Abortion Essay Research Paper Abortion 1Running head

Abortion Essay, Research Paper Abortion 1 Running head: ABORTION A Study of the Facts and Points of Views on Abortion Sociology 200-10 November 12, 1999

Abortion Essay, Research Paper

Abortion 1

Running head: ABORTION

A Study of the Facts and

Points of Views on Abortion

Sociology 200-10

November 12, 1999

Abortion 2

Table of Contents

Page

I. Introduction

Today in the United States 3

Objective of Research Paper 3

II. Review of Literature

Conception 3

Statistics 4

Surgical Abortions 5

Non-Surgical Abortions 7

Pro-Choice Point-of-View 7

Pro-Life Point-of-View 8

III. Conclusion

Quote – The Prophet 9

Gifts 10

Life 10

IV. References 11

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A Study of the Facts and

Points of Views on Abortion

Introduction

Today in the United States

Today, policies regarding legal abortion in the United States are being debated everywhere from the halls of Congress to the street corners of our smallest towns. In the United States, the pro-choice and pro-life movements are both powerful and active. At this time compromise appears to be impossible.

Objective of Research Paper

The objective of this research paper was to determine different facts and point-of-views on abortion. I myself am a pro-lifer and sorry to say bias on the subject, though in this paper I tried to put that aside and be open-minded. It is my intent to present a review of the literature on conception and 1st, 2nd, & 3rd trimester abortions, discuss differences in beliefs and point of views, and present my opinion on this highly controversial subject of abortion.

Review of Literature

Conception

The baby is conceived at the moment the male sperm unites with the mother’s egg (Stewart, 1992a). The single cell, which is then formed, can now be called a zygote. If the pregnancy is normal, then the zygote will multiply and form itself into several other cells, then it will travel through the fallopian tube, enter the womb (the uterus), it will then implant itself into the uterine wall. When

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the process of implantation has been completed, one to two weeks after conception, it can then be stated that the pregnancy is well established and on its

way to the full development of the baby, and that the zygote can now be called an embryo.

As soon as the placenta and the umbilical cord have become established, the embryo can then take the nourishment that it needs through these two things. The umbilical cord and the placenta provide nourishment to the baby from the blood of the mother so that it can grow primitive limbs and organs.

The baby’s heart starts beating by the time it has become three weeks old (that is also eighteen days) (Stewart, 1996a). By the age of forty-five days, the baby has detectable brain waves. Arms, legs, fingers, toes, and feet are all formed by the eighth week, and by the twelfth week, the baby will begin to suck its thumb. Most babies can live outside of the womb by the time they are twenty to twenty-eight weeks old. Birth generally will occur when the baby is anywhere from thirty-eight weeks old to forty weeks old.

Statistics

Every year there are more then one point six million abortions performed in the United States alone (Baker, 1995). As of 1987, twenty-one percent of women in America that were between the ages of fifteen and forty-four had an abortion. If this rate, persists, then this percentage will grow, and by the time menopause is reached, forty-six percent of the women in the United States will have had at least one abortion (Lunneborg, 1992). These estimates can also be

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made because for every five children born in the United States, there will be two abortions performed. British Sociologist Collin Francome has predicted that

more than four out of every ten American women will have at least one abortion in their life (Lunneburg, 1992).

Of the one point six million abortions performed per year only five to six percent are done to benefit the health of the mother (Stewart, 1996b). That leaves ninety three percent of the abortions are not down for the health of the mother. Another forty percent of these abortions are down by women who have had previous abortions (David, 1995).

According to Congress, about 89% of abortions are done in the first trimester (three months); they total about 1.4 million/year in the United States. About 140,000 second trimester (four to six months) abortions are performed yearly; representing about 9% of the total. About 2% of abortions are preformed in the third trimester (seven to eight months) of pregnancy, that’s 3,200. However, the fact, unavoidable on hard paper, is that out of the thousands of abortion centers, a single abortion center in New Jersey committed over three thousand 3rd trimester abortions per year (Rosenblatt, 1992). There is also a clinic in New York that commits more then a few thousand per year.

Surgical Abortions

One type of technique used during the first trimester is the suction curettage (vacuum aspiration) (Baker, 1995). This technique is used early in the 1st trimester. The cervix is dilated with a series of instruments. A tube is inserted

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into the uterus and connected to a strong vacuum. The embryo is removed by suction.

Another type of technique, which is performed later in the 1st trimester, is dilation and curettage (D & C). It is the same technique used after miscarriages (Baker, 1995). The cervix is dilated. An instrument with a sharp loop at the end is inserted into the uterus. The inside wall of the uterus is scrapped; the lining and the embryo is removed by suction.

The only technique used in 2nd trimester abortions is dilation and evacuation (D & E). A material made of seaweed (laminaria) is placed in the cervix in order to dilate it widely. Forceps are then used to remove the baby/fetus, in pieces.

One type of technique performed in the 3rd trimester is saline or prostaglandin abortions. A needle is fed through the woman’s abdomen into the liquid that surrounds the baby/fetus. A saline solution, made of salt and water, is

passed through the needle. The baby/fetus dies of salt poisoning. Labor follows, and a dead baby/fetus is delivered. The salt burns the skin of the baby/fetus.

Another type of technique performed in the 3rd trimester is called partial birth abortion. The woman’s cervix is dilated, and the baby/fetus is pulled feet

first through the birth canal, everything but the head will be delivered. The surgeon then jabs a sharp object into the back of the baby/fetus’ head, removes

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it, and inserts a vacuum tube through which the brains are extracted. The head of the baby/fetus contracts at this point and allows the fetus to be more easily removed from the womb.

Non-Surgical Abortions

The first type of non-surgical abortion is a combination of two drugs (methorexate and misoprostol) will usually terminate the pregnancy if given at seven weeks or less of conception. Methotrexate prevents the cells in the embryo from dividing. Misoprostol causes the womb to contract. Blood clots will be passed. The embryo is usually expelled within a week. One complication of this procedure is that it is only about 90% reliable; the embryo is not expelled, but continues to grow. Because of the nature of the medication used, it will almost certainly be seriously deformed.

Another type of non-surgical abortion is the RU-486 pill. This pill is taken no later than nine weeks after the start of the last menstrual period. It is an

antiprogestin. It binds itself to progesterone receptors on the wall of the uterus thus blocking the effect of the woman’s natural progesterone. This triggers the shedding of the uterine wall, much like a normal period. RU-486 also opens the

cervix and causes mild contractions to expel the embryo. The embryo is usually expelled within four to twenty-four hours. It works about 95% of the time.

Pro-Choice Point-of-View

Pro-choice groups believe that abortion is a religious issue, protected by separation of church and state.

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Pro-choice groups believe mothers must be able to protect their health and life. The mother should also have the legal right to choose what she wants to do with her body. These are two pro-choice views on why they feel abortion should be legal.

Pro-choice groups also believe abortion should be legal in the case a woman might find herself pregnant in a situation that was uncontrollable. One of these cases is in the case of rape. A woman is forced to have intercourse with a male against her will and she becomes pregnant. There is also the case of incest, where a girl is forced to have intercourse with a family member and becomes pregnant.

There is also the case of the mentally retarded. A woman that is mentally retarded becomes pregnant but does not understand that she is not capable of

taking care of herself while pregnant or the baby after it is born. The chance of adoption is very slim because of the chance of the baby having greater defects then the mother.

Pro-Life Point-of-View

“You shall not murder.” Exodus 20:13. Many people try to justify the act of abortion through saying that the baby is not alive. Anyone that has brain waves, and is able to experience any type of pain what so ever, is alive and has experienced life. Although we do not remember our time in the womb, everyone should think about the fact that it was our first time to have a real thought, our

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first touch of feeling, and our first real thought. Pro-lifers think that abortion is clearly an act of cruelty, and an act of murder.

Pro-life groups believe that having the legal right to do something does not have anything to do with the issue of whether something is morally right. In addition, just because a doctor performs this act does not it is any more moral. Pro-life groups believe that there is another human being growing inside the womb.

Pro-life groups believe that pro-choice groups should think of whom they might be aborting and not giving a chance at life. That they could be aborting the

next Yoko Ono, Jane Goodall, Mother Theresa, or many of the other man and women that have made a great impact on many peoples lives.

Conclusion

Quote – The Prophet

And a women who held a babe against

Her bosom said, speak to us of children.

And he said;

Your children are not your children.

They are the sons and daughters of Life’s

longing for itself.

They come through you but not from you.

And though they are with you yet they

belong not to you.

K. Gibrant

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The quote speaks of the uniqueness that everyone has and that everyone should be allowed to have. Each child possesses individuality and is given as a gift to the mother. They are merely a gift of joy and of life. They are not given to the mother so that she can terminate this gift of joy at any time. Yes, the baby is part of the mother, but the baby is also a separate being, therefore this does not give the mother the right to terminate.

Gifts

Every time that a life is terminated there is a depreciation of human life. There is absolutely no excuse for this act of legal murder. A baby is clearly a gift from God, and we should not tamper with the future that God has predetermined for us, and for that baby. If a baby is meant to die, then God will take care of the situation.

Life

So many people want children so badly in the United States that they are going to drastic measures to obtain children. If people would act responsibly, then we would not have to face this issue. Why take the joy out of a child’s life, and the joy out of wanting couples life. There is one saying that I would like to leave you with; LIFE, WHAT A BEAUTIFUL CHOICE (Catholic Social Services).

Bibliography

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References

Baker, A (1995). Abortion and Options Counseling: A Comprehensive Reference. Granite City: The Hope Clinic for Women.

David, H.P. (1994). Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Behavior. New York: American Psychologist.

Lumneborg, Patricia (1992). Abortion: A Positive. New York: Bergin and Garvey.

Rosenblatt, Roger (1992). Abortion in the American Mind. New York: Random House.

Stewart, John (1996a). Taking Sides, Moral Issues. Connecticut: Duskin Publishing.

Stewart, John (1996b). Taking Sides, Health and Society. . Connecticut: Duskin Publishing.

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References

Baker, A (1995). Abortion and Options Counseling: A Comprehensive Reference. Granite City: The Hope Clinic for Women.

David, H.P. (1994). Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Behavior. New York: American Psychologist.

Lumneborg, Patricia (1992). Abortion: A Positive. New York: Bergin and Garvey.

Rosenblatt, Roger (1992). Abortion in the American Mind. New York: Random House.

Stewart, John (1996a). Taking Sides, Moral Issues. Connecticut: Duskin Publishing.

Stewart, John (1996b). Taking Sides, Health and Society. . Connecticut: Duskin Publishing.

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References

Baker, A (1995). Abortion and Options Counseling: A Comprehensive Reference. Granite City: The Hope Clinic for Women.

David, H.P. (1994). Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Behavior. New York: American Psychologist.

Lumneborg, Patricia (1992). Abortion: A Positive. New York: Bergin and Garvey.

Rosenblatt, Roger (1992). Abortion in the American Mind. New York: Random House.

Stewart, John (1996a). Taking Sides, Moral Issues. Connecticut: Duskin Publishing.

Stewart, John (1996b). Taking Sides, Health and Society. . Connecticut: Duskin Publishing.

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References

Baker, A (1995). Abortion and Options Counseling: A Comprehensive Reference. Granite City: The Hope Clinic for Women.

David, H.P. (1994). Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Behavior. New York: American Psychologist.

Lumneborg, Patricia (1992). Abortion: A Positive. New York: Bergin and Garvey.

Rosenblatt, Roger (1992). Abortion in the American Mind. New York: Random House.

Stewart, John (1996a). Taking Sides, Moral Issues. Connecticut: Duskin Publishing.

Stewart, John (1996b). Taking Sides, Health and Society. . Connecticut: Duskin Publishing.

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