Progressivism Movements Essay Research Paper I The

Progressivism Movements Essay, Research Paper

I. The Origins of Progressivism A. A Spirit of Reform in the late 1800?s 1.

Henry George believed that poverty could be eliminated by using land

productively by everyone. Also taxing the nonproductive more than the

productive. 2. Edward Bellamy believed that the government should create a trust

to take care of the needs of the people rather than profit. 3. Many groups

wanted change for the majority of people such as the socialist, the union

members and members of municipal or city government levels. 4. Municipal reforms

in the late 1800?s and early 1900?s that gave cities limited self-rule

rather than state rule are known as Home Rule. B. Progressivism Takes Hold 1.

Progressivism aspects of reform from many programs and other movements. 2.

Because they were afraid of losing their high standard of living,

progressives? were afraid of revolution. 3. Progressives believed that the

government should play a bigger role in regulating transportation and utilities.

4. Develop better social welfare programs. 5. The suffrage movement became a big

issue among women. 6. Child labor laws as well as many other things were brought

about by government regulations. C. Progressive Methods 1. Journalist also

helped create support by alerting the public to wrong doing or muckrakers. 2.

Investigating the issue then publicizing the results putting pressure on

legislators to take action is known as Systematic manner. D. Florence Kelley 1.

Kelley was recommended for investigating the labor conditions around Chicago. 2.

Kelley earned a law degree so that she could prosecute violators of child labor

laws as well as regulations in sweatshops. 3. Kelley believed in municipal

reforms after a political favor placed another inspector in her place. 4. 1899

National Consumers League was organized (NCL) II. Progressivism: Its Legislative

Impacts A. Urban Reform 1. Reform began mostly at the city level 2. Some machine

politicians worked with reformers to improve voter registration, city services,

established health programs and enforced tenant codes. 3. By 1915 two out of

three cities owned utilities. 4. Welfare services were put into effect. 5. Hazen

Pingree put in parks, baths, and put into effect a work-relief program. B.

Reforms at the State Level 1. Progressive governors also got involved with the

movement. 2. LaFollette brought about a direct primary in which voters elect

nominees for upcoming elections. 3. Employers and employees negotiating

differences as well as workers accident insurance became major reforms in the

work place. 4. The Supreme Court said that it was illegal to set maximum hours

for workers because it violated the individuals right to make a contract with

the employer – 1905 Lochner vs. New York. 5. The Supreme Court upheld a decision

that limited women?s work hours to 10 hours per day – 1905 Muller vs. Oregon.

6. The National Child Labor Committee convinced about 30 states to abolish Child

Labor by 1907 . 7. In 1912 minimum wage for women and children was put into

effect in Massachusetts. 8. Women were replaced with men because they would work

longer for less wages 9. Women?s push for voting rights was stifled by the

belief that females are physically weaker. D. Reforms at the Federal Level 1.

The United Mine Workers called a strike lasting until Teddy Roosevelt insisted

that both sides submit to arbitration – May, 1902. 2. A process in which an

impartial third party decides on a legally binding solution is known as

arbitration. 3. Teddy Roosevelt threatened to use the army to take over the

mines if the owners didn?t accept the agreement. 4. ?Square Deal? reduced

miner?s hours from 10 to 9 and gave the miners a 10% raise while not

officially recognizing the minor?s union. 5. The Hepburn Act authorized the

IEC to limit rates if the shippers complained them unfair – 1906. 6. The Pure

Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act required accurate labeling of

ingredients, strict sanitary conditions, and a rating system for meats – 1906.

7. Holding companies are corporations that hold the stocks and bonds of numerous

companies thus achieving a monopoly. 8. John Muir and John Wesley Powell urged

congress, in 1872, to establish Yellow Stone as the United States first national

park. 9. Yosemite in California became a national park in 1890. 10. A National

Reclamation Act (1902) aimed at planning and developing irrigation projects

aroused controversy between city residents and farmers over use or water. 11.

1912 the United States government set up a Children?s Bureau within the

Department of Labor. 12. Women?s Bureau was also established in 1920. 13. Mary

Anderson and Julia Lathrop were the first women Bureau heads in the federal

government. 14. Prohibition was thought to protect society from poverty and

violence associated with drinking. 15. Women?s support for prohibition caused

brewery and liquor interests to oppose women?s suffrage. 16. Prohibition

became the 18th amendment in 1919 until its repeal in 1933. III. Progressivism:

Its Impact on National Politics A. The Presidency After Roosevelt 1. Teddy

Roosevelt hand picked William Howard Taft as the next Republican presidential

nominee. 2. On the Democratic Side William Jennings Bryan also ran (for the

third time) 3. Taft won the election and promised to carry on the progressive

movement. 4. A rebel movement arose because Taft wouldn?t lower the tariffs on

imports. 5. Gifford Pinchot opposed Taft?s agreement to allow several million

acres of Alaskan public lands that had rich deposits of coal be sold by Richard

A. Ballinger. Pinchot was fired. 6. Upset House Republicans rebelled against

Taft and joined Democrats in initiating an investigation into Ballinger?s

actions-he eventually resigned. 7. Rebels took action against the Republican old

guard who blocked much reform legislation. 8. Rebels changed the committee?s

membership by making it elective and excluding the powerful. House Speaker,

Joseph Cannon, a republican reform opponent. 9. Teddy Roosevelt began speaking

out about the need for more federal regulations of business, welfare

legislation, and progressive reforms such as stronger work place protections for

women and children, income and inheritance taxes, direct primaries, and the

initiative , referendum, and recall. This was called New Nationalism. 10. Taft

supported the Mahn-Elkins Act(1910) that placed telephone and telegraph rates

under control of the Interstate Commerce Commission rather than big business. B.

The Election of 1912 1. The progressive party was formed after Teddy

Roosevelt?s supporters walked out of the RNC when Taft accused Teddy Roosevelt

of fraud. They became known as the Bull Moose Party. 2. Bull Moose Party?s

platform included tariff reduction, women suffrage, more regulation of business,

an end to child labor, an eight-hour work day, a federal worker?s compensation

system, and the popular election of senators. 3. Teddy Roosevelt and Hiram

Johnson ran a vigorous campaign. 4. A four way election 5. Four men sought

presidency in 1912. Wilson-Democrats, Taft-Republicans, Eugene Debs-Socialist,

and Roosevelt-Bull Moose Party. 6. Wilson ran on a reform platform too, but

unlike Roosevelt, he criticized both big business and big government. 7. Wilson,

calling this policy New Freedom, promised to enforce antitrust laws without

threatening free economic competition. 8. The Democrats won over both Houses of

Congress. 9. Wilson created a Federal Trade Commission in 1914 to be sure

business complied with federal trade regulations. 10. Also in 1914 the Clayton

Antitrust Act spelled out specific activities big businesses couldn?t do in

restraint of trade-strengthening United States antitrust laws. 11. The Clayton

Antitrust Act exempted union?s activities from antitrust lawsuits unless they

led to ?irreparable injury to property.? 12. Wilson lowered tariffs and

instituted major financial reforms. 13. 1913 Wilson helped establish the Federal

Reserve System. 14. The Federal Reserve System let banks borrow money to meet

short-term demands, helping to prevent bank failures. 15. Wilson also

established the Federal Farm Loan Board (1916). 16. Wilson opposed women?s

suffrage because his platform had not approved it. 17. A Controversial

Appointment 18. Wilson nominated a progressive lawyer named Louis D. Brandeis to

the Supreme Court in 1916. 19. Named ?the peoples? lawyer? Brandeis had

fought for many public causes without pay. 20. Brandeis, being Jewish caused

many problems as well as his ?radical? approach to reform. 21. Brandeis?

appointment to the Supreme Court marked the peak of progressive reform at the

federal level. 22. Wilson was reelected in 1916. C. The Legacy of Progressive

Reform 1. A Limited View of Progress 2. The African Americans of this era felt

that progressives weren?t doing enough to concern themselves with race

relations during this time. 3. 1912 Roosevelt refused to seat the southern

African American delegates for fear of alienating white southern progressives.

4. Some supporters of women?s suffrage did so only to double the ?white

vote? in the United States and exclude the African Americans. 5. African

Americans fell further behind because of their smaller population and the

effectiveness of voting restrictions in the South. 6. Progressives also focused

on cities leaving out tenant and migrant farmers and non-unionized workers in

general. 7. Some progressives supported immigration restrictions and literacy

test. 8. Progressives also supported the imperialistic adventures of the day. 9.

They believed in ?civilizing? under-developed nations, no matter what the

residents of those nations wanted. 10. The End of the Progressive Coalition 11.

August 1914, a war broke out in Europe 12. Americans worried how long they could

stay uninvolved in the conflict. 13. By 1916, the reform spirit had ended whit

the exception of women?s suffrage. IV. Suffrage at Last: A Turning Point in

History A. Suffrage at the Turn of the Century 1. In August 1920, Tennessee had

to make a huge decision, whether or not to ratify the 19th amendment. 2. Carrie

Chapman Catt directed the lobbying effort for the ?suffs?. 3. The National

American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was established. 4. Women?s Rights

5. Women had won many rights. Married women could buy, sell and will property.

6. Myra Bradwell of Chicago was denied a state license to practice law in 1869.

She appealed to the Supreme Court where her denial was upheld. (Bradwell vs.

Illinois 1873). 7. By 1900?s women were becoming more involved in unions,

picketing, voluntary organizations, and getting arrested. 8. The Opposition

Mobilizes 9. Anti-suffragists made two arguments: a. women were powerful enough

without voting b. giving women the vote would blur the distinction between the

sexes and make women seem more masculine. 10. Anti-suffragists said that women

would quickly establish prohibition. B. Suffragist Strategies 1. Suffragists

followed two paths toward their goals: a. pressing for a constitutional

amendment b. encouraging states to approve women?s suffrage. 2. In 1878

Congress adopted the wording of suffrage leader Susan B. Anthony in the

?Anthony Amendment?. 3. The Anthony Amendment didn?t resurface until 1913.

4. The movement heats up in the 1910?s 5. The suffrage movement was becoming

more widely accepted in the 1900?s. 6. Carrie Chapman Catt- Systematized NAWSA

techniques. 7. Alice Paul formed the Congressional Union (CU). 8. A collision

over strategy 9. Different strategies caused the suffrage movement to be torn

into two. 10. The CU wanted an all-out national campaign for the constitutional

amendment. 11. The NAWSA felt that the CU was premature in some of their

actions. 12. Catt?s ?winning plan? was to work full time to get congress

to propose the federal amendment. 13. By 1917 NAWSA had over 2 million members.

14. In the fall of 1917 New York finally passed the amendment. 15. Impact of the

war 16. The United states entered WWI in April 1917 17. Women took over jobs

that men left behind as well as volunteering for other jobs. 18. Congress

adopted the 18th amendment. C. The Final Victory for Suffrage 1. 1918 Congress

proposed the suffrage amendment. 2. Ratification 3. Harry Burn of Tennessee was

the tie breaking vote in Tennessee?s legislature. 4. Burn voted ?yes?

because his mother had written to them saying to vote ?yes? for her. 5. The

speaker tried to stall the bill by reconsidering it. 6. On August 24,

Tennessee?s governor signed the suffrage bill. 7. On August 26, the 19th

amendment was ratified. 8. A hard-won victory 9. Women?s suffrage wasn?t

totally given to them. They fought for their right to vote. 10. The ratification

of the 19th amendment marked the last major reform of the progressive era and

was the turning point in American History.


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