Ancient Human Essay, Research Paper
Human, common name given to any individual of the species Homo sapiens and by extension, to the entire species. Indeed, the term is also applied to certain species that were the evolutionary forerunners of Homo sapiens. Human are the first species in the world combined with human structure , behavior, and culture. In general, Homo sapiens is identified as an animal with a backbone and segmented spinal cord that suckles its young that gestates its young with the aid of a placenta that is equipped with five-digited extremities, a collarbone, and a single pair of mammary glands on the chest and that has eyes at the front of the head, stereoscopic vision, and a proportionately large brain. However, the species belongs to the family Hominid. First able, the details of skeletal structure distinguishing Homo sapiens from the nearest primate relatives-the gorilla, chimpanzee, and orangutan-stem largely from a very early adaptation to a completely erect posture and a two-footed striding walk. However, the uniquely S-shaped spinal column places the center of gravity of the human body directly over the area of support provided by the feet, thus giving stability and balance in the upright position. Other mechanical modifications for bipedalism include a broad pelvis, a locking knee joint, an elongated heel bone, and a lengthened and aligned big toe. Although varying degrees of bipedalism are seen in other anthropoids, all have straight or bowed spines, bent knees, and grasping feet, and all use the hands to bear part of the body weight when moving about.On the other hand, the juvenile stage of brain and skull development is prolonged so that they grow for a longer period of time in relation to the time required to reach sexual maturity. Unlike the early human adult skull, with its sloping forehead and prominent jaw, the modern human skull-with biologically insignificant variations-retains into maturity a proportionately large size, in relation to the rest of the body, a high-rounded dome, straight-planed face, and reduced jaw size, all closely resembling the characteristics of the skull in the juvenile chimpanzee. Its enlarged dimensions required adaptations for passage through the birth canal; consequently, the human female pelvis widens at, and the human infant is born prematurely. Secondly , adaptations that made humans more flexible than other primates allowed for the development of a wide range of abilities and an unparalleled versatility in behavior. The brain’s great size, complexity, and slow maturation, with neural connections being added through at least the first 12 years of life, meant that learned behavior could largely modify stereotyped, instinctive responses. New environmental demands could be met by rapid adjustments rather than by slow genetic selection; thus, survival in a wide range of habitats and under extreme conditions eventually became possible without further species differentiation. Each new infant, however, with relatively few innate traits yet with a vast number of potential behaviors, must be taught to achieve its biological potential as a human.
Humans live in a culturally conditioned world to such an extent that it can be referred to as a cultural ecological niche. This is the arena in which the survival of the human species is played out. The occupants of the cultural ecological niche impose a series of selective pressures on each other as they use language and other aspects of culture to their advantage. In general, those who have trouble learning the rudiments of language will have less chance for survival. The cultural ecological niche puts a premium on those portions of the brain associated with linguistic capability. One would expect, then, that the evidence for the increasing complexity of the prehistoric cultural record would be linked to an increase in brain size of the associated prehistoric hominids. This is indeed the case. Evidence of religion, recorded events, and art date from 30,000 to 40,000 years ago and imply advanced language and ethics for the complex ordering of social groups required for such activities. From about that time the genus Homo began to stabilize into the one generalized species of Homo sapiens. Finally, all human groups are completely dependent on the use of language, without which they could not survive, and there is nothing comparable among their nearest nonhuman kin. The learning of previous generations is passed on by linguistic means, and new insights and experiences by individuals can become the property of the group as a whole when these are verbally transmitted. This clearly is a key to human survival, and it is a uniquely human attribute. That body of verbally transmitted learning and traditions is referred to as culture.not only that, our human development are rapidly changing as in time changing. So therefore, human structure, behavior and culture are the most important aspect of the origin of human. The whole human civilization are build up from the base of those feature, without that the modern civilization wouldn t be exists right now. Bibliography “CULTUREAL ANTHROPOLOGY” William A. Haviland “university of Vermont” “The past in Perspective” Kenneth L. Feder (1996) Connecticut state university. “Human,” Microsoft(R) Encarta(R) 97 Encyclopedia. (c) 1993-1996