Английский язык 11

Лекции (краткий курс) Основные правила для начинающих Кафедра иностранных языков аНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Unit 1 1. Личные местоимения Единственное число Множественное число

Лекции

(краткий курс)

Основные правила для начинающих

Кафедра иностранных языков

аНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК


Unit 1

1. Личные местоимения

Единственное число Множественное число

I – я

you – ты

he – он

she – она

it – он, она, оно (о неодушевленных предметах)

we – мы

you – вы

they – они

2. Глагол to be в простом настоящем времени

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I am (I’m) in Kiev.

You are (you’re) in Kiev.

He (she) is (he’s, she’s) in Kiev.

We are (we’re) in Kiev.

You are (you’re) in Kiev.

They are (they’re) in Kiev.

Am I in Kiev?

Are you in Kiev?

Is he (she) in Kiev?

Are we in Kiev?

Are you in Kiev?

Are they in Kiev?

I am not (I’m not) in Kiev.

You are not (aren’t) in Kiev.

He (she) is not (isn’t) in Kiev.

You are not (aren’t) in Kiev.

You are not (aren’t) in Kiev.

They are not (aren’t) in Kiev.

Краткие ответы на вопросы

- Are you in London?

- Is he (she) in London?

- Are they in London?

- Yes, I am.

- No, I am not (I’m not).

- Yes, he (she) is.

- No, he (she) is not (isn’t).

- Yes, they are.

- No, they are not (aren’t).


Ex.1 Составите предложения:

1. I

He

She

We

You

They

‘re

‘s

‘m

aren’t

‘m not

isn’t

a teacher

a businessman

in Moscow

in Russia

Russian

Ukranian

2. Are

Am

Is

he

she

you

we

I

in Moscow?

a businessman?

Estonian?

in Minsk?

a teacher of English?

3. The Present Indefinite Tense ( простое настоящее время )

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I work on Omsk.

You work in Omsk.

He (she) works in Omsk.

We work in Omsk.

You work in Omsk.

They work in Omsk.

Do I work in Omsk?

Do you work in Omsk?

Does he (she) work in Omsk?

Do we work in Omsk?

Do you work in Omsk?

Do they work in Omsk?

I do not (don’t) work in Omsk.

You do not (don’t) work in Omsk.

he (she) does not (doesn’t) work in Omsk.

We do not (don’t) work in Omsk.

You do not (don’t) work in Omsk.

They do not (don’t) work in Omsk.

Краткие ответы на вопросы

- Do you live in Ottawa?

- Does he (she) live in Ottawa?

- Do they live in Ottawa?

- Yes, I do.

- No, I do not (don’t)

- Yes, he (she) does.

- No, he (she) does not (doesn’t).

- Yes, they do.

- No, they do not (don’t).


Ex. 7 Составьте предложения:

1. You

I

he

She

We

They

live

works

speaks

speak

don’t work

doesn’t speak

don’t live

doesn’t work

English

in Moscow

in Russia

Russian

in Novosibirsk

2. Do

Does

she

we

he

they

you

work

live

speak

in Tumenj?

in Moscow?

English?

Russian?

German?

French?

4. The Present Continuous Tense (настоящее продолженное время)

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I am learning English.

You are (you’re) learning English.

He (she) is learning English.

We are (we’re) learning English.

Am I learning English?

Are you learning English?

Is he (she) learning English?

Are we learning English?

I am not (I’m not) learning English.

You are not (aren’t) learning English.

He (she) is not (isn’t) learning English.

We are not (aren’t) learning English.

Краткие ответы на вопросы

- Are you learning French?

- Is he (she) learning French?

- Are they learning French?

- Yes, I am.

- No, I am not (I’m not).

- Yes, he (she) is.

- No, he (she) is not (isn’t).

- Yes, they are.

- No, they are not (aren’t).

5 . Артикли

He is a visitor.

They are __ visitors.

The visitor is in the office.

The visitors are __ English teachers.

Артикли не употребляются:

1. если перед существительным есть притяжательные местоимения

Itismyoffice.

2. перед большинством названий стран

He lives in France.

3. передименамилюдей

My name is Ann. My name is Ann Brown.

5. перед существительными, после которых идет номер или индекс

Lesson One, Unit Two

6. внекоторыхсочетаниях

to go on business, to be on business

Неопределенный артикль – определенный артикль

Неопределенный артикль употребляется с существительными в единственном числе:

It is an office.

It is a big office.

Определенный артикль употребляется с существительными в единственном и множественном числе: Heisattheofficenow.

They are at the offices now.

Две формы неопределенного артикля

a an

a man

a lesson

an office

an Englishman

6. Притяжательные местоимения

Личные местоимения Соответствующие притяжательные местоимения

I

you

he

she

it

we

you

they

my

your

his

her

its

our

your

their

.

7. Объектный падеж личных местоимений

Личные местоимения Притяжательные местоимения Объектный падеж личных местоимений

I

you

he

she

it

we

you

they

my

your

his

her

its

our

your

their

me

you

him

her

it

us

you

them

8. Конструкция there is / there are

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма – краткие ответы Отрицательная форма

There is a chair in the corner.

There are two chairs in the corner.

Is there a chair in the corner?

- Yes, there is (one).

- No, there isn’t any.

Are there any chairs in the corner?

- Yes, there are some.

- No, there aren’t any.

There is no chair in the corner.

There isn’t any chair in the corner.

There are no chairs in the corner.

There aren’t any chairs in the corner.

Unit 2

1. Модальный глагол can

I can drive.

I cannot drive.

Can you drive?

Can you come tomorrow?

Can you bring us the bill, please?

Can I have the bill, please?

Can I see the menu, please?

Я могу (умею) водить машину.

Я не умею водить машину.

Вы можете (умеете) водить машину,

Вы можете (не можете) прийти завтра?

Вы не принесете счет?

Вы можете принести счет,

Принесите, пожалуйста, счет.

Можно посмотреть меню?

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I can meet him.

You can meet him.

He (she) can meet him.

We can meet him.

You can meet him.

They can meet him.

Can I meet him?

Can you meet him?

Can he (she) meet him?

Can we meet him?

Can you meet him?

Can they meet him?

I cannot (can't) meet him.

You cannot (can't) meet him.

He (she) cannot (can't) meet him.

We cannot (can't) meet him.

You cannot (can't) meet him.

They cannot (can't) meet him.

2. Модальный глагол Should

1. You should wait a little.

2. You should not smoke so much.

Вы должны немного подождать. (Вам следует немного подождать.)

Вы не должны так много курить. (Вам не следует так много курить.)

3. The Past Indefinite Tense ( простое прошедшее время )

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I opened the door.

You opened the door.

He (she) opened the door.

We opened the door.

You opened the door.

They opened the door.

Did I open the door?

- Yes, I did.

- No, I did not (didn’t).

Did you open the door?

- Yes, you did.

- No, you did not (didn’t).

Did he (she) open the door?

- Yes, he (she) did.

- No, he (she) did not (didn’t).

Did we open the door?

- Yes, we did.

- No, we did not (didn’t).

Did you open the door?

- Yes, you did.

- No, you did not (didn’t).

Did they open the door?

- Yes, they did.

- No, they did not (didn’t).

I did not (didn’t) open …

You did not (didn’t) open …

He (she) did not (didn’t) open …

We did not (didn’t) open …

You did not (didn’t) open …

They did not (didn’t) open …

4. Простое прошедшее время глагола to be

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I was hungry.

You were hungry.

He (she) was hungry.

We were hungry.

You were hungry.

They were hungry.

Was I hungry?

- Yes, I was.

- No, I was not (wasn’t).

Were you hungry?

- Yes, you were.

- No, you were not (weren’t).

Was he (she) hungry?

- Yes, he (she) was.

- No, he (she) was not (wasn’t).

Were we hungry?

- Yes, we were.

- No, we were not (weren’t).

Were you hungry?

- Yes, you were.

- No, you were not (weren’t).

Were they hungry?

- Yes, they were.

- No, they were not (weren’t).

I was not (wasn’t) hungry.

You were not (weren’t) hungry.

He (she) was not (wasn’t) hungry.

We were not (weren’t) hungry.

You were not (weren’t) hungry.

They were not (weren’t) hungry.

5. Три формы неправильных глаголов

Инфинитив Простое прошедшее время Причастие

To become

To bring

To buy

(can)

To come

To drive

To fly

To get

To give

To go

To have

To hear

To hold

To keep

To leave

(may)

To meet

To put

To read

To see

To sell

To send

To show

To sit

To speak

To take

To understand

To write

Became

Brought

Bought

Could

Came

Drove

Flew

Got

Gave

Went

Had

Heard

Held

Kept

Left

Might

Met

Put

Read

Saw

Sold

Sent

Showed

Sat

Spoke

Took

Understood

Wrote

Become

Brought

Bought

-

Come

Driven

Flown

Got

Given

Gone

Had

Heard

Held

Kept

Left

-

Met

Put

Read

Seen

Sold

Sent

Shown

Sat

Spoken

Taken

Understood

Written

6. Употребление many, much, a lot of, few, little, a few, a little

Many – много

A lot of – много

Few – мало

Afew – несколько

Употребляются с исчисляемыми существительными

Much – много

A lot of – много

Little – мало

Alittle – немного

Употребляются с неисчисляемыми существительными

Исчисляемые существительные Неисчисляемые существительные

Table

Restaurant

Bill

Letter

Briefcase

Food

Soup

Wine

Coffee

Luggage

Many – a lot of – few – a few Much – a lot of – little – a little

He hasn’t got many friends.

There are very many letters on the table.

There are a lot of letters on the desk.

There are a few letters on the desk.

He hasn’t got much information.

There is much wine in the bottle.

There is a lot of information in the little.

There is a little wine in the bottle.

7. The Future Indefinite Tense ( простое будущее время )

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I will (I'll) learn French.

You will (you'11) learn ...

He (she) will (he'll, she'll) learn ...

We will (we'11) learn ...

You will (you'11) learn ...

They will (they'll) learn ...

Will I learn ...?

Will you learn …?

Will he (she) learn ...?

Will we learn ...?

Will you learn ...?

Will they learn ...?

I will not (won't) learn …

You will not (won't) learn ...

He (she) will not (won't) learn ...

We will not (won't) learn ...

You will not (won't) learn ...

They will not (won't) learn ...

8. Модальный глагол may

May I have the bill, please? Можно получить счет?

Ex. 13 Переведите на русский язык:

1. May I come in?

2. May I see the menu, please?

3. May I take your earphones?

4. May I wait here?

5. May I listen to the song once more?

6. May I have my passport back, please?

7. May I join you?

8. May I cash the cheque here?

Ex. 14 разыграйте следующий и составьте аналогичные диалоги:

- May I have my ticket back please?

- Yes, certainly, here you are.

- Thank you.

9. Выражение просьбы

Глаголы Примеры

Can

May

Will

Bring my bill, please.

Can you bring my bill, please?

May I have my bill, please?

Will you bring, my bill, please?

-

10. Модальный глагол must

I must drive tonight.

I must go home now.

Я должен вести машину сегодня.

Я должен сейчас идти домой.

Сравните: must – should

must

should

I must read this book.

Я должен обязательно прочитать эту книгу.

You should read this book.

Вы должны (я Вам советую) прочитать эту книгу.

Words

1. dear [diə]

Dear Sirs …

2. to inform [in΄fo:m]

To inform … of

Please, inform us of the name of the hotel.

3. February [΄februəri]

In February

He is coming to Moscow in February.

4. to begin [bi΄gin]

5. talks [to:ks]

He is having talks now.

6. to make [meik]

To make a reservation at the hotel

7. let us know …

8. necessary [΄nesisəri]

9. cooperation [˛koupə΄rei∫n]

Thank you for your cooperation.

10. yours [jo:z]

11. faithfully [feiθfuli]

Yours faithfully, …

дорогой

Уважаемые господа … (вежливая форма обращения в начале делового письма)

сообщать

сообщать кому-либо о чем-либо (в официальных документах)

просим сообщить нам название гостиницы.

февраль

в феврале

Он приезжает в Москву в феврале.

начинать

переговоры

Он сейчас на переговорах.

делать

забронировать номер в гостинице

Дайте нам знать … Сообщите нам …

необходимый

сотрудничество

Благодарим Вас за помощь.

ваш, ваша, ваши (употребляется без последующего существительного)

верно, преданно

С уважением … (заключительная фраза в деловых письмах)


Words

1. to regret [ri΄gret]

I regret to say …

2. to reserve [ri΄zə:v]

3. accommodation [ə˛komə΄dei∫n]

to reserve (hotel) accommodation for somebody

4. to book (up)

We are booked up.

5. available [ə΄veiləbl]

This book is not available.

6. national [΄næ∫ənl]

7. processor [prə΄sesə]

word processor

8. association [ə˛sousi΄ei∫ən]

9. to hold [hould]

10. convention [kən΄ven∫ən]

11. during [΄djuəriŋ]

during the revolution

during the interval

12 surely [΄∫uəli]

As you will surely understand …

13. They have to reserve …

14. possible [΄posibl]

as many rooms as possible

as soon as possible

15. member [΄membə]

a member of Parliament

16. to propose [prə΄pouz]

We propose to discuss this problem.

17. to postpone [poust΄poun]

18. safely [΄seifli]

safe

19. to hope [houp]

20. to suit [sju:t]

We hope this will suit you.

21. to look forward to …

22. to hear from somebody

23. We look forward to hearing from you.

сожалеть

К сожалению, должен сказать …

резервировать, бронировать

помещение, жилье

бронировать номер в гостинице для кого-либо

резервировать, принимать заказ

Все места забронированы.

доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный

Эту книгу нельзя достать.

национальный

процессор

текстовый процессор

общество, ассоциация

проводить (собрание, совещание, митинг)

собрание, съезд

в течение, в продолжение, во время

во время революции

во время перерыва

конечно, непременно (американского разговорное)

Как Вы, конечно, понимаете …

Они вынуждены бронировать …

возможный, вероятный

столько комнат, сколько возможно

как можно скорее

член

член парламента

предлагать

Мы предлагаем обсудить этот вопрос.

откладывать

надежно, с уверенностью

невредимый, сохранный

надеяться

устаивать, подходить

Надеемся, Вам это пройдет.

с интересом ждать …

получать известия, письмо от кого-либо

С нетерпением ждем (от Вас) ответа.

Unit 3

1. The Present Perfect Tense ( настоящее совершенное время )

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма

I have (I've) seen this film.

You have (you’ve) seen this film.

He (she) has seen this film.

We have (we’ve) seen this film.

You have (you’ve) seen this film.

They have (they’ve) seen this film.

Have I seen this film?

Have you seen this film?

Has he (she) seen-this film?

Have we seen this film?

Have you seen this film?

Have they seen this film?

I have not (I haven’t) seen this film.

You have not (you haven’t) seen this film.

He (she) has not (hasn’t) seen this film.

We have not (haven’t) seen this film.

You have not (haven’t) seen this film.

They have not (haven’t) seen this film.

2. Страдательный залог простого настоящего и прошедшего времени

Действительный залог Страдательный залог

We enclose a catalogue with this letter.

We enclose catalogues with this letter.

A catalogue is enclosed with this

letter.

К этому письму прилагается (приложен) каталог.

Catalogues are enclosed with this

letter.

К этому письму прилагаются (приложены) каталоги.

We enclosed a catalogue with this letter.

We enclosed catalogues with this letter.

A catalogue was enclosed with this

letter.

К этому письму был приложен (прилагался) каталог.

Catalogues were enclosed with this

letter.

К этому письму были приложены (прилагались, приложили) каталоги.

3. Страдательный залог (продолжение)

Простое будущее время

We will quote this price.

We will not quote this price.

This price will be quoted.

This price will not be quoted.

Настоящее совершенное время

We have already quoted this price.

We have not quoted this price yet.

This price has already been quoted .

This price has not been quoted yet.

can

We can quote a lower price.

We cannot quote a lower price.

A lower price can be quoted .

A lower price cannot be quoted .