Early California Essay, Research Paper
The early explorers who came ashore and saw the naked Indian woman and believed they were the Amazon women of another continent named California. What is the history of California and Arizona? Most people think of the 49ers and the Gold that they found in northern California during the 1800’s. The 49ers were not the first of the colonial settlers it was the Spanish with the aid of the Catholic church. With the expeditions of Cabrillo, Cortez, and men like Blonaquez they set the foundation for California and Arizona on distant lands long before they were even known to exist. Settlement of California, colonial settlement of Arizona and the formalization, implementation and success or failure of the settlements was all due to the Spanish Christians.
Miguel Lopez de Legpazi and Fray Andes de Urdaneta firt went to see the west coast starting from Mexico. They wanted to establish a base in the far western islands, which Magellan had spotted in 1521. Legazpi died in 1572 After the Spanish conquest of the Philippines was effectively stable. The Spaniards became more interested in the west coast as a buffer for their more valuable because of trespassers. Firstthere was Francis Drake who’s presence in California in 1579 put fear into the Spanish like no other. Thomas Cavendish in 1586 raided the Pacific coast of America including southern end of Baja California. Fray Padre Antoni De la Ascension became chronicler of the Spaanish expedition and provided prosperity with one of the most interesting description of California and its settlers. They began out of Acapulco and they sailed along the Mexican coast. By November when they reached San Diego Bay. They built a hut there and there was a big feast in honor of Senor San Diego. In November they took off and hit places like Catalina Island named after Sanata Catalin, and the Bay of Monterey. The Spanish however never found the real prize the Bay of San Francisco.
In 1591 Tapia and Perez two Jesuits priests came to the Villa de San Fellipe, they had come to save the souls of the Indians by converting them to Christians. Tapia and Perez established their headquarters in Villa de San Fellipe. In 1594Tapia was murdered. In 1620 the Jesuits superiors divided the expanding mission field and built a new recortado in the north, separating the Rio Mayo and the Rio Yaqui.
In the second quarter of the seventeenth century the southern end of the western corridor was experiencing its first real flow of settlers. By 1678 Sinoloa had 600 Spanish families. These Spanish and Jesuits attempted to Christianise and civilise the Indians here. The Jesuits had starting moving up the San Miguelle Valley to the west of the Sonora pushing as far as Cucurpe. In the Northeast high in the Sierra, other Jesuits were opening missions among the Summa, at Babispie and Baarea.
An invaluable survey of the north-eastern frontier came in 1678 with the report of the Jesuit visitador-general, Padre Juan Ortz Zapata. Zapata was commission to explore both sides of the Sierra Madre. Zapata also reported that economic life of the missions had been greatly strengthened by the introduction of new cereals, such as wheat, which flourish in Sonoras fertile soil, and there was an extension of the cattle industry northward.
With the seventeenth century coming to a quick a close the north-western frontier was ready for the arrival of the great man who was to carry its outer edge beyond the Pimeria and into the new Borderland, Arizona. Eusebio Fransico Kinp was his name and he was the man who set out towards Arizona. He explored the Mexican state of Sonora and the South-western quarter of the State of Arizona. Exploring and mapping the Primeria, the Papagueria and beyond were among his great contributions. Even more important were his discoveries after repeated expeditions to the Gila and down the Colorado. at least fourteen expeditions were made across the line in to what is now Arizona by Kino.
The most immediate decision made as a result of the discovery of the peninsularity of California was the plan to link this rich Sonora with the much less favored lands of Baja California by an overland Route. The lower California story has a definite connection with the later ” Superior California” thrust. The first two expeditions of into Alta California went northward in 1769 from a peninsula base. The expedition seemed to be going well as the 1730’s rolled along. Then the first serious trouble began. Troubles had been there from the begining but these were mainly of physical and material structure- the main issue was survival. In 1734 new factors caused the high running tentions, that were building, to explode. The Indians who were not only considered extremely low culturally had a number of half-breeded mulatto children who began to rebel. During the uprising two missionaries Lorenzo Carranco and Nocolas Tmral and several garrison soldiers were killed. Forty-nine of the Chrition women and children were killed. Archbishop Juan Antonio de Vizzaarron took forceful action bruttaly put down a situation, which could have gotten a lot worse.
By the time the fighting was over the Black Robes had exactly thirty years and a few weeks invested into their California settlement. Most of the work carried out in the future in Lower California was carried out by non Spaniards in the Jesuits ranks just as in other side of the Gulf, in Sonora and Arizona. For two decades after Kinos death, there was a serious shortage of Jesuit manpower in Sonora-Arizona. The lack on manpower is the reason why the Jesuits did not react with the energy to the assignment of the moqui field to them.
In 1736 Sonora came into the news, following the discovery of deposits of silver in Arizona. Arizona’s growth was due to the new found silver and the mining industry. Between 1548-1800 eighty percent of all silver produced in the world came from Spain. El Real of Sacateas- a mine in Mexico minted a fifth of the worlds silver. Jesuit Jacobo Asadelmayr, missionary at Tubutamam was in the 1740’s the great Arizona traveller and explorer. In the royal decree of 1747 foresaw that the Seri along the Sonora coast would be likely to cause trouble and so it called for the education of the Indians. On November 20,1751, the Primeria became an erupting hot zone when Luis of Saic, governor of the northern Pina, led his tribesman on the warpath, hundreds if Spaniards were killed.
On the Sonora frontier during the years of 1750’s and 1760’s found the province in a precarious state. The Seri continued to be a threat on the west and the Apache raided the Northwest very eaisly. During this time the greater number of Anglos in Sonora, scattered in the little mining towns and around its several presidois, numbering approximately 1500, they helped weaken the ties of the Indians to the missions. The missionaries soon also became failures. The Report of father Vistador Ignacio Lizasoain, in 1763, was verity discouraging as regard to Sonora . As a result of the report the secularisation of the Sonaor missions began.
In the late summer of 1772 Fages and Serra went South to secure supplies in San Louis Obispo. Serra had reopened the question of a foundation at San Buennaventtura. In California during this time in 1773 there was some very important news, the Dominicans had taken over most of lower California. In 1773 there was the first full report on the Alta California enterprise that was published, summarising the accomplishments of the first five years. The record showed just under of 500 baptisms. Since the occupation of California the problem of supply of Christians had been a prime concern to all involved, either at the capital or the far frontier.
By the mid 1780’s Spain was somewhat secure in this last of it Borderlands. California was Spain’s farthest northward penetration into the North American continent. During this time the mission frontier was a self-contained economy. All missions were built one day apart from each other. Mission were regulatory systems, they had their own rules and regulations.