регистрация / вход

Tourism. Types of tourism

Tourism is defined as the act of travel with the intentions of recreational pleasure. There are different types of tourism that can be enjoyed. Description and development of extreme tourism, cultural tourism, educational tourism, ecological tourism.

The Russian State University of Tourism and Service.

Tourism.Types of tourism

Tkachenko Anastasia

SKD-07-1

Moscow 2009


Content

1. Tourism

2. Types of tourism

2.1 Extreme tourism

2.2 Cultural tourism

2.3 Ecological tourism

2.4 Educational tourism

Topical vocabulary

Summary


1. Tourism

Tourism is defined as the act of travel with the intentions of recreational pleasure. The World Tourism Organization defines a tourist is someone who travels at least 50 miles or 80 kilometers away from their home, for the purpose of entertainment and pleasure. The terms tourist and tourism were first recognized in 1937 by the League of Nations, whose definition involved a person who traveled abroad for more than 24 hours. Tourism is the act of paying money to go from one place to another to see different and unique sights, has been a fact of civilized life since approximately the 12th century. Of course, back in those days it was basically the upper, upper classes that had the time, the money, and the interest in travelling from one spot to another. The word "travel" by the way comes from the medieval English word "travail" which means suffering great hardship, and that is a very good description of travel in its earliest days. Much has been written about the journeys of Marco Polo, who until recently was considered the world's first tourist. The advent of air travel in the 1930's heralded the true beginnings of what is called "tourism" today. People move from all around the country, whether by plane, boat, car, bus or train. Today's Travel for the Masses Data from the American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA) suggests that at any given moment of any given day, more than 2 million people around the world are in the process of traveling from one place to another. The world tourism organization claims that tourism is currently the worlds largest industry. With annual revenues of almost 3 trillion, its economic impact is second to that of only the weapons industry.


2. Types of tourism

There are different types of tourism that can be enjoyed. Some are listed below:

· Extreme tourism or shock tourism is a type of niche tourism involving travel to dangerous places (mountains, jungles, deserts, caves, etc.) or participation in dangerous events.

· Cultural tourism involves visiting historical or intersting cities, such as Paris, Shanghai, Rome or Warsaw. This is when tourists engage in cultural experiences, like visiting an art museum, theater or opera.

· Ecotourism involves traveling that does not pose a threat to the environment, such as safariing in Kenya. Ecotourism integrates tourism with ecology, offering wide varieties of landscapes and activities.

· Educational tourism developed because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge, and enhancing technical competency outside the classroom environment.

2.1 Extreme tourism

Extreme tourism or shock tourism is a type of niche tourism involving travel to dangerous places (mountains, jungles, deserts, caves, etc.) or participation in dangerous events. Extreme tourism overlaps with extreme sport. The two share the main attraction, "adrenaline rush" caused by an element of risk, and differing mostly in the degree of engagement and professionalism.Extreme tourism is a growing business in the countries of the former Soviet Union (Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, etc.) and in South American countries like Peru, Chile and Argentina. The mountainous and rugged terrain of Northern Pakistan has also developed into a popular extreme tourism location. While traditional tourism requires significant investments in hotels, roads, etc., extreme tourism requires much less to jump-start a business. In addition to traditional travel-based tourism destinations, various exotic attractions are suggested, such ice diving in the White Sea, or travelling across the Chernobyl zone. Demand for extreme tourism in Russia is greatly increased. Tourist’s firms actively offer rafting, traveling on horse back, by bicycle and motorcycle. More and more people are attracted by rafting, diving, pleasure flight on balloon and many others. Russians are testing their nerves more and more often nowadays. Extreme tourism is becoming very popular in the country. Extreme tourists Fyodor Konyukhov, Dmitri and Matvei Shparo have become symbols of Russian fearlessness, and their names are skillfully used as brand names by manufacturers of tourist equipment. Diving is very popular in the whole world. It is underwater diving with special apparatuses, providing a swimmer with breathing. Diving is both a sport and entertainment. Recently, diving has become one of the trendiest varieties of extreme tourism in Russia. As many as 15,000 Russians practice diving. They enjoy underwater scenery not only in warm seas - the Black Sea, for example, but also in cold waters of the Arctic Ocean. To practice the Black Sea diving you do not have to be rich. To do the same near the North Pole is quite a pricey affair. You should have at least a thousand dollars to pay for instruction lessons and special equipment. Military-style recreation is one of the most exotic types of extreme tourism offered by Russian tour agencies. It includes military-historical and military technical programs and is intended for those who would want to drive a tank, or fly a combat aircraft, or shoot live rounds. So far, this type of extreme activities is still being tested on tourist market.

2.2 Cultural tourism

Cultural tourismis the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, especially its arts. It generally focuses on traditional communities who have diverse customs, unique form of art and distinct social practices, which basically distinguishes it from other forms of culture. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communitiesand their values and lifestyle. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. This form of tourism is also becoming generally more popular throughout Europe.On the positive side are the unique cultural practices and arts that attract the curiosity of tourists and provide opportunities for tourism and economic development. On the negative side is the issue of how to control tourism so that those same cultural amenities are not destroyed and the people do not feel violated.

2.3 Ecological tourism

According to the definition and principles of ecotourism established by The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) in 1990, ecotourism is "Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people." Ecotourism (also known as ecological tourism) is a form of tourism, that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals. Generally speaking, ecotourism focuses on volunteering, personal growth and learning new ways to live on the planet. It typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Many locations have bеcоmе popular because of the growing worldwide interest in ecology. Ecotourism integrates tourism with ecology, offering wide varieties of landscapes and activities, including unspoiled bеасhes and coral reefs with productive marine systems, for scuba-diving enthusiasts; vast limestone caverns in highlands with trekking, mountain biking, sailing, rafting and other travel opportunities and miles and miles of empty beaches. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation and creation of economic opportunities for the local communities. Number of fans of ecotourism grows everywhere every year. This kind of tourism return people, tired of cities, forces and energy during contact with the nature and observation of it. The list of the UNESCO world heritage includes 5 Russian natural objects: primeval forests of Komi, Baikal lake, volcanoes of Kamchatka, golden Altai mountains, Western Caucasus. In these regions just ecotourism can help to conservancy.

2.4 Educational tourism

Educational tourism developed because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge, and enhancing technical competency outside the classroom environment. In the educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visitation of another country to learn about the culture of the visited country (Student Exchange Program and Study Tour) or to work and apply their learning inside the classroom in different environment (International Practicum Training Program).


Topical vocabulary

approximatelyприблизительно, близко

medievalсредневековый

suffering страдание, боль

currently теперь, в настоящее время

annual ежегодный

revenue доход, выручка

participation участие

significant значительный, важный

fearlessness неустрашимость, отвага

concerned заинтересованный, увлечённый

diverse иной, отличный от чего-л.

curiosity любознательность

conserve беречь, охранять

heritage наследство, наследие

definition определение, формулировка

require приказывать, требовать

skillful опытный, искусный

established учреждённый, установленный

conscious сознательный, осознанный

conservancy охрана природы


Summary

1.Tourism

The World Tourism Organization defines a tourist is someone who travels at least 50 miles or 80 kilometers away from their home, for the purpose of entertainment and pleasure.People move from all around the country, whether by plane, boat, car, bus or train.The world tourism organization claims that tourism is currently the world’s largest industry. With annual revenues of almost 3 trillion, its economic impact is second to that of only the weapons industry.

2.Types of tourism. There are different types of tourism that can be enjoyed. Some are listed below:

· Extreme tourism or shock tourism is a type of niche tourism involving travel to dangerous places (mountains, jungles, deserts, caves, etc.) or participation in dangerous events. Extreme tourism is a growing business in the countries of the former Soviet Union (Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, etc.) and in South American countries like Peru, Chile and Argentina. Extreme tourism requires much less to jump-start a business. Tourist’s firms actively offer rafting, traveling on horse back, by bicycle and motorcycle. Diving is very popular in the whole world. It is underwater diving with special apparatuses, providing a swimmer with breathing. Diving is both a sport and entertainment.

· Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It generally focuses on traditional communities who have diverse customs, unique form of art and distinct social practices.

· Ecotourism is "Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people." The list of the UNESCO world heritage includes 5 Russian natural objects: primeval forests of Komi, Baikal lake, volcanoes of Kamchatka, golden Altai mountains, Western Caucasus.

· Educational tourism developed because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge, and enhancing technical competency outside the classroom environment.

ОТКРЫТЬ САМ ДОКУМЕНТ В НОВОМ ОКНЕ

ДОБАВИТЬ КОММЕНТАРИЙ  [можно без регистрации]

Ваше имя:

Комментарий

Другие видео на эту тему