European Union Essay, Research Paper
The new focusing address for many researcher is European Union which consists of 15 Member States with a total population of 370 million people speaking of 11 official languages. In the European Economic Community, politics at European level was initially concerned only with economic issues. But attention later turned to building Europe?s social edifice. Equal oppurtunities for man and women, quarantied pensions, educational oppurtunities, health care, employee?s rights, health and safety at the workplace- all of these now form part of the political agenda. The European Union pursues integration along three lines: increasing harmonization of individual Member States? social laws, closer alignment of national security systems and definition of social security policy objectives.
The European countries spend considerably more on social security than Japan or the United States. In Europe, social security accounts for 22% of GDP, as against only 15% and 12% in teh USA and Japan respectively. This ?European social model? is built on the concept of solidarity. Social standarts in the 15 Member States, though connected through the single internal market , differ from one state to another. For example, unlike the other Member States, Greece, Spain and Italy have no State-quarantied minimum income. Economic and social imbalances of this type need to be jointly dismantled.
The EU means many things to many people. For some it has been at the core of efforts to help maintain peace over the past 50 years in a continent which is the past has been riven by rivelry and suspicion. Others, however, talk of its political importancy. Why, they wonder as supposed political union, has it not been able to intervene effectively in the former Yugoslavia?
For many the EU is primarily about the single market and the oppurtunities and benefits this presents to businesses, students, pensioners, and holidaymakers.
A number of researcher arque that it is becoming increasingly difficult to see the wood through the trees. They look back and ask whether the EU?s current responsibilities really are fullfilling the visions of its founders, or whether those visions have themselves become lost in ambiquities of post-cold war Europe? A fair question would be: What exactly is the EU for now?
Likewise, we may want to know how the EU benefits we directly, in practical terms.
The EU?s institutions are inundated daily with enquiries by people hoping to get to the root ofv many such questions. This research, seeks to give brief but concise answers to the most frequent of these questions.
Ultimately, the EU is more than just the sum of its parts. Its Member States created to help solve problems that cannot now be effectively tackled by countries acting alone. The point is that the EU offers opportunities, not restrictions.
Some refocusing would saeem in order.We need to know more than we do about the European Union?s roles,institutions, responsibilities, missions and also we need to know the benefits for its citizens, expected future developments of single market and single currency unit. There is a need for studies concerned with: a) meaning of European citizenship and Euroropeans rights as a citizen of EU; b) powers of European Parliament in influencing European law and development of this institution; c)Community provisions on social security work and replacement of national social security systems; d) meaning of economic and monetary union, the strictness of convergence criteria and advantages of a single currency
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to investigate the consequences of building the European Union for: a)rights and privillages Europeans are entitled to as a member of the community, b)day-to-day running and planning of European Parliament, c) observing certain common principles and some exceptions to these rules, d)single monetary policy within a single market, and is theefore the logical complement to the single market.
This subject is assumed to increase the understanding of the research from a wide range of research topics. We have chosen to focus on what may best be sumarized as the ?unification? of both political,economic and social aspects of European Countries.
The important developments occur in unification; the terms ?European Community? and ?European Union?are used for political entity which was born as the European Economic Community (or Common Market) through the Treaty of Rome in 1957 and subsequently evolved first into the European Community and finally to the European Union through the Maastricht Treaty of 1991, or the ?Treaty on European Union? as it is formally known. The legal construction of the latter treaty, in so called ?pillars?, stipulates that most policy matters fall legally under the scope of the still existing European Community (e.g. everything relating to the single market and the common agricultural policy), but two important areas, the common foreign and security policy and justice and home affairs from the second and third pillars. They have a different legal framework under the ?roof? of the European Union.
We seek first, what does European citizenship means and what are Europeans rights as a citizen of the EU; Citizenship of the EU is oe of the most important features brought in by the Treaty on European Union, or a Maasstricht Treaty as it is commonly known. However, citizenship in this case is not the concern with nationality, rather it refers to the rights and privillages they are entitled to as a member of the Community. In this way, EU citizenship; it does not replace it. The civic rights granted are simply extra rights. The number of rights conferred upon Europe?s citizens are small at present, although the potential for enhancing them in the future is strong.Our research clearly defines the objectives of this strenghten that; firstly, Eu citizens are given the right to travel, work or live freely in any Member State, although there is still some way to go before this is fully accomplished. Secondly, as an EU citizen they can reside in a Member State other than their own and vote in that country?s local/municipal and European Parliamentary elections.They can also stand as a candidate in both local and European elections in that country, under the same conditions as its nationals.Thirdly, all Eu citizens are entitled to consular or diplomatic protection when visiting a country outside the EU.
We then seek to European Prliament (EP) to ascertain the relation between the institutions and EU association.The European Parliament is gradually taking a more central role in Community bussiness, both in terms of its day-to ?day running and planning, and in terms of its very legitimacy.?nitially Members of the EP were drawn from national parliaments, but since 1979 they have elected directly.Our research summarized that anchoring the parliament more firmly with Europe?s citizen and giving it more authority in thr European decision making process.The EP?s initial powers were limited; it did not have to be consulted on legislation, although it was soon granted advisory and some supervisory powers.
We also want to determine the provisions on social security work and replacement of the national security systems.Community provisions on social security do not harmonize or replace national security systems which in some cases can be very differant and which are the result of long-standing national practices and preferences.However,governments have agreed certain common principles, such as not discriminating against citizens of other Member States so they can live, work and enjoy the same treatment and social security rights as their own nationals. Member State governments must also respect the general rule that they are insured and pay contributions in the Member State in which they are employed, rather than in the country where they live is different.
And we want to determine the importance of singe currency which is developed by European Union istitutions called as ?Euro?. The European Monetary Unit wiil be run by a European Central Bank independent of national governmentsand Community institutions. According to our research this does not mean that EMU presumes political union; common decisions on overall levels of taxation would not be required, for instance, neither would decisions regarding the balance of taxation, such as between capital and labour.These will continue to be set according to national needs and priorities, in line with the principle of subsidiarity.Also according to our research the convergence objectives set by the Treaty of European Union are realistic, and this is true even of the one which is most difficult to achieve for most Member States, namely the government deficit criterion. Lastly the advantages ae numerous.For one, a single currency means that travellers across the Community no longer have to change money. For business and consumers, a single currency will also take away the uncertainity about the price for which goods are sold. Also single currency will also help the stimulate growth and employment. And so many others.
Since the period of World War I European unification was tried hard to build on a consensual way but after the World War II many of the European countries gave importance on this issue and the corner stone of this organization was build during that time namely European Coal and Steal Community.This and later build associations was build because of some resasons; like keeping peace, gaining economic advantages, holding unified power against other superpowers like Japan and USA and some other relatively unimoortant reasons.
Most research into the consequences of building European Union has been adressed
to economic conditions. At first the dominant coutries wanted to unify with each other because rapid economic development can be achieved by this way.And now they develop their idea in the sense they try to accept single currency unit.But they put some restrictions to entering the unifications to respond their economic needs.The necessary economic conditions for taking part in the single currency; a) Member States must avoid excessive government deficits. Their performance is measured against two reference ratios: 3% of GDP for the annual deficit and 60% of GDP for the stock of government debt, b) inflation should not exceed by more than 1.5 percentage points that of the three best performing Member States in terms of price stability in the previous year, c) the countries currency must have remained within the normal fluctuation margins of the European Monetary System (EMS) for at least two years, d) long-term interest rates should not be exceed by more than 2 percentage points the average of the three Member States with the lowest rates in the Union.
If they are to join the Euro, Member States must bring their economies closer together-achieving convergence.
Also another finding on building European Union is that unification is trying to relatively more focus on social provisions.Community provisions on social security do not harmonize or replace national systems which in some cases can be very different and which are the result of long-standing national practices and preferences.Therefore while each Member State continues to set its own rates relating to whom is to be insured, which benefits are granted and under what conditions, governments have agreed they must observe certain common principles, such as not discriminating against citizens of other Member States so that they can live, work and enjoy the same treatment and social security rights as their own nationals.
According to the results of our rsearch indicates that Community provisions on social security apply to all national legislation on sickness and maternity, accidents at work, occupational disseases, invalidity benefits, old-age pensions, survivor?s benefits, irrespectiveof whether or not these benefits are financed by contributions, nor whether they are paid by employers, social insurance or by the relevant public institution.Community provisions do not apply to social and/or medical assistance which is means-tested, nor to benefits provided under occupational pension and early-retirement schemes .Neither do they apply to special schemes for civil servants, nor to benefits for victims of war or its consequences.
We can be certain to the application of the social security provisions; at present these do not apply to everyone in the Community, although they do apply the majority.There is no question to the applicants are: a) Employed and self-employed workers who are nationals of aCommunity Member State or of the European Economic Area (EEA- the Community plus Norway, Iceland and Liechenstain) and who are insured or have been insured under the legislation of one of those states; b) pens?oners who are nat?onals of these states; c) fam?ly members or surv?vors of those l?sted ?n the po?nts above, regardless of nat?onal?ty; d) c?v?l servants whose ?nsurance ?s of a general type and not spec?f?cally for c?v?l servants; e) stateless persons and refugees.Those not protected ?nclude: a) students and non-act?ve people who are not cons?dered as members of the fam?ly of an employed person or of a pens?oner; b) c?v?l servants where they are ?nsured w?th a spec?al scheme for c?v?l servants; c) persons who are nat?onals of a country wh?ch ?s not a Member of the Commun?ty or of the EEA.
We can also be certa?n that the consequences of the un?f?cat?on is very important ?n both pol?t?cal, soc?al and econom?c terms And develop?ng ?ssues can only be debated for now on l?ke ?Euro?wh?ch ?s already ex?stand currently the key element ?n the European Monetary System (EMS), a mechan?sm set up ?n 1979 to ensure that Europe as free as poss?ble from sudden currency fluctuat?ons wh?le at the same t?me ma?nta?n?ng econom?c convergence.
In recogn?t?on of the complex?ty of a un?f?cat?on l?ke that under cons?derat?on, the study w?ll comb?ne ?nformat?on of var?ous types but some of the expected ?nformat?on types are excluded because of the d?vers?f?cat?on of the terr?tor?es and pr?ce of the methods. The current used types are l?sted: a)off?c?al stat?st?cs from census and each Member State?s nat?on w?de surveys, b) ?nterv?ews w?th the experts who are ava?lable ?n ?nternat?onal commun?cat?on and Member States c?t?zens, c) content analys?s
The consequeunces that are driven from the research methods show that the analysis of nationwide arrangements and the related surveys prevents from taking a side on the behalf of their own state.
Certain parts of the research can be dedicated as special indication and prove of the hypotesis that is been in questions through out the project:
-ava?lab?l?ty and type of contact the European Un?on Member State?s experts and c?t?zens
-number of us?ng the soc?al prov?s?ons, and place and durat?on of each
-ava?l?b?l?ty of us?ng the serv?ces and know?ng the g?ven r?ghts
-posses?on and acqu?s?t?on before and after of soc?al prov?s?ons, wealth w?th pred?ct?on on Euro, mater?al cond?t?ons
-perce?ved expesence of host?l?ty, m?streatment, d?scr?m?nat?on before un?f?cat?on, after un?f?cat?on
-extent and type of contact w?th respondents ?n t?mes of necessary after un?f?cat?on
-d?fferences ?n the nat?on w?de laws and prov?s?ons after un?f?cat?on
-needed extra chang?ngs on econom?c, soc?al and pol?t?cal ?ssues
-adjustments of d?fferent soc?al classes e.g. students, labours, wh?te colored workers
-m?grant workers pos?t?on on the portfol?os.
We propose to look ?nto the un?f?cat?on of European Countr?es (both ?n the perspect?ve of members nad appl?cants) ?s conduct?ve to such as the follow?ng:
-creat?on of un?q soc?ety and adoptat?on process of ?t
-un?f?cat?on w?th d?fferent cultural, l?nqu?st?c, trad?t?onal and econom?c backgrounds
-ga?n?ng of more power on ?nternat?onal area w?th the process of un?f?cat?on
-hav?ng soc?al secur?ty prov?s?ons same as the expected ?nternat?onal standarts
-greater content w?th whole European Un?on Member State c?t?zen?s l?festyle, w?th the status quo
-h?gher respect?b?l?ty of the EU Member States c?t?zens
-hav?ng more r?ghts after un?f?cat?on w?th the EU ?nst?tut?ons
“I love europe” , 1996
“An analysis of the rising eurpean standarts”, 1998