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Management of organization

The Nature of Management. The evolution of management thought. Planning and decision making. Organizing is an important managerial function. Strategic management. Staffing and human resource management. Communicating and motivation in management.

Одеський національний політехнічний університет

Менеджмент

Методичні вказівки до практичних занять з англійської мови за спеціальністю «Менеджмент» для студентів ІІ курсу

Передмова

Метою “Методичних вказiвок” є формування впродовж 72 годин аудиторних занять у студентів (вхідний рівень володіння мовою – В1) вмiнь та навичок читання, письма та говоріння за тематикою спеціальності «Менеджмент організацій» на ІІ курсі навчання Інституту бізнесу, економіки та інформаційних технологій (вихідний рівень володіння мовою – В2). За рахунок тренування і виконання читання текстів і комунікативних завдань студенти зможуть досягти практичного володіння англійською мовою за фахом.

Практичне володіння іноземною мовою в рамках даного курсу припускає наявність таких умінь в різних видах мовної комунікації, які дають можливість:

· вільно читати оригінальну літературу іноземною мовою у відповідній галузі знань;

· оформляти витягнуту з іноземних джерел інформацію у вигляді перекладу або резюме;

· робити повідомлення і доповіді іноземною мовою на теми, пов'язані з науковою роботою майбутнього фахівця;

· вести бесіду за фахом.

Кожний урок складається з тексту й комплекса мовних вправ, які розраховані на удосконалення навичок активізації словарного і граматичного мінімуму професійного спрямування. “Методичні вказiвки” забезпечують підготовку до міжнародного усного і письмового спілкування англійською мовою для спеціальних цілей, а саме - оволодіння лексичними, граматичними і стилістичними навичками, а також умінням розмовляти, читати, переписуватися, перекладати, конспектувати, згортати і розгортати усну і письмову англомовну інформацію наукового функціонального стилю, що передбачено вимогами Програми вивчення мов у нефілологічному ВУЗі.


Lesson 1 THE READING MODULE

Read the text: The Nature of Management

Management is an important area of study from both the personal and the global perspective. Formally defined, management is the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment. Central to this process is the effective and efficient use of limited resources. Managerial ability is the demonstrated capacity to achieve organizational objectives both effectively and efficiently.

The basic formula for managerial success is S=A x M x O (managerial success = ability x motivation to manage x opportunity). Managerial ability results when theory and practice are systematically integrated.

A small business is defined as an independently owned and managed profit-seeking enterprise employing fewer than 100 persons. Small business and public sector organizations afford managers some unique opportunities and challenges. Research indicates that small busi ness managers have a different managerial role profile than do managers in larger businesses. The axiom of the small business generalist and the large business specialist appears to be valid. "Lack of management expertise" was found by researchers to be the primary cause of the high failure rate in small businesses. In spite of a good deal of evidence to the contrary, public sector managers must cope with a negative image. Many people assume that bureaucrats are incompetent and wasteful. Four major constraints public sector managers must deal with are: legislated purposes(government agencies are told what to do by law-making bodies), no compe tition, weak incentives, and organizational inflexibility (large governmental bureaucracies have to be highly structured to provide standard services to millions of clients nationwide, reams of procedures and regulations can stifle innovation).

Slumping productivity growth in the United States took an upward swing in 1983-84 largely due to a maturing work force, lower inflation and cheaper energy, technological advancement, and increased labor-manage ment cooperation. Still, there is much room for improvement if the United States is to match Japan's record of productivity growth. It is important for managers to translate the productivity problem into organizational terms. Organizational productivity is the ratio of total input to total output, adjusted for inflation, for a specific period of time. Japan, with the world's highest rate of productivity growth, is an inspiring example of how to do more with less.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

objective, opportunity, challenge, valid, rate, productivity growth, labor, input, output, incentive, purpose, ratio, competition, room, improvement, advancement, inflexibility, evidence, failure

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) What does management study?

2) What is the primary cause of the high failure rate in small businesses?

3) What are four major constraints public sector managers must deal with?

4) What is organizational productivity?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. Small business and public sector organizations a) afford managers some unique opportunities and challenges.
2. Management is the process of working with and through others b) are incompetent and wasteful.
3. There is much room for improvement if the United States is c) to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment.
4. Many people assume that bureaucrats d) to match Japan's record of productivity growth.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

(Rising/slumping) productivity growth in the United States took an upward swing in 1983-84 largely due to a maturing work force, lower inflation and (cheaper/more expensive) energy, technological advancement, and increased labor-manage ment cooperation.

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describemanagement, organizational productivity, managerial ability, small business using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

management

to achieve, objectives, process, with and through, environment, changing

example:

Management is the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment. Central to this process is the effective and efficient use of limited resources.

organizational productivity

ratio, output, inflation, period of time, total, input

managerial ability

capacity, objectives, efficiently, to achieve, demonstrated

small business

enterprise, owned, profit-seeking, managed, employing, fewer, independently

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Research indicates that small busi ness managers have a different managerial role profile than do managers in larger businesses.

2) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: It is important for managers to translate the productivity problem into organizational terms.

3) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Small business and public sector organizations afford managers some unique opportunities and challenges.

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

a djusted, inspiring, of, rate, for, into

It is important _____ managers to translate the productivity problem____ organizational terms. Organizational productivity is the ratio ___ total input to total output,______ for inflation, for a specific period of time. Japan, with the world's highest ____ of productivity growth, is an ______example of how to do more with less.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Management is an important area of study”

“Small business management”

“Public sector management”


Lesson 2 . THE READING MODULE

Read the text: The evolution of management thought

Management thought has evolved in bits and pieces over the years. Although the practice of management dates back to the earliest recorded history, the systematic study of management is largely a product of the twentieth century. An information explosion in management theory has created a management theory jungle. Five conventional approaches to management are: (1) the universal process approach, (2) the operational approach, (3) the behavioral approach, (4) the systems approach, and (5) the contingency approach. A modern unconventional approach centers on Peters’ and Waterman's attributes of corporate excellence.

Henri Fayol's universal process approach assumes that all organiza tions, regardless of purpose or size, require the same management process. Furthermore, it assumes that this rational process can be reduced to separate functions and principles of management. The universal process approach, the oldest of the various approaches, is still popular today.

Dedicated to promoting production efficiency and reducing waste, the operational approach has evolved from scientific management to opera tions management. Frederick W. Taylor, the father of scientific manage ment, and his followers revolutionized industrial management through the use of standardization, time and motion study, selection and training, and pay incentives. Largely a product of the post-World War II era, operations management has broadened the scientific pursuit of efficiency to include all productive organizations. Operations management specialists often rely on sophisticated models and quantitative techniques.

Management has turned to the human factor in the human relations movement and organizational behavior. Emerging from such factors as unionization, the Hawthorne studies, and the philosophy of industrial humanism, the human relations movement began as a concerted effort to make employees' needs a high management priority. Today, organizational behavior tries to identify the multiple determinants of job performance.

Advocates of the systems approach recommend that modern organiza tion, he viewed as open systems. Open systems depend on the outside environment for survival, whereas closed systems do not. General systems theory, an interdisciplinary field based on the assumption that everything is systematically related, has identified a hierarchy of systems and has differentiated closed and open system.

The contingency approach is an effort to determine through research which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in specific situations. It is characterized by an open-system perspective, a practical research orientation, and a multivariate approach to research.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

approach, survival, behavior, pursuit, determinant, priority, quantitative techniques, waste, job performance, contingency, effort, environment

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) What are conventional approaches to management?

2) What does the universal process approach assume?

3) What has the operational approach evolved from?

4) What do operations management specialists often rely on?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. Today, organizational behavior tries a)the oldest of the various approaches, is still popular today.
2. Henri Fayol's universal process approach assumes b)the scientific pursuit of efficiency to include all productive organizations.
3.The universal process approach, c) to identify the multiple determinants of job performance.
4.Operations management has broadened d)that this rational process can be reduced to separate functions and principles of management.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

Dedicated to promoting production efficiency and (increasing/reducing) waste, the operational approach has (evolved/resumed) from scientific management to opera tions management.

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describeuniversal process approach, operational approach, behavioral approach, systems approach, contingency approach using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

universal process approach

the same, rational, assumes, regardless, size, require

example:

Henri Fayol's universal process approach assumes that all organiza tions, regardless of purpose or size, require the same management process. Furthermore, it assumes that this rational process can be reduced to separate functions and principles of management.

operational approach

waste, standardization, promoting, motion study, incentives, training

behavioral approach

unionization, human relations, priority, industrial humanism, employees' needs

systems approach

open systems, survival, related, closed system, environment, outside

contingency approach

perspective, orientation, research, open-system, multivariate, specific situations, managerial

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Although the practice of management dates back to the earliest recorded history, the systematic study of management is largely a product of the twentieth century.

2) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Management has turned to the human factor in the human relations movement and organizational behavior.

3) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: The contingency approach is an effort to determine through research which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in specific situations.

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

assumption; differentiated; outside; systems; is.

Open systems depend on the ______ environment for survival, whereas closed systems do not. General systems theory, an interdisciplinary field based on the _______ that everything ____ systematically related, has identified a hierarchy of _____ and has ______ closed and open system.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Five conventional approaches to management”

“The evolution of management thought”


Lesson 3 THE READING MODULE

Read the text: Planning and decision making

Planning has been labeled the primary management function because it sets the stage for all other aspects of management. Recent research has uncovered the following trends in corporate planning: more planners with actual management experience; greater teamwork, customizing, and flexibility; and more translation of broad strategies into how-to-do-it plans. Along with many other practical reasons for planning, two conceptual reasons for planning are limited resources and an uncertain environment. To cope with environmental uncertainty, organizations can respond as defenders, prospectors, analyzers, or reactors.

A properly written plan tells what, when, and how something is to be accomplished. Clearly written organizational mission statements tend to serve as a useful focal point for the planning process. Strategic, intermediate, and operational plans are formulated by top, middle, and lower-level management, respectively. Objectives have been called the single most important feature of the planning process. Well-written objectives spell out in measurable terms what should be accomplished and when it is to be accomplished. Good objectives help managers by serving as targets, act ing as measuring sticks, encouraging commitment, and strengthening motivation. Objective setting begins at the top of the organization and filters down, thus forming a means-ends chain. Priorities affect resource allocation by assigning relative importance to objectives. Plans are formu lated andexecuted as part of a more encompassing planning/control cycle.

Management by objectives (MBO) is an approach to planning and controlling that is based on measurable and participatively set objectives. MBO basically consists of four steps: (1) set objectives participatively, (2) develop action plans, (3) periodically reevaluate objectives and plans and monitor performance, and (4)conduct annual performance appraisals. Objective setting in MBO flows from top to bottom. MBO has both strengths and limitations and requires a supportive climate favorable to change, participation, and the sharing of authority.

Break-even analysis, or cost-volume-profit analysis, can be carried out algebraically or graphically. Either way, it helps planners gauge the potential impact of price changes and profit objectives on sales volume. A major limitation of break-even analysis is that specialized accounting knowledge is required to identify relevant fixed and variable costs.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

objective, target, measuring sticks, resource allocation, trend, teamwork, conceptual reasons, environmental, defender, respectively, priority, appraisal, gauge, profit

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) Why has planning been labeled the primary management function?

2) What are two conceptual reasons for planning?

3) Who formulates intermediate plans?

4) What is management by objectives based on?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. A properly written plan tells what, when, and how a) flows from top to bottom.
2. Objective setting in MBO b) organizations can respond as defenders.
3. Objectives have been called c) something is to be accomplished.
4. To cope with environmental uncertainty, d) the single most important feature of the planning process.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

Good objectives (hamper/help) managers by serving as targets, act ing as measuring sticks, (encouraging/discouraging) commitment, and strengthening motivation.


The speaking module

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describep lanning, objectives, MBO, cost-volume-profit analysis using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

planning

experience, recent, teamwork, how-to-do-it plans, stage, flexibility, corporate

example:

Planning has been labeled the primary management function because it sets the stage for all other aspects of management. Recent researches has uncovered the following trends in corporate planning: more planners with actual management experience; greater teamwork, customizing, and flexibility; and more translation of broad strategies into how-to-do-it plans

objectives

measurable, accomplish, when, terms, targets, commitment, spell out, motivation

MBO

objective, set, measurable, approach, controlling, planning, based

cost-volume-profit analysis

gauge, sales, carried out, planners, impact, volume, price, objectives

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Two conceptual reasons for planning are limited resources and an uncertain environment.

2) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Priorities affect resource allocation by assigning relative importance to objectives.

3) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Good objectives help managers by serving as targets, act ing as measuring sticks, encouraging commitment, and strengthening motivation.

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

assigning, executed, top, to, more.

Objective setting begins at the _____of the organization and filters down, thus forming a means-ends chain. Priorities affect resource allocation by ______relative importance _____ objectives. Plans are formu lated and______as part of a ______encompassing planning/control cycle.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Management by objectives”

“Trends in corporate planning”

“Objectives and the planning process”


Lesson 4 . THE READING MODULE

Read the text: Organizing

Organizing is Management of organizationan important managerial function that translates strategy into a systematic structure ofauthority relationships and task responsibilities. Contingency organization design has grown in popularity as environmental complexity has increased. Organization charts are helpful visual aids for organizers. Representing the organization’s structural skeleton, organization charts delineate vertical hierarchy and horizontal specialization.

The idea behind contingency design is to structure the organization to fit situational demands. Consequently, contingency advocates contend that there is no one best organizational setup for all situations. Diagnosing the degree of environmental uncertainty is an important first step in contingency design. Field studies have validated the assumption that organiza tion structure should vary according to the situation. Burns and Stalker discovered that mechanistic (rigid) organizations are effective when the environment is relatively stable and that organic (flexible) organizations are best when unstable conditions prevail. Lawrence and Lorsch found that differentiation (division of labor) and integration (cooperation among specialists) increased in successful organizations as environmental complexity increased.

There are four basic departmentalization formats, each with its own combination of advantages and disadvantages. Functional departmentalization is the most common approach. The others are product-service, geographic location, and customer departmentalization. In actual practice, these pure types of departmentalization usually are combined.

Design variables available to organizers are span of control (the number of people who report directly to a manager), decentralization, line and staff, and matrix. As organizers have come to realize that situational factors dictate how many people a manager can directly supervise, the notion of ideal span of control has become obsolete. Decentralization, the delegation of decision authority to lower-level managers, has been praised as being democratic and criticized for reducing top management’s control. Strategic business foster a high degree of decentralization. Line and staff organization helps balance specialization and unity of command. Functional authority serves to make staff organization more organic by giving staff specialists temporary and limited line authority. Matrix organizations are highly organic because they combine vertical and horizontal lines of authority to achieve coordinated control over complex projects.

Delegation of authority, although generally resisted for a variety of reasons, is crucial to decentralization. Effective delegation permit managers to tackle higher-priority duties while helping train and develop lower-level managers. Although delegation varies in degree, it never means abdicating primary responsibility.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

environmental complexity, contingency, relationships, responsibilities, advantage, differentiation, temporary, staff, rigid, flexible, authority, stable

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1)Why is organizing Management of organizationan important managerial function?

2)What is the idea behind contingency design?

3) What did Burns and Stalker discover?

4) What are design variables available to organizers?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. Decentralization, the delegation of decision authority to lower-level managers, has been praised a) as environmental complexity has increased.
2. Contingency organization design has grown in popularity b) by giving staff specialists temporary and limited line authority
3. Functional authority serves to make staff organization more organic c) each with its own combination of advantages and disadvantages.
4. There are four basic departmentalization formats, d) as being democratic and criticized for reducing top management’s control.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

As organizers have come to (deny/realize) that situational factors dictate how many people a manager can directly supervise, the notion of ideal span of control has (become/combined) obsolete.

The speaking module

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describe o rganization charts ; contingency design , decentralization, matrix organization, line and staff organization using the suggested words as in example:

organization charts

helpful, structural, horizontal, hierarchy, visual, skeleton, structural, delineate

example :

Organization charts are helpfulvisual aids for organizers. Representing the organization’s structural skeleton, organization charts delineate vertical hierarchy and horizontal specialization.

contingency design

demands, situations, uncertainty, to fit, setup, situational, all, environmental

decentralization

democratic, reducing, authority, delegation, praised, lower-level managers, control

matrix organization

organic, achieve, authority, horizontal, coordinated, combine, vertical, projects, because

line and staff organization

balance, command, functional, temporary, line, by giving, unity, staff, serves

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question:

Answer: There are four basic departmentalization formats, each with its own combination of advantages and disadvantages.

2) Question:

Answer:Strategic business foster a high degree of decentralization.

3) Question:

Answer: Diagnosing the degree of environmental uncertainty is an important first step in contingency design.

The writing module

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words: step, advocates, uncertainty,

fit, should

The idea behind contingency design is to structure the organization to _____ situational demands. Consequently, contingency ______ contend that there is no one best organizational setup for all situations. Diagnosing the degree of environmental ______ is an important first _____ in contingency design. Field studies have validated the assumption that organiza tion structure _______ vary according to the situation.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“ Organizing is Management of organizationan important managerial function”

“Basic departmentalization formats”

“Design variables available to organizers”


Lesson 5 The reading module

Read the text: Strategic management

Strategic management sets the stage for virtually all managerial activity. Managers at all levels need to think strategically and be familiar with the strategic management process for three reasons: farsightedness is encour aged, the rationale behind top-level decisions becomes more apparent, and strategy formulation and implementation are more decentralized today. Strategic management is defined as the ongoing process of ensuring a competitively superior fit between the organization and its ever-changing environment. Strategic management effectively merges strategic planning, implementation, and control.

Strategic thinking, the ability to look ahead and spot key organization/ environment interdependencies, is necessary for successful strategic man agreement and planning. Three tools that can help managers think strate gically are synergy (the 2 +2 =5 effect), product life cycles that trace the life of a product through its introduction, growth, maturity, and decline stages and Porter's three generic strategies. Porter's three strategies are overall cost leadership, differentiation, and focus.

The strategic management process consists of four major steps: (1) formulation of grand strategy, (2) formulation of strategic plans, (3) implementation of strategic plans, and (4) strategic control. Ongoing evaluation after each of these steps and corrective action based on feedback help keep the strategic management process on track. Strategists formulate the organization’s grand strategy by conducting a situational analysis and identifying the driving forces. Results-oriented strategic plans that specify what, when, and how are then formulated and translated downward into more specific and shorter-term intermediate and operational plans. Problems encountered along the way should be detected by the strategic control or by ongoing evaluation and subjected to corrective action.

Event outcome, event timing, and time series forecasts help strategic planners anticipate and prepare for future environmental circumstances. Event outcome forecasts are used when strategists want to predict the outcome of a highly probable future event. Event timing forecasts predict when, if ever, a given event will occur. Time series forecasts seek to determine future values in a sequence of values recorded at fixed intervals. Popular forecasting techniques among today’s managers are informed judgment, surveys, and trend analysis.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

farsightedness, rationale, implementation, synergy, growth, maturity, decline stages, leadership, feedback, forecasting, merge, ongoing process, differentiation

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) Why should managers at all levels need to think strategically and be familiar with the strategic management process?

2) What is strategic thinking?

3) What tools can help managers?

4) What is ongoing evaluation based on?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1.Strategic thinking

a)are translated downward into more specific operational plans

2. Results-oriented strategic plans

b)is necessary for successful strategic man agement and planning.

3. Strategic management effectively

c) are more decentralized today.
4.Strategy formulation and implementation d) merges strategic planning, implementation, and control.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

Problems (predicted/encountered) along the way should be detected by the strategic control or by ongoing evaluation and (subjected/implemented) to corrective action.

The speaking module

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describe strategic management, strategic thinking,result-oriented strategic plans, time series forecasts, event timing forecasts

using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

strategic management

ensuring, ongoing, environment, competitively, fit, ever-changing, implementation

example:

Strategic management is defined as the ongoing process of ensuring a competitively superior fit between the organization and its ever-changing environment. Strategic management effectively merges strategic planning, implementation, and control.

strategic thinking

interdependencies, planning, ability, synergy, cycles, tools, environment, look ahead

result-oriented strategic plans

downward, when, operational, translated, what, shorter-terms, how, intermediate

time series forecasts

values, intervals, determine, sequence, fixed, seek, future, at

event timing forecasts

occur, event, given, predict, if ever, will

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question:

Answer: Strategic management effectively merges strategic planning, implementation, and control.

2) Question:

Answer: Popular forecasting techniques among today’s managers are informed judgment, surveys, and trend analysis.

3) Question:

Answer: Event outcome, event timing, and time series forecasts help strategic planners anticipate and prepare for future environmental circumstances.

The writig module

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentence with the suggested words:

trace, that, through, decline, strate gically

Three tools ____ can help managers think ______ are synergy, product life cycles that _____ the life of a product _____ its introduction, growth, maturity, and ______ stages and Porter's three generic strategies.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“ Strategic thinking”

“Major steps of strategic management”

“Forecasts in management”

Lesson 6 The reading module

Read the text: Organizations

Organizations need to be understood and intelligently managed because they are an ever-present feature of modern life. When people gather together and formally agree to combine their efforts for a common purpose, an organization is the result. All organizations, whatever their purpose, have four characteristics: (1) coordination of effort, (2) common goal or purpose, (3) division of labor, and (4) hierarchy of authority. If one of these characteristics is absent, an organization does not exist. Coordination of efforts multiplies individual contributions. A common goal or purpose gives organization members a rallying point. By systematically dividing complex tasks into specialized jobs, an organization can efficiently use its human resources. Division of labor permits organization member to become more proficient by repeatedly doing the same specialized task. Organization theorists have defined authority as the right to direct the action of others. Without a recognized hierarchy of authority, coordination of effort is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.

Organizational classifications aid systematic analysis and study of organizations. There is no universally accepted classification scheme among organization theorists. Two useful ways of classifying organizations are by purpose and technology. In regard to purpose, organizations can be classified as business, not-for-profit service, mutual benefit, or common weal. In regard totechnology, there are long-linked, mediating, and inten sive technologies. Each of these technologies has characteristic strengths and weaknesses.

Modern organization theorists tend to prefer open-system thinking because it realistically incorporates organizations' environmental dependency. Early manage ment writers proposed tightly controlled authoritarian organizations. Max Weber, a German sociologist, applied the label bureaucracy to his formula for the most rationally efficient type of organization. Bureaucracies are characterized by their division of labor, hierarchy of authority, framework of rules, and impersonality. Unfortunately, in actual practice, bureaucracy has become a synonym for a red tape and inefficiency. The answer to this bureaucratic paradox is to understand that bureaucracy is a matter of degree. When bureaucratic characteristics, which are present in all organizations, are carried to an extreme, efficiency gives way to inefficiency.

Barnard’s acceptance theory of authority and growing environmental complexity and uncertainty questioned traditional organization theory. Open-system thinking became a promising alternative because it was useful in explaining the necessity of creating flexible and adaptable rather than rigid organizations.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

impact, purpose, goal, not-for-profit service, mutual benefit, common weal, division of labor, hierarchy of authority, framework of rules, impersonality, bureaucracy, red tape, inefficiency

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) Why do organizations need to be understood and intelligently managed?

2) What systems do modern organization theorists tend to prefer?

3) What are bureaucracies characterized by?

4) When does efficiency give way to inefficiency?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. By systematically dividing complex tasks into specialized jobs, a)are by purpose and technology
2. Bureaucracies are characterized b)an organization can efficiently use its human resources.
3. Modern organiza tion theorists tend to prefer open-system thinking c) by their division of labor, hierarchy of authority, framework of rules, and impersonality.
4.Two useful ways of classifying organizations d)because it realistically incorporates organizations' environmental dependency.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

When bureaucratic characteristics, which are present in all organizations, are (carried/divided) to an extreme, efficiency (grows/gives) way to inefficiency.

The speaking module

II. Speaking Exercises

Exercise 1. Describe : organizations, division of labor, authority, organization by purpose, organization by technology

using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

organizations

purpose, effort, characteristics, together, common, hierarchy, authority, coordination

example:

When people gather together and formally agree to combine their efforts for a common purpose, an organization is the result. All organizations, whatever their purpose, have four characteristics: (1) coordination of effort, (2) common goal or purpose, (3) division of labor, and (4) hierarchy of authority.

division of labor

proficient, the same, permits, member, repeatedly, task, specialized

authority

coordination, hierarchy, effort, direct, achieve, recognized, action, others

organization by purpose

benefit, not-for-profit, commonweal, business, mutual, can be

organization by technology

intensive, long-linked, technologies, mediating

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question:

Answer: Max Weber, a German sociologist, applied the label bureaucracy to his formula for the most rationally efficient type of organization .

2) Question:

Answer: Organizational classifications aid systematic analysis and study of organizations.

3) Question:

Answer: Coordination of efforts multiplies individual contributions .

The writing module

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

flexible, thinking, because, complexity, acceptance

Barnard’s _____ theory of authority and growing environmental ______ and uncertainty questioned traditional organization theory. Open-system _____ became a promising alternative _____ it was useful in explaining the necessity of creating _____ and adaptable rather than rigid organizations.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Major characteristics of organizations”

“Traditional and modern views of organizations”

“Bureaucracy”


Lesson 7 The reading module

Read the text: Staffing and Human Resource Management

A synergistic Management of organizationrelationship exists between individuals and their employing organizations. But students have strong concerns about their future organ izational life, especially about the quality of supervision they will experi ence. Apart from the formal employment contract, an informal and often unspoken psychological contract exists between employee and employer. Serious dissatisfaction can set in when the terms of an individual's psycho logical contract are not met. According to Argyris's incongruency thesis, the principles of formal organization tend to encourage psychological immaturity in the average employee. He believes that the demands of the typical organization are incongruent with the psychological needs of the individual, and individuals naturally strive to be mature but the organizations that employ them often encourage immature behavior.

Within the context of strategic human resource management, staffing encompasses humanresource planning, acquisition, and development aimed at providing the talent necessary for organizational success. Four key staffing activities necessarily linked to organizational strategy and structure are: (1) human resource planning, (2) selection, (3) perform ance appraisal, and (4) training. A systems approach to human resource planning will help management devise staffing strategies for future hu man resource needs. As the organization's gatekeeper for vital human resources, employee selection should be more than a haphazard process of looking around for people to fill vacancies. There are relative advantages to promoting an insider as opposed to transferring in or hiring an outsider. Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws require managers to make hiring and other personnel decisions on the basis of ability to perform rather than personal prejudice. Because interviews are the most popular employee screening device, experts recommend structured rather than traditional, informal interviews. A structured interview may be defined as a series of job-related questions with predetermined answers that are constantly applied across all interviews for a particular job.

Legally defensible performance appraisals (the process of evaluating individual job performance) enable managers to make objective personnel decisions. Of the three general approaches to performance appraisal – trait, behavior, and outcome – the behavior-oriented approach is the most strongly recommended. The rationale is that behavior, not personal traits or abilities, is ultimately responsible for job success or failure. Listed in declining order of popularity, six common performance appraisal techniques are goal setting, written essays, critical incidents (specific instances of inferior and superior performance are documented by the supervisor when they occur), graphic rating scales, weighted checklists (evaluators check appropriate adjectives or behavioral descriptions that have predetermined weight), and ranking/comparisons. Managers are challenged both to evaluate performance and to develop human potential during the performance appraisal process. This dilemma can be partially resolved by encouraging subordinates to engage in self-evaluation before offering constructive feedback on performance.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

synergistic Management of organizationrelationship, employer, employee, dissatisfaction, term, incongruency, immaturity, average, acquisition, trait, defensible, vital, vacancy, hiring, outsider, prejudice, haphazard.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) Why do student have strong concerns about their future organ izational life?

2) What does staffing encompass?

3) What are key staffing activities?

4) What is the most popular employee screening device?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:


1. Legally defensible performance appraisals

a) staffing encompasses human resource planning, acquisition, and development.
2. A systems approach to human resource planning b) when the terms of an individual's psycho logical contract are not met.

3. Serious dissatisfaction can set in

c) will help management devise staffing strategies for future hu man resource needs
4. Within the context of strategic human resource management, d) enable managers to make objective personnel decisions.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws (require/offer) managers to make hiring and other personnel decisions on the basis of ability to (transform/perform) rather than personal prejudice.

The speaking module

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describe staffing, incongruency thesis, structured interview, performance appraisals, behavior-oriented approach, critical incidents using the suggested words and expressions as in example:

staffing

success, resource, acquisition, organizational, development, necessary, encompasses

example:

Staffing encompasses humanresource planning, acquisition, and development aimed at providing the talent necessary for organizational success.

incongruency thesis

encourage, psychological needs, immaturity, behavior, strive, average, mature

structured interview

questions, predetermined, particular, constantly, series, applied, answers

performance appraisals

evaluating, objective, defensible, personnel, legally, make enable, individual

behavior-oriented approach

traits, failure, responsible, rationale, abilities, job, ultimately, personal

critical incidents

inferior, performance, documented, superior, occur, instances, supervisor

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question:

Answer: There are relative advantages to promoting an insider as opposed to transferring in or hiring an outsider.

2) Question:

Answer: Apart from the formal employment contract, an informal and often unspoken psychological contract exists between employee and employer.

3) Question:

Answer: A systems approach to human resource planning will help management devise staffing strategies for future hu man resource needs.

The writing module

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words: resolved, feedback, subordinates, both, during

Managers are challenged _____ to evaluate performance and to develop human potential _____ the performance appraisal process. This dilemma can be partially ________ by encouraging _____ to engage in self-evaluation before offering constructive ________ on performance.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Staffing”

“Performance appraisals”

“Human Resource Management”


Lesson 8 The reading module

Read the text: Communicating

Observational research indicates that managers at all levels spend the majority of their workday communicating. Communication is a social process involving the transfer of information and understanding. Links in the communication process include sender, encode, medium, decode, receiver, and feedback. Noise is not an integral part of the chainlike communication process, but it may influence the process at any or all points. As the term is used here, noise is any interference with the normal flow of understanding from one person to another.

Perception is important to communication because it helps senders and receivers give meanings to environmental stimuli, including messages. Three perceptual subprocesses are selectivity, organization, and inter pretation. Perceptual defense enables one to screen out irrelevant stimuli, and perceptual set does the opposite. Grouping, figure-ground, and closure help people perceptually organize otherwise meaningless stimuli. Specialists often interpret situations differently because of their restricted perspectives.

Four dynamics of organizational communication are structural consid erations, the grapevine, nonverbal communication, and upward communication. Research suggestsa trend toward greater centralization of the overall communication function. The unofficial and informal communication system that sometimes complements and sometimes disrupts the formal communication system has been labeled the grapevine. A sample of managers surveyed had predominantly negative feelings toward it. Recognizing that the grapevine cannot be extinguished, managers are advised to monitor it constructively. Nonverbal communication, including facial, gestural, and postural body language, accounts for most of the impact of face-to-face communication. Managers can become more effective communicators by doing a better job of receiving and giving nonverbal communication. Upward communication refers to a process of systematically encouraging subordinates to share with management their feelings and ideas. It can be stimulated by using formal grievance procedures, employee attitude and opinion surveys, suggestion boxes, an open-door policy, informal gripe session, task forces, and exit interviews.

Process, physical, semantic, and psychosocial barriers and sexist communication are common organizational communication problems. Awareness of the various barriers can improve communication effectiveness. Constructive steps also can be taken to become a better listener, writer, and meeting chairperson.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

transfer, sender, receiver, decode, interference, perception, interpretation, perceptual defense, restricted perspectives, disrupt, sample, attitude, opinion survey, grievance, extinguish, feedback

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1)What is communication?

2)Why is perception important?

3)How can managers become more effective communicators?

4)What enables one to screen out irrelevant stimuli?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1.Perception is important to communication

a) structural consid erations, the grapevine, nonverbal communication, and upward communication.

2.Research suggestsa trend toward b)because it helps senders and receivers give meanings to environmental stimuli, including messages.

3.Communication is a social process

c)greater centralization of the overall communication function.
4.Four dynamics of organizational communication are

d)the transfer of information and understanding.


Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

(Recognizing/disagreeing) that the grapevine cannot be extinguished, managers are (dissuaded/advised) to monitor it constructively.

The speaking module

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describe communication, noise, grapevine, nonverbal communication, upward communication using the suggested words and expressions as in example:

communication

receiver, links, process, medium, transfer, feedback, sender, social, involving

example :

Communication is a social process involving the transfer of information and understanding. Links in the communication process include sender, encode, medium, decode, receiver, and feedback.

noise

interference, flow, person, chainlike, influence, integral, process, understanding

grapevine

disrupt, unofficial, complements, informal, communication, sometimes, system

nonverbal communication

effective, face-to-face, body language, including, communicators, gestural, impact, facial

upward communication

share, ideas, opinion, open-door policy, subordinates, feelings, surveys, grievance, attitude

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question:

Answer: Spe cialists often interpret situations differently because of their restricted perspectives.

2) Question:

Answer: Perceptual defense enables one to screen out irrelevant stimuli, and perceptual set does the opposite.

3) Question:

Answer: Managers can become more effective communicators by doing a better job of receiving and giving nonverbal communication

The writing module

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words: meaningless, does, screen, perceptual, closure

Three ______subprocesses are selectivity, organization, and inter pretation. Perceptual defense enables one to ______ out irrelevant stimuli, and perceptual set _____the opposite. Grouping, figure-ground, and ______help people perceptually organize otherwise ______stimuli.

Exercise 3. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Communication is a social process”

“Perception is essential to communication”

“Four dynamics of organizational communication”


Lesson 9 The reading module

Read the text: Motivation

Motivation refers to psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. It is an important area of study for managers because it helps them better understand our most valuable resource, people. (Realistically, motivation is just one of many explanations of work behavior, such as one’s knowledge and emotional state and organizational factors.) Even though the employees in one study ranked “interesting work” the highest among the things they wanted from their jobs, their supervisors believed that wanted “good wages” above all else. This type of misperception of employees’ needs can cripple a motivation program. Pollster D. Yankelovich contends that traditional motivation tools such as fear, money, strict supervision, and the work ethic are inappropriate for nearly half of today’s labor force in the USA.

Among alternative motivation theories, Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and expectancy theory stand out as particularly relevant for managers. According to Maslov’s message, people always have needs, and when one need is relatively fulfilled, others emerge in a predictable sequence to take its place. His five-level needs hierarchy, although empirically criticized, makes it clear to managers that people are motivated by emerging rather than fulfilled needs. Assuming that job satisfaction and performance are positively related, Herzberg believes that the most that wages and working conditions can do is eliminate sources of dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the key to true satisfaction and hence motivation is an enriched job that provides an opportunity for achievement, responsibility, and personal growth. Expectancy theory is based on the idea that the strength of one's motivation to work is the product of perceived probabilities of acquiring personally valued rewards. Both effort-performance and performance-reward probabilities are important to expectancy theory.

Depending on how it is designed, a job can either hamper or promote personal growth and satisfaction. Although historically a key to higher productivity, specialization of labor has been associated with costly human problems in recent years. Managers have the options of fitting people to jobs or fitting jobs to people when attempting to counter the specialization-of-labor dilemma. The first option includes realistic job previews (honest explanations of what a job actually entails), job rotation( periodically moving people from one specialized job to another), and limited exposure (establishing a challenging yet but fair daily performance standard or quota, and letting employees go home when it is reached). Managers who pursue the second option, fitting jobs to people, can either enlarge (combine two or more tasks into a single job) or enrich (redesign a job to increase its motivating potential)jobs. Job enrichment vertically loads jobs to meet individual needs for meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results. Personal desire for growth and a supportive climate are required for successful job enrichment.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

Misperception, strict supervision, inappropriate, job satisfaction, enriched job, achievement, responsibility, personal growth, expectancy theory, perceived probabilities, hamper, exposure.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) Why is motivation an important area of study for managers?

2) What can cripple a motivation program?

3) What is the key to true satisfaction, according to Herzberg?

4) What idea is expectancy theory based on?

Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. Managers have the options of fitting people to jobs or fitting jobs to people a) are inappropriate for nearly half of today’s labor force in the USA
2. Yankelovich contends that traditional motivation tools b) the most that wages and working conditions can do is eliminate sources of dissatisfaction.
3. Herzberg believes that c) are important to expectancy theory.
4. Both effort-performance and performance-reward probabilities d) when attempting to counter the specialization-of-labor dilemma.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

Expectancy theory is based on the idea that the (weakness/strength) of one's motivation to work is the product of perceived probabilities of acquiring personally (valued/rejected) rewards.

The speaking module

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describemotivation, needs hierarchy theory, two-factor theory, expectancy theory , limited exposure using the suggested words and expressionsas in example:

motivation

valuable, behavior, purpose, knowledge, psychological, direction, understand

example

Motivation refers to psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. It is an important area of study for managers because it helps them better understand our most valuable resource, people. Motivation is one of many explanations of work behavior, such as one’s knowledge and emotional state and organizational factors.

needs hierarchy theory

predictable, relatively, sequence, emerge, needs, fulfilled, place, motivated, predictable

two-factor theory

enriched, opportunity, responsibility, satisfaction, provides, growth, job

expectancy theory

rewards, acquiring, product, probabilities, performance, effort, valued, personally

limited exposure

performance, quota, home, reached, fair, go, daily, letting, establishing

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question:

Answer: Job enrichment vertically loads jobs to meet individual needs for meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results.

2) Question:

Answer: Depending on how it is designed, a job can either hamper or promote personal growth and satisfaction.

3) Question:

Answer: Managers have the options of fitting people to jobs or fitting jobs to people when attempting to counter the specialization-of-labor dilemma.

The writing module

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words: misperception, though, above, from, ranked

Even _____the employees in one study _____“interesting work” the highest among the things they wanted _____their jobs, their supervisors believed that wanted “good wages” ______all else. This type of _____ of employees’ needs can cripple a motivation program.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Motivation is an important area of study for managers”

“Motivation theories”

“Job design”


Lesson 10 The reading module

Read the text: Group dynamics

Managers need a working understanding of group dynamics because groups are the basic social building blocks of organizations. Both informal (friendship) and formal (work) groups are made up of two or more freely interacting individuals who have a common identity and purpose. After someone has been attracted to a group, cohesiveness—a "we" feelings encourages continued membership. Roles are social expectations for behavior in a specific position, whereas norms are more general standards for conduct in a given social setting. Norms are enforced because they help the group survive, clarify role expectations, protect self-images, and enhance the group's identity by emphasizing key values. Compliance with role expectations and norms is rewarded with social reinforcement; non-compliance is punished by criticism, ridicule, and ostracism. Ostracism, or rejection from the group, is figuratively the capital punishment of group dynamics. Informal groups derive much of their power over individual through the ever present threat of ostracism.

Mature groups that are characterized by mutual acceptance, encourage ment of minority opinion, and minimal emotional conflict are the product of a developmental process with identifiable stages. During the first three stages – orientation, conflict and challenge, and cohesion – power and authority problems are resolved. Groups are faced with the obstacle of uncertainty over interpersonal relations during the last three stages – delusion (members believe that all the difficult emotional problems have been solved), disillusion (the delusion of unlimited goodwill wears off, and there is a growing disenchantment with how things are turning out), and acceptance (greater personal and mutual understanding helps members adapt to situations without causing problems). Committees have a widespread reputation for inefficiency and ineffectivenessbecause they tend to get stalled in an early stage of group development.

Trust is a key ingredient of effective group action that is clearly evident in Japanese management but often underutilized by American managers. When work group members trust one another, there will be a more active exchange of information, more interpersonal influence, and hence greater self-control. Managers who prefer either/or thinking, rely solely on hard data, and envision the world as basically an unsafe place foster a climate of mistrust. Political tactics such as posturing, empire building, making the boss look good, creating power and loyalty cliques, and destructive competition need to be kept in check if a healthy degree of trust is to be achieved.

Although a fairly high degree of conformity is necessary if organizations andsociety in general are to function properly, blind conformity is ultimately dehumanizing and destructive. Research shows that individuals have a strong tendency to bend to the will of the majority, even if the majority is clearly wrong. Cohesive decision-making groups can be victimized by groupthink when unanimity becomes more important than critically evaluating alternative courses of action.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:

cohesiveness, compliance with, mutual acceptance, delusion, disillusion, interpersonal influence, envision, mistrust, loyalty, destructive, conformity, minority, obstacle

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1)What obstacles are groups faced with?

2)What is compliance with role expectations and norms rewarded with?

3)Why is trust a key ingredient of effective group action?

4)Why are norms enforced?


Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. Mature groups that are characterized by a) whereas norms are more general standards for conduct in a given social setting.
2 When work group members trust one another b)because they tend to get stalled in an early stage of group development.
3. Roles are social expectations for behavior in a specific position c) there will be a more active exchange of information, more interpersonal influence.
4. Committees have a widespread reputation for inefficiency and ineffectiveness d)mutual acceptance, encourage ment of minority opinion, and minimal emotional conflict.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

Compliance with role expectations and norms is (stalled/rewarded) with social reinforcement; non-compliance is (punished/accepted) by criticism, ridicule, and ostracism.

The speaking module

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describe mature groups, trust, ostracism, norms, disillusion

using the suggested words and expressions as in example:

Mature groups

Emotional conflict, developmental process, encouragement, identifiable, opinion, are characterized by.

example: Mature groups that are characterized by mutual acceptance, encourage ment of minority opinion, and minimal emotional conflict are the product of a developmental process with identifiable stages.

ostracism

informal, punishment, power, rejection, derive, threat, individual, present

trust

information, influence, effective, one another, interpersonal, a key ingredient

norms

setting, survive, enhance, identity, enforced, self-images, clarify, standards

disillusion

wears off, disenchantment, how, turning out, goodwill, growing, things, unlimited,

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question:

Answer: Committees have a widespread reputation for inefficiency and ineffectivenessbecause they tend to get stalled in an early stage of group development.

2) Question:

Answer: Groups are faced with the obstacle of uncertainty over interpersonal relations during the last three stages.

3) Question:

Answer: Managers who prefer either/or thinking, rely solely on hard

data, and envision the world as basically an unsafe place foster a climate of mistrust.

The writing module

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words: victimized, majority, than, tendency, shows.

Research _____that individuals have a strong ______ to bend to the will of the majority, even if the ______ is clearly wrong. Cohesive decision-making groups can be ______ by groupthink when unanimity becomes more important _____ critically evaluating alternative courses of action.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Formal and informal groups”

“Mature groups”

“Trust and mistrust in groups”

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