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КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3 Чтобы правильно выполнить задание №3, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендуемому учебнику:

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

Чтобы правильно выполнить задание №3, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендуемому учебнику:

1. Грамматические функции и значения слов it, that, one.

2. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice) видо-временных форм (Simple, Progressive, Perfect).

3. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.

4. Простые неличные формы глагола: инфинитив в функции подлежащего, составной части сказуемого, определения, дополнения и обстоятельства цели. Герундий. Отличия герундия от причастия .

5. Выражение приказания и просьбы с помощью глагола to let.

6. Бессоюзное подчинение в определительных и дополнительных придаточных предложениях.

ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ КОММЕНТАРИИ К КОНТРОЛЬНОМУ ЗАДАНИЮ №3

I. Функции и перевод IT

В предложении it может употребляться:

1) как личное местоимение в функциях подлежащего (именительный падеж) и дополнения (объектный падеж); переводится словами он, она, или его, ее:

Take this book.

Возьми эту книгу.

It is interesting.

Она интересная.

Read it.

Прочти ее.

We shall speak about it next time.

Мы поговорим о ней в следующий раз.

2) как указательное местоимение (переводится словом это):

What is it? It is our new laboratory

Что это? Это наша новая лаборатория.

3) как формальное (вводящее) подлежащее в выражениях типа:

It is cold.

Холодно.

It is getting dark.

Темнеет.

It is winter.

Зима.

It is necessary to …

Необходимо…

It is known that…

Известно, что…

( В этих предложениях it не переводится).

1) в составе усилительной конструкции it is that (it не переводится):

It is this book that I wanted to read.

Именно эту книгу я хотел прочитать.

2) как формальное дополнение в выражениях типа make it possible

делать возможным; make it difficult затруднять; find it useful считать(находить) полезным (здесь it также не переводится).

Упр. 1. Переведите it в различных функциях на русский язык:

1. It is autumn. 2. It is the 3-rd of October. 3. it is dark in the morning and it is difficult to get up. 4. It is a new subject. It is very important for our future speciality. 5. We shall study it for two years. 6. It is known that the knowledge of general engineering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects. 7. It is said that the chemistry laboratory of our institute is good. 8. It is important to understand the fundamentals of this science. 9. It is the knowledge of general engineering subjects that is the basis of engineering training. 10 The students find it difficult to translate such a text without a dictionary. 11. It seems that he works a lot. 12. It was not easy to study at the institute. 13. Mathematics is studied at all technological institutes because every engineer must know it well. 14. It is evident that research is becoming more specialized now. 15. The use of the new equipment made it possible to minimize the number of workers.

Функции и перевод ONE

Слово one может быть:

1. Числительным, в этом случае one стоит перед существительным, является его определением и переводится словом один:

I have only one dictionary.

У меня есть только один словарь.

2. Неопределенным местоимением, употребляется в качестве подлежащего в неопределенно-личных предложениях и на русский язык переводится:

One can read such a text without a dictionary.

Можно читать такой текст без словаря.

1. Словом-заменителем, в этом случае one употребляется вместо ранее упомянутого существительного, чтобы избежать его повторения. Перед словом-заменителем может стоять артикль и оно может употребляться в форме множественного числа ( ones ). Переводится one тем существительным, которое заменяет, или не переводится вообще, например:

You may take my dictionary.

Вы можете взять мой словарь.

Thank you, I have one, the one that Peter gave me yesterday.

Спасибо. У меня есть словарь, тот, который дал мне вчера Петя.

Упр. 2. Переведите one в различных функциях на русский язык:

1. One must study a lot to become an engineer. 2. We must write only one exercise now. 3. Engineering is one of the most important professions, it is the one that is taught at technical institutes. 4. One must pass all the entrance exams well to enter the institute. 5. Last summer I read many English technical articles and my friend read some German ones. 6. This summer we shall spend in the country, the last one we spent in the city. 7. We translated many texts, but there is one more text to translate. 8. The main purpose of education is that graduates must be able to work with the technology of tomorrow. 9. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with the traditional ones. 10. One can take this magazine from the library. 11. We discussed the first industrial revolution, the one that took place some centuries ago. 12. The problem of pollution has become the most important one. 13. One must have a very good knowledge of general engineering subjects to become a good engineer.

Функции и перевод THAT

That может быть:

1. Указательным местоимением. В этом случае оно стоит перед существительным и является определением. Во множественном числе употребляется слово t hose . На русский язык that ( those ) переводится словами тот, та, то, (те); этот, эта, это (эти).

That house was built in 1987.

Тот дом был построен в 1987 году.

Can repeat all those questions which the teacher asked?

Можете вы повторить все те вопросы, которые задал преподаватель?

2. Относительным местоимением. В этом случае that стоит после существительного, вводит определительное придаточное предложение и переводится словом который:

The book that you gave me yesterday is interesting.

Книга, которую вы мне вчера дали, интересная.

3. Союзом дополнительного придаточного предложения. В этом случае that стоит после глагола и переводится на русский язык словом что.

We know that he studies at the RSVPU.

Мы знаем, что он учится в РГППУ.

4. Союзом подлежащего придаточного предложения. В этом случае that стоит в начале предложения и переводится словами то, что:

That the profession of an engineer requires a special training is a well-known fact.

То, что профессия инженера требует специальной подготовки – хорошо известно.

5. Союзом сказуемого придаточного предложения; стоит после глагола to be и переводится словами то, что :

The feature of higher education in this country is that it is available to all.

Особенностью высшего образования в нашей стране является то, что оно доступно всем.

6. Заменителем существительного, чтобы избежать повторения существительного в единственном числе (во множественном числе употребляется these, those). That, those, these переводятся тем существительным, которое они заменяют, или вовсе не переводятся:

The climate of this part of the country differs from that of our region.

Климат этой части страны отличается от климата нашего района.

1. Частью усилительной конструкции it is that , где that не переводится:

It was you that said so.

Это вы так сказали.

It was the invention of the steam engine that revolutionized production processes.

Именно изобретение парового двигателя коренным образом изменило все производственные процессы.

Упр.3. Переведите that в различных функциях на русский язык:

1. That student studies in our group. 2. The professor that lectures on mechanics is the dean of our faculty. 3. The aim of today’s policy is that peace in the world must be permanent. 4. The program for the first-year students differs from that of the third-year students. 5. There are many interesting articles in this journal, read those on your speciality. 6. It is the high qualification of future specialists that will determine the scientific and technological progress of any country. 7. New robots will have several manipulators that will carry out many functions. 8. It is the growth of industrialization that is changing the climate of the planet. 9. The simplest materials are those which have only one kind of atoms. 10. That the Earth is round was unknown for a long time. 11. It is found that the labour of a man with secondary education is 108 per cent more efficient than that of a man without that education. 12. Moreover, the work of a university or college graduate is 300 per cent more efficient than that of a specialist with secondary education. 13. That computers and industrial robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers.

II. Страдательный залог (the Passive Voice) видо - временных форм (Simple, Progressive, Perfect)

Формула страдательного залога: to be + 3 fV (f – форма; V – основная форма глагола)

Simple

Progressive

Perfect

to be + 3fV

to be+being+3fV

to have been+3fV

Present

am,is,are+3fV

am,is, are + being+3fV

have,has+been+3fV

Past

was,were+3fV

was,were+being+3fV

had+been+3fV

Future

shall,will+be+3fV

shall,will+been+3fV

Обычное действие

Действие в процессе, в момент времени

Действие, законченное к моменту времени

Сигналы пассива: 1) наличие одной из 8 форм глагола to be – be, been, being, am, is, are, was,were; 2) отсутствие после нее V+ing (кроме формы being).

Упр.4. Переведите предложения не русский язык. Определите видо-временную форму глагола:

1. This law was adopted in 2006. 2. This plant had been built before we came to live in this town. 3. The report will be ready by Monday. 4. The letter is not ready yet. It is still being translated into Russian. 5. Many textbooks have been published this year. 7. She is often seen in the library. 8. She will be met at the station by us tomorrow. 9. Hardly had he finished his speech, when a storm of applause followed. 10. When we came into the office, the secretary was talking to a visitor. 11. The speaker had been listened to with great attention. 12. The conditions of work were greatly improved by them. 13. They are gradually getting used to the Northern climate. 14. Have you noticed that people who cannot read or write usually have good memory?

III. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do

Функции глагола to be

Функция

Пример

Перевод

Смысловой глагол

(be + предлог + существительное)

This book is on the table.

This problem is of great importance.

Книга находится на столе.

Эта проблема имеет большое значение

Глагол-связка

(be + существительное или прилагательное)

He is a student.

The speed of an electric car was not high.

Он – студент.

Скорость электромобиля была невысокой.

Вспомогательный глагол: Progressive tenses (be + Participle I);

Passive Voice (be + Participle II)

He is writing a new article now.

The article is written by our professor.

Сейчас он пишет новую статью.

Статья написана нашим профессором.

Модальный глагол (be + инфинитив с частицей to )

He is to come to the lab at 10 o’clock.

Он должен прийти в лабораторию в 10 часов.

Упр. 5. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Определите функции глагола to be .

1. He is often invited there. 2. She will be an engineer next year. 3. I shall be here in time. 4. I was to send him a telegram, but I forgot. 5. They were to have finished their work yesterday. 6. The lecture was interesting. 7. We are to meet at noon.

Функции глагола to have

Функция

Пример

Перевод

Смысловой глагол

(to have + существительное)

These laboratories have modern equipment.

Эти лаборатории имеют современное оборудование

Вспомогательный глагол

(to have + Participle II )

These laboratories have bought modern equipment.

Эти лаборатории закупили современное оборудование

Модальный глагол

(to have + инфинитив с частицей to)

These laboratories have to buy modern equipment.

Эти лаборатории должны закупить современное оборудование.

Упр. 6. Переведите на русский язык. Определите функции глагола to have .

1. They were having dinner when I came. 2. We have already seen this film. 3. Did you have a good rest last summer? 4. The students had to translate this text in time. 5. He had his watch repaired yesterday.

Функции глагола to do

Функция

Пример

Перевод

Смысловой глагол

He will do his work in the evening.

Он сделает свою работу вечером.

Вспомогательный глагол

Do you speak English?

Вы говорите по-английски?

Для усиления значения действия

But I do know him.

Но я же знаю его.

IV . Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив, причастие, герундий

Инфинитив ( The Infinitive )

Инфинитив представляет собой основу глагола, которой обычно предшествует частица to , и относится к неличным формам.

Формы инфинитива

Tense

Active

Passive

Indefinite (Simple)

Continuous (Progressive)

Perfect

to help

to be helping

to have helped

to be helped

--

to have been helped

The Indefinite Infinitive Active и Passive употребляется для выражения действия, одновременного с действием, обозначенным глаголом-сказуемым в предложении, в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени.

I am glad to help him.

Я рад помочь ему.

I was glad to help him.

Я был рад помочь ему.

I‘ll be glad to help him.

Я буду рад помочь ему.

I am glad to be helped.

Я рад, что мне помогают.

The Continuous Infinitive Active употребляется для выражения действия в процессе его развертывания, одновременно с действием, обозначенным глаголом-сказуемым в предложении:

I am glad to be helping him.

It was pleasant to be helping him again.

Я рад, что сейчас помогаю ему.

Было приятно снова помогать ему

The Perfect Infinitive Active и Passive употребляется для выражения действия, предшествующего действию. Обозначенному глаголом-сказуемым в предложении.

I am glad to have helped him.

Я рад, что помог ему.

I am glad to have been helped.

Я рад, что мне помогли.

Функции инфинитива

Инфинитив выполняет в предложении функции:

1) подлежащего :

To translate such an article without a dictionary is difficult.

Переводить (перевод) такую статью без словаря трудно.

2) части сказуемого (простого и составного):

He can translate this article without a dictionary.

Он может переводить такую статью без словаря.

He will translate this article next week.

Он переведет эту статью на следующей неделе.

Our aim is to translate technical articles without a dictionary.

Наша цель – переводить технические статьи без словаря.

3) дополнения:

He does not like to translate technical articles.

Он не любит переводить технические статьи.

4) обстоятельства цели:

To translate such an article without a dictionary you must know English well.

Чтобы переводить такую статью без словаря, вы должны хорошо знать английский язык.

5) определения:

He gave me some articles to translate.

Он дал мне несколько статей, которые нужно было перевести(для перевода).

He was the first to translate this article.

Он первым перевел эту статью.

Упр.7. Определите функции инфинитива в предложениях, переведите на русский язык:

1. To develop the supercomputer highly developed electronics and new materials were required. 2. Experiments helped Mendeleev to discover the properties of new chemical elements. 3. To design, construct and operate a laser system is a great technological achievement. 4. This is a problem to be solved as soon as possible. 5. She was the last to speak at the meeting. 6. He told us nothing about his plan of research work to be carried out next year. 7. There was nothing interesting at the exhibition to attract our attention. 8. A certain temperature must be kept in picture galleries to preserve paintings. 9. I have soothing interesting to tell you. 10. I do not want to be asked about it. 11. I am waiting to be told about the results. 12. We’ll find someone to help us if you are busy. 13. the work to be done by the students includes written translation from English into Russian. 14 This is the article to be published next month.

Герундий (The Gerund)

Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая в себе свойства глагола и существительного и выражающая действие как процесс. Герундий образуется путем прибавления окончания –ing к основе глагола.

Формы герундия

Tense

Active

Passive

Indefinite

Perfect

driving

having driven

being driven

having been driven

Например:

She likes telling fairy tales.

He likes being told fairy tales.

Она любит рассказывать сказки.

Он любит, когда ему рассказывают сказки

Функции герундия

Герундий может выполнять в предложении следующие функции:

1. Подлежащего:

Reading English is necessary for every engineer.

Читать по-английски необходимо каждому инженеру.

2. Части составного сказуемого:

His favourite occupation is reading.

Его любимое занятие – чтение.

3. Прямого и предложного дополнения:

He thinks of reading his report at the next conference.

Он думает прочитать свой доклад на следующей конференции.

4. Обстоятельства:

After reading the article he made a short summary of it.

Прочитав статью, он кратко изложил ее содержание.

5. Определения:

I like his way of reading.

Мне нравится, как он читает.

Упр. 8. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия на русский язык:

1. He does not like being interrupted. 2. After returning to Moscow he resumed his work. 3. You won’t get any idea of his progress without comparing the results of the tests. 4. The introduction of the new method resulted in raising the productivity. 5. He solved the problem by inventing a new kind of plastic. 6. I prefer going there by air. 7. I remember having seen this film. 8. Learning rules without examples is useless. 9. He insisted on adopting the new plan. 10. He never missed the opportunity of listening to this singer. 11. In spite of being tired we continued our way. 12. The hall was used for dancing.

Отличия герундия от причастия

Функция

Герундий

Причастие

Подлежащее

Driving a car is a profession.

--

Сказуемое

His hobby is driving.

He is driving to Kiev now.

Дополнение

He writes articles about driving.

--

Определение

His plan of driving to Kiev is not good.

The man driving a car is our dean.

Обстоятельство

Before driving a car one must learn to do it properly.

Driving a car one must be very attentive.

IV. Выражение приказания и просьбы с помощью глагола to let

Let us (let’s) read this text!

Давайте читать этот текст!

Let her read this text.

Пусть она читает этот текст.

Let him read this text.

Пусть он читает этот текст.

Let them read this text.

Пусть они читают этот текст.

Let me read this text.

Разрешите мне прочитать этот текст.

Упр. 9. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения:

1. Let’s hurry home. 2. Let’s tell him this story. 3. Let her tell us about her work. 4. Let them speak English. 5. Let’s do exercise 2 on page 34. 6. Let the students correct their mistakes in their tests. 7. Let him apologize. 8. Let them stay here till the end of the month. 9. Let me do it myself. 10. Let’s send a letter to her mother.

VI . Бессоюзное подчинение в определительных и дополнительных придаточных предложениях

Придаточные определительные предложения присоединяются к главному предложению при помощи союзных слов: who который; whom которого; whose чей, которого; when когда; where куда, где; why почему или бессоюзным способом:

I have read the article which you recommended.

I have read the article you recommended.

Я прочел статью, которую вы рекомендовали.

The town which I live in is not far from Moscow.

The town I live in is not far from Moscow.

Город, в котором я живу, (находится) недалеко от Москвы.

Упр. 10. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Show me the house you live in. 2. The woman we met when we were leaving the factory is our teacher. 3. The museum we visited yesterday numbers 3000 exhibits. 4. The girl you were speaking to is our monitor. 5. The book you asked me about was written by our teacher. 6. Moscow University M. V. Lomonosov founded in the 18th century now bears his name. 7. The plant this material is produced at is in the Urals. 8. The problem this article deals with is connected with the subject we study. 9. It is difficult to imagine the world we live in without television, radio and telephone. 10. This is the subject we don’t know much about. 11. Materials new computers depend on must be of the best quality. 12. the number of components supercomputers consist of is great. 13. The changes and movements of air we are surrounded with influence our lives. 14. The laboratory he worked in was very primitive. 15. The plants computer components are produced at must be super clean.

Дополнительные придаточные предложения.

Согласование времен ( Sequence of Tenses )

В английском языке существует правило согласования времен. Оно касается дополнительных придаточных предложений и заключается в том, что глагол-сказуемое придаточного предложения согласуется во времени с глаголом-сказуемым главного предложения.

Главное предложение

Дополнительное придаточное предложение

He says (that) -- Он говорит, что

he will live in Moscow (будет жить).

he lives in Moscow ( живет).

he lived in Moscow (жил).

He said (that) -- Он сказал, что

he would live here (будет жить).

he lived here (живет).

he had lived here (жил).

Упр. 11. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. He knew that I never missed the seminars. 2. We thought that we should be able to see our old friends. 3. She said that she had already visited the exhibition. 4. I knew that you were very tired. 5. He said that he had already carried out his research work. 6. I knew that the meeting took place that day. 7. She said that she would take part in the competition 8. One must know that we shall need a lot of specialists that will be able to work and live in space for a long time. 9. One can see that there is no principal difference between iron and copper as conductors. 10. One must know that they possess necessary mechanical and physical properties.

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №3

Образец выполнения 1 (к упражнению 1)

1. The main problem has already been solved .

2. He had come home yesterday by four o’clock.

1. Основная проблема уже решена .

has been solved – Present Perfect Passive

2. Вчера он пришел домой к 6 часам.

had come – Past Perfect

Образец выполнения 2 (к упражнению 2)

It is useful to eat fish.

My flat is smaller than that of your sister.

One must know his rights.

Рыбу есть полезно.

Моя квартира меньше, чем у твоей сестры.

Нужно знать свои права.

Образец выполнения 3 (к упражнению 3)

We are to attend lectures.

He is doing his homework now.

Mary has bought a car this week.

Мы должны посещать лекции.

Сейчас он делает свое домашнее задание.

Мэри купила машину на этой неделе.

Образец выполнения 4 (к упражнению 4)

Who is the author of the book you are reading?

The dress I want to buy is very expensive.

Кто автор книги, которую ты читаешь?

Платье, которое я хочу купить, очень дорогое.

Образец выполнения 5 (к упражнению 5)

Let’s go somewhere.

Let him explain everything.

Давайте сходим куда-нибудь.

Пусть он все объяснит.

Образец выполнения 6 (к упражнению 6)

Here is a good house to live in.

Not knowing grammar one cannot speak correctly.

He stopped before a closed door.

Вот дом, в котором хорошо жить.

Не зная грамматики, нельзя говорить правильно.

Он остановился перед закрытой дверью.

ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. They spent their vacation at the same village where they had lived many years ago.

2. Isn’t Professor Blake going to be invited to make a speech?

3. As French was constantly spoken around him, he soon became familiar enough with the language to understand a great deal of what was said.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. The authorities found it necessary to close all schools.

2. One must realize that the increasing number of cars brings about considerable pollution of the air.

3. That computers and industrial robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. The study of theory is accompanied by practical training.

2. I had to get up early yesterday.

3. The development of science is closely connected with the development of higher education.

4. She has just passed her History exam.

5. Our company is doing well now.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1. You can easily bring the people you need together electronically.

2. Have you still got the journal you showed me some days ago ?

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения; обратите внимание на то, что в них просьба или побуждение выражены с помощью глагола to let.

1. Let us know when they will go on a hike.

2. Let me do it myself.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива, герундия и причастия в предложении

1. The books written by Charles Dickens give us a realistic picture of the 19th century England.

2. Watching football matches may be exciting enough, but of course it is more exciting playing football.

3. I hate to bother you, but the students are still waiting to be given books for their works.

VII . Переведите на русский язык.

Английский текст

Русский перевод

OXFORD UNIVERSITY

The University of Oxford may be said to date from 1214, when the first charter was granted by the Pope, but long before this date there had existed in the town a number of religious communities and these were the real beginning of the University.

First there were only about 60 chapels and a student was living and studying at one of these chapels learning theology, logic and rhetoric. Oxford University of today is a federation of 48 colleges, each largely independent.

The governing body of Oxford University is the congregation of 1500 men- the assembly of all the members of the colleges. The colleges admit students, organize programs, students’ work and residence, laboratories, libraries and term examinations and confers degrees. Forty colleges of 48 admit only men, two colleges are mixed and six colleges are only for women.

A person studying for a degree at a British University is called a graduate. B.A. or B.Sc. stands for Bachelor of Arts or of Science, the first degree given after a period of 3-4 years of specialized study at a University. M.A. or M. Sc. denotes Master of Arts, or of Science, a higher degree, usually conferred after a year’s post-graduate study.

Social changes have certainly transformed Oxford considerably. Some of the traditions have gone in the past. However in spite of all these changes Oxford has not lost its distinctive character.

ВАРИАНТ 2

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. He went somewhere after returning to America from Europe, and for years has not been heard of.

2. These goods are being exported to all European countries.

3. They have never closed the library at eight o’clock.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. The engineer was told that he might test the device in the afternoon.

2. It is evident that electricity will be the energy of the future.

3. One may get all the necessary books there and it is possible to keep them till the end of the academic year.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. I am to leave for London soon.

2. We were taught to use the lab equipment.

3. He is good at maths and does it whenever he has a chance.

4. The car has brought mobility to millions of people, but at the same time polluted the atmosphere.

5. Next term I shall do research in the field of computer engineering.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1. They realized they might be close to the discovery of a new material.

2. I never regret the five years I spent on a farm.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения; обратите внимание на то, что в них просьба или побуждение выражены с помощью глагола to let.

1. Let them look through these newspapers.

2. Let him apologize.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива, герундия и причастия в предложении

1. Clyde was awfully glad to have renewed his acquaintance with Sondra.

2. As we were given dictionaries, we managed to translate the article easily.

3. At last he broke the silence by inviting everybody to walk into the living room.

VII . Переведите на русский язык.

Английский текст

Русский перевод

THE UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE (SCOTLAND)

Strathclyde is an exciting and stimulating environment in which to study. Founded in 1796 by John Anderson, Professor of Natural Philosophy at Glasgow University, it has quickly earned a reputation as a center of excellence in scientific and technological education. By 1993 Strathclyde was organized into 5 faculties: Arts and Social Studies, Business, Engineering, Science and Education.

The University main campus is only a stone’s throw from Glasgow’s civic center. It means that students can enjoy an unparalleled range of amenities right on their doorstep. The Faculty of Education, for instance, supports the academic and recreational needs of its students through the wide range of facilities which include a library, theatre, bank, two shops, refectory, swimming pools, gymnasia and sports grounds.

As for cultural activities, the University Theatre Group has presented everything from new interpretations of Shakespeare to the latest drama from the USA. The Drama Center’s professional staff and visiting specialists offer regular workshops in most areas of theatre practice, including acting, design, voice, mime and movement.

Strathclyde postgraduates can take advantage of careers services in the UK. A particular feature of the University is its strength in contract research. It is one of two Universities that have been most successful in working with industry in developing academic research into commercial applications. Once close working relationships of this sort have been formed, other areas of work, such as training studentships, staff secondments and visiting professorships follow.

Thus, you will find that Strathclyde has a reputation as Scotland’s most dynamic and innovative university.

ВАРИАНТ 3

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. We need more water for agriculture, yet we are now wasting hundreds of tons of water a day.

2. We shall send you the goods as soon as they are available.

3. The house was being built, when I learned at school.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. The important fact is that electricity offers improved service at reduced cost.

2. It is industrialization that is making ecological problems very serious.

3. One must study six years to become an engineer.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. The work was done perfectly.

2. Measures are being taken to save Lake Baikal.

3. According to the weather forecast, it’ll be raining the whole day tomorrow.

4. They will have to repair their car.

5. Computers of different types and sizes have appeared in every country of the world.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1. Experience is the name everyone gives to their mistakes.

2. We shall spend our holidays in the same village we visited last year.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения; обратите внимание на то, что в них просьба или побуждение выражены с помощью глагола to let.

1. Let us book the tickets beforehand.

2. Let her put on her new dress.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива, герундия и причастия в предложении

1. After being corrected by the teacher, the students’ papers were returned to them.

2. The man standing at the door of the train carriage and saying goodbye to his friends is a well- known musician.

3. Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break.

VII . Переведите на русский язык.

Английский текст

Русский перевод

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY

Cambridge is one of the two main universities of England located at the Cam River. It was founded at the beginning of the 12th century. The University consists of 24 different colleges including 4 for women. Each college is self-governing. The head of the University is the chancellor who is elected for life.

Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course of studies. The teachers are commonly called “dons” and “tutors”. Part of the teaching is by means of lectures organized by the University. Besides lectures teaching is carried out by tutorial system for which the Cambridge University is famous all over the world. This is a system of individual tuition organized by the colleges.

Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course of studies. The tutor plans the student’s work and once a week a student goes to his tutor to discuss his work with him. The training course lasts 4 years. The academic year is divided into 3 terms. The students study natural and technical sciences, law, history, languages, geography and many other subjects.

After three years of study a student may proceed to a Bachelor’s degree, and later to the degrees of Master and Doctor. Students are required to wear gowns at lectures, in the University library, in the street in the evening, for dinners in the colleges and for official visits. All the students must pay for their education, examinations, books, laboratories, university hostel, the use of libraries, etc. Very few students get grants. The cost of education depends on the college and specialty.

A number of great men, well-known scientists and writers studied at Cambridge. Among them are: Erasmus, the great Dutch scholar, Bacon, the philosopher, Milton and Byron, the poets, Cromwell, the soldier, Newton and Darwin, the scientists.

ВАРИАНТ 4

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Why is she being looked at now?

2. This building had been built by the end of the last century.

3. When the students complete their control work their mistakes will be corrected by the teacher.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. One must observe traffic regulations when crossing the street.

2. The efficiency of the new computer is much higher than that of the old one.

3. It was a very interesting article about the development of the national economy.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. He had to read a lot of books to make his report.

2. Have you given them any work?

3. I had no time to go there.

4. The letter will be posted at once.

5. They were to have arrived at seven o’clock.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1. We thought you had accepted their invitation.

2. I learnt he had been rector of our University for about ten years.

3. He said he preferred to spend his days off at home.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения; обратите внимание на то, что в них просьба или побуждение выражены с помощью глагола to let.

1. Let ‘s send her a letter from her brother.

2. Let her send a letter to her brother.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива, герундия и причастия в предложении.

1. The results obtained showed that this scientist was right.

2. When showing him my poems I always want to know his opinion.

3. He found the problem too difficult to solve.

4. There is nothing to trouble about.

VII. Переведите на русский язык.

Английский текст

Русский перевод

THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

The University of London was created to conduct the examination and to grant degrees upon the students from any institution situated anywhere in the British Empire.

Up until 1900 the University of London was only an examining and degree-awarding body, but in that year an Act of Parliament permitted to provide lecture rooms, museums, laboratories, work shops, etc. for both teaching and research. Today the University of London is a federation of colleges, each largely independent. There are four faculties of Theology, thirteen of Arts, thirty-one of Medicine, ten of Science, etc.

The University of London grants degrees to all who satisfy its examinations, with the exceptions of engineering and medical degrees (for which the study at an approved institution is required). The London external degree has been of great importance in the development of the university system.

Many of the new independent universities were at first university colleges (i.e. university institutions which could not award their own degrees) and for them the University of London became the degree-awarding body. The London external degree is very important to students in technical colleges and some teacher-training colleges, as well as for private students working on their own, away from educational centers.

The development of new qualifications (e.g. the new Diploma in Technology) and increasing enrollment in regular university courses have made the external degree less important.

ВАРИАНТ 5

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола - сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. I was recommended another doctor.

2. The dinner had been eaten before the conversation was finished.

3. They were being taught drawing at that lesson.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. This wireless set is better than that one.

2. One must always keep one’s word.

3. It is the industrial concentration that makes Sheffield unique.

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. I had a bad toothache, but just hadn’t enough courage to go to the dentist.

2. Do they have to hurry?

3. Who is to speak next?

4. That is a very difficult problem for us.

5. The new modern building of a picture gallery is to be set up in one of those industrial centers. It is being designed by a group of talented architects.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

1. I know he will speak about our future work at the meeting.

2. They were sure this Research Institute had been founded several years ago.

V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения; обратите внимание на то, что в них просьба ( побуждение ) выражена с помощью глагола to let.

1. Let him read the text.

2. Let the students correct their mistakes in their control works.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива, герундия и причастия в предложении.

1. He insists on the problem being solved at once.

2. Making these experiments we can compare the weight of elements.

3. The material to be tested had interesting properties.

VII. Переведите на русский язык.

Английский текст

Русский перевод

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

Founded in 1636, Harvard University is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the United States. From its classrooms have emerged six American presidents - from John Adams to John F. Kennedy - and an impressive group of statesmen, business leaders, and literary figures. Its campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts, just across the Charles River from Boston provides a rich architectural mix that includes the ivy-covered brick of Puritan New England and the concrete and glass of contemporary design.

Today, the university includes Harvard and Radcliff undergraduate colleges, 10 professional schools, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and an extension school. There are some 1,600 students from every state and 45 foreign countries in it; tuition is about $12,000 a year, and 70% of those attending receive financial aid.

The university library system is the largest in the world; it contains more than 10 million volumes and subscribes to 100,000 periodicals. There are three notable art Museums which house works from ancient Egyptian to contemporary American. There is also a botanical Museum, 40 acres of fields, an experimental forest located in New England, a center for a study of the Italian Renaissance in Italy, and a center for Byzantine studies in Washington, D. C.

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