предложение).

The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate.

They were heard talking together... (Collins)

This construction is chiefly used after verbs of sense perception.

The horse was seen descending the hill. (Hardy)

Видно было, как лошадь спускалась с холма.

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction.

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle stands in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case; the noun or pronoun is not the subject of the sentence.

The door and window of the vacant room being open, welooked in. (Dickens)

Так как дверь и окно пустой комнаты были открыты, мы заглянули в нее.

In the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction Participle I (in all its forms) or Participle II is used. This construction is generally rendered in Russian by means of an adverbial clause. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier. It can be an adverbial modifier:

(a) of time.

The lamp having been lit, Mrs. Macallan produced her son'sletter. (Collins)

Когда зажгли лампу, миссис Макаллан достала письмо от сына.

This duty completed, he had three months' leave. (Hardy)

Когда эта работа была закончена, он получил трехмесячный отпуск.

(b) of cause.

It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs (Dickens)

Так как было довольно поздно, мы взяли свечи и пошли наверх.

A knock had come to the door, and there being nobody else to answer it, Clare, went out. (Hardy)

Послышался стук в дверь, и, так как больше некому было открыть, Клэр вышел.

(с) of attendant circumstances. In this function the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is mostly placed at the end of the sentence. In rendering it in Russian a coordinate clause or деепричастный оборот is used.

He turned and went, we, as before, following him. (Jerome)

Он повернулся и вышел; как и прежде, мы последовали за ним.

One morning he stood in front of the tank, his nose almost pressed to the glass. (Dreiser)

Однажды утром он стоял перед витриной, почти прижавшись носом к стеклу.

(d) of condition. In this function the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction occurs but seldom and is almost exclusively used with the participles permitting and failing.

Weather (time, circumstances) permitting, we shall start tomorrow.

Если погода (время, обстоятельства) позволит, мы поедем завтра.

Conciliation failing, force remains; but force failing, no further hope of conciliation is left.[22]

Если не удается достигнуть примирения, приходится применить силу; но если сила не помогает, не остается никакой надежды на примирение.

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction very often occurs in fiction and scientific literature; the use of this construction in colloquial English is rare.

The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction.

The Absolute Participial Construction may be introduced by the preposition with and is then called the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction. It is in most cases used in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances.

This construction is rendered in Russian by a coordinate clause or деепричастныйоборот.

They were walking on again, with Hugh calmly drawing at his pipe. (Lindsay)

Они снова шли вперед; Хью спокойно покуривал свою трубку.

The daughter sat quite silent and still, with her eyes fixed on the ground. (Dickens)

Дочь сидела молча и неподвижно, опустив глаза в землю.

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction and the Nominative Absolute Construction are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma or a semicolon.

Grandcourt... rose and strolled out on the lawn, all the dogs following him. (Eliot)

Mr. Tulkinghorn comes and goes pretty often; there being estate business to do. (Dickens)

Then he started out, bag and overcoat in hand, to get his cup of coffee. (Maltz)

Prepositional Absolute Constructions are usually separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

It was a balmy, radiant day, with the trees and grass shining exceedingly green after the rain of the night before. (Dreiser)

He was there, writing busily at a distant table, with his back towards the door. (Eliot)


2.2.5 Syntactical Role of the Gerund

The gerund may be used in various syntactic functions. A single gerund occurs but seldom; in most cases we find a gerundial phrase or a gerundial construction.[23]

1. The gerund as a subject.

Talking mends no holes, (proverb)

Разговоры не помогают в беде.

Waiting for the Professor was a lame excuse for doing nothing. (Heym)

To, что мы ждали профессора, было слабым оправданием тому, что мы ничего не делали.

The gerund used as a subject may follow the predicate; in these cases the sentence opens with the introductory it (which serves as an introductory subject) or with the construction there is.

It's no use talking like that to me. (Shaw)

Бесполезно говорить со мной в таком тоне.

There was no mistaking the expression on her face. (Collins)

Выражения ее лица нельзя было не понять.

There is another view according to which it is the subject and the rest of the sentence is the predicate.

2. The gerund as a predicative.

The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed. (Collins)

Единственное средство от такой головной боли, как у меня, — это лечь спать.

3. The gerund as part of a compound verbal predicate.

(a) With verbs and verbal phrases denoting modality the gerund forms part of a compound verbal modal predicate.

We intend going to Switzerland, and climbing Mount Blanc. (Ch. Bronte)

Мы хотим поехать в Швейцарию и подняться па Монблан.

Joseph could not help admiring the man. (Heym)

Джозеф не мог не восхищаться этим человеком.

(b) With verbs denoting the beginning, the duration, or the end of an action, the gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

She began sobbing and weeping. (Dickens)

In the night it started raining. (Hemingway)

Bathsheba continued walking. (Hardy)

Tom went on whitewashing. (Twain)

4. The gerund as an object.

The gerund may be used as a direct object and as a prepositional indirect object.

I simply love riding. (Galsworthy) (direct object)

Я просто обожаю кататься верхом.

She enjoyed singing and playing to him. (London) (directobject )

Ей доставляло удовольствие петь и играть для него.

Predicative constructions with the gerund form a complex object as they consist of two distinct elements, nominal and verbal.

Perhaps you wouldn't mind Richard's coming in? (Dickens) (complexobject)

Может быть, вы не будете возражать против того, чтобы вошел Ричард?

Aunt Augusta won't quite approve of your being here. (Wilde) (prepositionalcomplexobject)

Тетя Августа будет не очень довольна тем, что вы здесь.

5. The gerund as an attribute. In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition.

Swithin protruded his pale round eyes with the effort of hearing. (Galsworthy)

Суизин широко открыл свои бесцветные круглые глаза, стараясь услышать разговор.

Не was born with the gift of winning hearts. (Gaskell)

Он родился с даром покорять сердца.

6. The gerund as an adverbial modifier.

In this function the gerund is always preceded by a preposition. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, manner, attendant circumstances, cause, condition, purpose and concession; the most common functions are those of adverbial modifiers of time, manner, and attendant circumstances.[24]

(a) As an adverbial modifier of time the gerund is preceded by the prepositions after, before, on (upon), in or at.

After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the living room. (Cronin)

Оставивзонтикипередней, онавошлавгостиную.

Me was to have three days at home before going back to farm. (Galsworthy)

Он должен был пробыть три дня дома, прежде чем возвратиться на ферму.

On reaching Casterbridge he left the horse and trap at an inn. (Hardy)

Приехав в Кастербридж, он оставил лошадь и экипаж в гостинице.

In the function of an adverbial modifier of time the gerund sometimes competes with the participle.

George, on hearing the story, grinned. (Galsworthy)

Джордж, услышав эту историю, усмехнулся.

The four girls, hearing him speak in the hall, rushed out of the library. (Eliot)

Все четыре девочки, услышав, что он говорит в передней, выбежали из библиотеки.

After reaching the second landing ... I heard a sound of quiet and regular breathing on my left-hand side. (Collins)

Дойдя до второй площадки лестницы, ... я услышал с левой стороны спокойное и ровное дыхание.

Reaching the door of the room occupied by Cowperwood and Aileen, she tapped lightly. (Dreiser)

Дойдя до двери комнаты, которую занимали Каупсрвуд и Эйлин, она тихонько постучала.

(b) As an adverbial modifier of manner the gerund is used with the prepositions by or in.

She startled her father by bursting into tears. (Gaskell)

Она напугала своего отца тем, что расплакалась.

The day was spent in packing. (DaMaurier)

День прошел за упаковкой вещей.

(c) As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

She was not brilliant, not active, but rather peaceful and statuesque without knowing it. (Dreiser)

Это была женщина не блестящая, не энергичная, но она была очень спокойна и величественна, сама того не зная.

(d) As an adverbial modifier of purpose, the gerund is chiefly used with the preposition for.

... one side of the gallery was used for dancing. (Eliot)

... одна сторона галереи использовалась для танцев.

(e) As an adverbial modifier of condition the gerund is preceded by the preposition without.

He has no right to come bothering you and papa without being invited. (Shaw)

Он не имеет права приходить и беспокоить вас и отца, если его не приглашают.

(f) As an adverbial modifier of cause the gerund is used with the prepositions for, for fear of, owing to.

I feel the better myself for having spent a good deal of my time abroad. (Eliot)

Я чувствую себя лучше оттого, что долго прожил за границей.

I dared not attend the funeral for fear of making a fool of myself. (Coppard)

Я не смел присутствовать на похоронах, так как боялся поставить себя в глупое положение.

(g) As an adverbial modifier of concession the gerund is preceded by the preposition in spite of.

In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her.

The above examples show that the gerund preceded by one and the same preposition may be used in different functions: with the preposition without, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances and of condition; with the preposition in, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of time and of manner; with the preposition for, it may perform the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose or of cause.

The Russian не + деепрнчастие may correspond to the English without + Gerund or not + Participle. It usually corresponds to not + Participle if it is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of cause.

He зная адреса мисс Бетси, Давид не мог ей написать.

Not knowing Miss Betsey's address, David could not write to her. (cause)

If не + деепричастие is used in the function of adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances and of condition, it generally corresponds to without + Gerund.

Давид уехал из Лондона, никому ничего не сказав.

David left London without telling anybody about it. (attendantcircumstances)

Мальчики не могли уходить из Салем-Хауса, не спросив разрешения.

The boys could not leave Salem House without asking for permission. (condition)

2.3.2 Constructions with the Gerund

Predicative constructions with the gerund.

Like all the verbals the gerund can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions in which the verbal element expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a noun or pronoun.

I don't like your going off without any money. (Maltz)

Мне не нравится, что вы уходите без денег.

Here the gerund going off is in predicate relation to the pronoun your, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the gerund.

The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways.

1. If it denotes a living being it may be expressed:

(a) by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun.

His further consideration of the point was prevented by Richard's coming back to us in an excited state. (Dickens)

Его дальнейшие размышления были прерваны тем, что вернулся Ричард в чрезвычайно возбужденном состоянии.

Do you mind my smoking? (Hardy)

Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я курил?

(b) by a noun in the common case.

I have a distinct recollection of Lady Chiltern always getting the good conduct prize! (Wilde)

Я отлично помню, что леди Чильтерн всегда получала награды за примерное поведение.

Thus in Modern English there are two parallel constructions of the type: Fancy David's courting Emily and Fancy David courting Emily. These two constructions may be used indifferently, but sometimes there is a slight difference in meaning: in the first example the action (the verbal element of the construction) is emphasized, whereas in the second the doer of the action (the nominal element of the construction) is emphasized.[25]

Occasionally examples are found where the nominal element of the construction is expressed by a pronoun in the objective case.

I hope you will forgive me disturbing you. (DuMaurier)

Надеюсь, вы простите меня за то, что я вас побеспокоил.

There are cases when the nominal element of the construction, though denoting a living being, cannot be expressed by a noun in the possessive case, but only by a noun in the common case, namely when it consists of two or more nouns or when it is a noun modified by an attribute in post-position.

I object to Mary and Jane going out on such a windy day. He felt no uneasiness now in the thought of the brother and) sister being alone together. (Eliot)

Его теперь не смущала мысль о том, что брат и сестра остались вдвоем.

Did you ever hear of a man of sense rejecting such an offer?

Слышали ли вы когда-нибудь, чтобы разумный человек отказался от такого предложения?

2. If the nominal element of the construction denotes a lifeless thing, it is expressed by a noun in the common case (such nouns, as a rule, are not used in the genitive case) or by a possessive pronoun.

I said something about my clock being slow. (DuMaurier)

Я сказала, что мои часы отстают.

Peggotty spoke of my room, and of its being ready for me. (Dickens)

Пеготти говорила о моей комнате и о том, что она уже приготовлена для меня.

3. The nominal element of the construction can also be expressed by a pronoun which has no case distinctions, such as all, this, that, both, each, something.

I insist on both of them coming in time.

Я требую, чтобы они оба пришли вовремя.

Again Michael... was conscious of something deep and private stirring within himself. (Galsworthy)

Майкл опять почувствовал, что в его душе шевельнулось что-то глубокое и затаенное.

Some grammarians recognize the existence of two separate constructions: the gerundial construction (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun) and a construction with a half gerund (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective ease, or a pronoun which has no case distinctions).

A gerundial construction is nearly always rendered in Russian by a subordinate clause, generally introduced by то, что; тем, что; как, etc.

His being a foreigner, an ex-enemy was bad enough. (Aldington)

To, что он был иностранец, бывший неприятель, было уже плохо.

Her thoughts were interrupted at last, by the door opening gently. (Reade)

Ее мысли были наконец прерваны тем, что дверь тихонько открылась.

The use of the gerund.

In Modern English the gerund is widely used and often competes with the infinitive.

In the following cases- only the gerund is used:

1. With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy (in imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise), to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep (on), to leave off, to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), to postpone, to put off, cannot help, and some others.

He avoided looking at Sabina. (Wilson)

Он избегал смотреть на Сабину.

…she burst out crying. (Collins)

Онарасплакалась.

We all burst out laughing. (Braine)

Мывсерассмеялись.

She denied having been at the station that evening. (Gaskell)

Она отрицала, что была в тот вечер на станции.

... he enjoyed thinking of her as his future wife. (Eliot)

... ему доставляло удовольствие думать о ней как о своей будущей жене.

Excuse my leaving you in the dark a moment. (Dickens)

Извините, что я па минуту оставлю вас в темноте.

Fancy finding you here at such аи hour! (Hardy)

Я даже и представить себе не мог, что застану вас здесь в такое время!

Forgive my speaking plainly. (Hardy)

Простите, что я говорю так прямо.

2. With the following verbs and verbal phrases used with a preposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to approve of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look -like, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of, to give- up the idea of, to look forward to, not to like the idea of, to miss an (the) opportunity of and some others.

They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. (Heym)

Меня обвиняют в том, что я имел дело с немцами.

It was clear now... that Abraham never had agreed to their being married to-day. (Stone)

Теперь было ясно, что Авраам никогда не соглашался на то, чтобы они поженились сегодня.

You did not approve of my playing at roulette. (Eliot)

Вы не одобряли того, что я играла в рулетку.

All the happiness of my life depends on your loving me. (Eliot)

Все счастье моей жизни зависит от того, полюбите ли вы меня.

I don't feel like going out. (Wilson)

Мне не хочется выходить,

3. With the following predicative word-groups (with or without a preposition): to be aware of, to be busy in, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased (displeased) at, 1 to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised (astonished) at, to be worth (while), and some others.

Sir Pitt Crawley was not aware of Becky's having married Rawdon.

Сэр Питт Кроули не знал, что Бекки вышла замуж за Родона.

I felt physically incapable of remaining still in any one place and morally incapable of speaking to any one human being. (Collins)

Я чувствовал, что я физически не в состоянии оставаться на одном месте и морально не к состоянии говорить с кем бы то ни было.

1 am very fond of being looked at. (Wilde)

Я очень люблю, когда на меня смотрят.

You are really guilty of having connived with a German officer to help his escape. (Heym)

Вы действительно виновны в том, что способствовали побегу немецкого офицераю

The gerund and the infinitive.

With a number of verbs and word-groups both the gerund and the infinitive may be used. The most important of them are: to be afraid, to begin, to cease, to continue, can (cannot) afford, to dread, to fear, to forget, to hate, to intend, to like (dislike), to neglect, to prefer, to propose, to remember, to recollect, to start, to stop.

The young man began turning over the pages of a book. (Priestley)

At length she began to speak softly. (Eliot)

She continued standing near the piano. (Eliot)

She continued to look at him... (Dickens)

It is sometimes possible to find a reason for the use of a given form. With some verbs and word-groups, such as to be afraid, to forget, to hate, to like (dislike), to prefer the infinitive is mostly used with reference to a special occasion, the gerund being more appropriate to a general statement.

The child was not afraid of remaining alone, but he was afraid to remain alone on such a stormy night.

Ребенок (вообще) не боялся оставаться один, но он боялся остаться один в такую бурную ночь.

I was always afraid of losing his goodwill. (Liewellyn)

Я всегда боялся потерять его расположение.

Gwendolen answered rather pettishly-, and her mamma was afraid to say more. (Eliot)

Гвендолен ответила несколько раздраженно, и ее мать побоялась продолжать разговор.

Don't forget shutting the windows when you leave home.

He забывайте закрывать окна, уходя из дому.

Don't forget to shut the window when you leave home, it is very windy to-day.

He забудьте закрыть окно, когда будете уходить из дому; сегодня очень ветрено.

I don't like interrupting people.

Я не люблю отрывать людей от дела.

I don't like to interrupt him, he seems very busy.

Мне не хочется мешать ему, он, кажется, очень занят.

With the verb to remember the infinitive usually refers to the future, and the gerund to the past.[26]

I remember seeing the book in many bookshops.

Я помню, что видел эту книгу во многих магазинах.

Remember to buy the book.

He забудьте купить эту книгу.

With the verb to stop the infinitive and the gerund have different syntactical functions.

The gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate.

They stopped talking when he came in. (Galsworthy)

Когда он вошел, они перестали говорить.

The infinitive has the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose.

She stopped to exchange a few words with a neighbour. (Dickens)

Она остановилась, чтобы поболтать с соседкой.


2.2.7 Control exercises on verbals using

Test 1

a) Write down the ing-form (Gerund) of the following verbs.

1. spell - ____________________________________

2. discover - _________________________________

3. copy - ____________________________________

4. chase - ___________________________________

5. hug - _____________________________________

b) Complete the sentences using infinitive constructions.

1. My father taught me (dance / how)

2. We haven't decided yet (put / the bed / where)

3. She was explaining (use / the gadget / how)

4. I forgot to ask (pick him up / where)

5. I wondered (address / him / whether) or not.

c) Fill in the gerund as the subject of the sentence.

1. (fly) to London has become rather cheap.

2. (smoke) is prohibited at petrol stations.

3. (swim) is good for your health.

4. (travel) is one of my hobbies.

5. (cycle) is impossible on this sandy ground.

d) Decide whether to use Infinitive (with/without to) or Gerund.

1. I enjoy go/to go/going on holiday.

2. He used to live/living in the country.

3. She is used to live/living in the country.

4. I am tired of wait/to wait/waiting.

5. Ellen made me laugh/to laugh/laughing.

Keys.

a)

1. spell - spelling

2. discover - discovering

3. copy - copying

4. chase - chasing

5. hug - hugging

b)

1. My father taught me how to dance.

2. We haven't decided yet where to put the bed.

3. She was explaining how to use the gadget.

4. I forgot to ask where to pick him up.

5. I wondered whether to address him or not.

c)

1. Flying to London has become rather cheap.

2. Smoking is prohibited at petrol stations.

3. Swimming is good for your health.

4. Travelling is one of my hobbies.

5. Cycling is impossible on this sandy ground.

d)

1. I enjoy going on holiday.

2. He used to live in the country.

3. She is used to living in the country.

4. I am tired of waiting.

5. Ellen made me laugh.

Test 2

Gerund or Infinitive?

1. I remember _____ Simon at the Max Planck Institute.

a. meet

b. to meet

c. meeting

d. to meeting

2. Did you remember _____ the letter?

a. post

b. to post

c. posting

d. to posting

3. I'm not used _____ up this early.

a. get

b. to get

c. getting

d. to getting

4. I used _____ to the pub a lot.

a. go

b. to go

c. going

d. to going

5. I regret _____ Magda about my new girlfriend.

a. tell

b. to tell

c. telling

d. to telling

6. Mrs Jarmołowicz, I regret _____ you that your credit limit has been exceeded.

a. inform

b. to inform

c. informing

d. to informing

7. Stop _____ this dreadful noise at once!

a. make

b. to make

c. making

d. to making

8. I wanted to stop _____ some pirate CDs, but we didn't have enough time.

a. to

b. to buy

c. buying

d. to buying

9. Look, it's starting _____ .

a. rain

b. to rain

c. raining

d. to raining

10. I started _____ English when I was twenty-one.

a. learn

b. to learn

c. learning

d. to learning

Keys.

1. c

2. b

3. d

4. b

5. c

6. b

7. c

8. b

9. b

10. b/c

Test 3

1. Is there anything in that new magazine worth _____.

a) to read

b) reading

2. Although I was in a hurry, I stopped _____ to him.

a) to talk

b) talking

3. I really must stop ______.

a) to smoke

b) smoking

4. Would you mind ______ the front door?

a) to close

b) closing

5. You should remember ______ him. He’ll be at home.

a) to phone

b) phoning

6. Do you enjoy ______?

a) to teach

b) teaching

7. All parts of London seem ______ to different towns and epochs.

a) to belong

b) belonging

8. Why have you stopped? Go on ______.

a) to read

b) reading

9. The teacher asked us some questions and went on ______ us about the climate of England.

a) to tell

b) telling

10. When we had finished ______ the waiter brought the bill.

a) to eat

b) eating

11. My elder brother went to college, and I hope ______ there too.

a) to go

b) going

12. My car needs a service badly, and Tom offered ______ me with it.

a) to help

b) helping

13. Avoid ______ and you’ll feel better soon.

a) to overeat

b) overeating

14. I can’t help ______ about that awful accident.

a) to think

b) thinking

15. The Brains want ______ Boston this week.

a) to leave for

b) leaving for

16. I’ll always remember ______ you for the first time.

a) to meet

b) meeting

17. I decided ______ my holiday in France.

a) to spend

b) spending

18. I enjoy ______ very much.

a) to travel

b) travelling

19. We might manage ______ a lot of interesting places there.

a) to visit

b) visiting

20. I dislike ______ around in the car.

a) to tour

b) touring

Keys:

1 b 6 b 11 a 16 b

2 a 7 a 12 a 17 b

3 b 8 b 13 b 18 b

4 b 9 a 14 b 19 a

5 a 10 b 15 a 20 b

Gerund and Preposition Exercise

Complete the sentences by using a preposition and the words in brackets. Remember that verbs should be put into the gerund form as they follow a preposition.

1. Stephen decided on chicken instead -- (order/steak).

2. I'm interested -- (watch/film) by Ken Loach.

3. He apologised -- (be/late).

4. I certainly can't blame you -- (not/want) to come.

5. Magda's thinking -- (study/England).

6. We are really very excited -- (hike/Andes) this coming summer.

7. Simon isn't really used -- (walk/work).

8. We thanked them -- (drive/us/home) after the football game.

9. Could you please tell me who is responsible -- (accept/applications)?

10. I'm sure she has a good reason -- (not/be/here).

Keys.

1. of ordering steak

2. in watching a film

3. for being late

4. for not wanting

5. about/of studying in England

6. about hiking in the Andes

7. to walking to work

8. for driving us home

9. for accepting applications

10. for not being here


III. CONCLUSION

In the present qualification work we attempted to investigate the verbals, such part of speech formed from a verb that does not function as a verb. We chose the verbals as the theme of our qualification work because we interested in it. We used different kind of references to investigate the adjective. In other words, we mentioned that we studied the main aspects of English verbals: grammatical characteristics, their syntactical role, their semantics, and rule of correct use of English verbals.

A verbal is a part of speech formed from a verb that does not function as a verb. Verbals are sometimes referred to as non-finite verbs, meaning they do not, as finite verbs do, agree in person, number, and tense with a subject. Verbals do not take a subject; however, they can take a direct object or indirect object, and can be modified like verbs. There are three types of verbals: gerunds, participles, and infinitives.

An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The term verbal indicates that an infinitive, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence. Although an infinitive is easy to locate because of the to + verb form, deciding what function it has in a sentence can sometimes be confusing. An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the actor(s), direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the infinitive.

A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles end in -ing. Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen. A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the participle.

A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition. A Gerund Phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the gerund.

The present material can be used at the lessons of grammar, practical course of English language, lexicology, and speech practice in both: universities and English classes at schools. This paper can help to create the teaching aids, textbooks, etc. Teachers and students might use the results of the present work for the further investigations.


IV . Bibliography

1. Каушанская В.Л. и др. Грамматика английского языка (на английском языке). 1973 M.

2. Kaushanskaya et. al. A Grammar of the English Language (practice book) L.,Prosveshcheniye 1967

3. Ganshina and Vasilevskaya. English Grammar. M., 1953

4. Khaimovich B.S., Rogovskaya B.I. A Course in English Grammar. 1966 p

5. Воронцова Г. Н. Очерки по грамматике английского языка. М., 1960

6. Ilyish B.L., “The Structure of English Language” M. 1971

7. Jespersen. O. Essentials of English Grammar. N.Y., 1938

8. Бархударов Л. С., Штелинг Д. А. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1960

9. Bryant. M. A Functional English Grammar. Boston, 1945

10. Barber. Linguistic change in Present-Day English. Edinburgh, 1964

11. Ермолаева Л.С. Очерки по сопоставительной грамматике германских языков. – М.,1987.

12. Иванова И.П., Бурлакова В.В., Почепцов Г.Г. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка. – М.,1981.

13. Blokh M.Y. A Course in Theoretical English Grammar. – M.,1983.

14. Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка с упражнениями и ключами. М, 1997

15. Зятковская Р.Г. Суффиксальная система современного английского языка. – М., 1971.

16. Смирницкий А.И. Иностранные языки в школе. 1987

17. World Book Encyclopedia Vol.1 NY. 1993

18. Internet:http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs/theory.htm

19. Inbternet:http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/verbals.htm

20. Internet:http://edu.eng_grammar.com/verbs/nonfinite.htm

21. Internet:http://www.nvcc.edu/home/rorkwis/verbals/verbals


[1] The full list of works and authors is mentioned in bibliography to this qualification paper

[2] Ilyish B.L. “The Structure of English Language” M., 1971, p.178

[3] В.Л. Каушанская и др. Грамматика английского языка (на английском языке). 1973 M., c. 159

[4] В.Л. Каушанская и др. Грамматика английского языка (на английском языке). 1973 M. С. 161

[5] Шахматов А.А. Синтаксис русского языка. Вып, 11, Л., 1977, p.43

[6] Каушанская и др. Грамматика английского языка (на английском языке) с. 195

[7] Rarely used. See John Millington-Ward. Peculiarities in English. London, 1987, p 250

[8] Op. cit.

[9] Ganshina M., Vasilevskaya N., English Grammar, M., 1973, p.213

[10] Ganshina M., Vasilevskaya N., English Grammar, M., 1973, p.214

[11] Бархударов Л. С., Штелинг Д. А.. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1960, с.135

[12] Зятковская Р.Г. Суффиксальная система современного английского языка. – М., 1971. – 187 c.

[13] Зятковская Р.Г. Суффиксальная система современного английского языка. – М., 1971. – 188 с.

[14] World Book Encyclopedia Vol.1 NY. 1993 p.298

[15] Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода (статус, проблемы, аспекты). М., 1988. c.98

[16] B.S. Khaimovich, B.I. Rogovskaya. A Course in English Grammar. 1966 p. 98

[17] Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода (статус, проблемы, аспекты). М., 1988. c. 101

[18] Ilyish B.L. “The Structure of English Language” M., 1971, p.215

[19] Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода (статус, проблемы, аспекты). М., 1988. c. 119

[20] Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода (статус, проблемы, аспекты). М., 1988. c. 120

[21] B.S. Khaimovich, B.I. Rogovskaya. A Course in English Grammar. 1966 p. 127

[22] The example is borrowed from A Modern English Grammar by O. Jespersen p.219

[23] Ilyish B.L. “The Structure of English Language” M., 1971, p.159

[24] В.Л. Каушанская и др. Грамматика английского языка (на английском языке). 1973 M. C. 176

[25] Ilyish B.L. “The Structure of English Language” M., 1971, p.161

[26] Смирницкий А.И. Иностранные языки в школе. 1987, p. 116

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