Education in Russia.
The education system of Russia consists of two major levels: the pre-higher or school education and higher education.
I will tell about both in bigger detail later on.
As for now, I would like to explain the grading systems of both levels.
In secondary schools as well as in higher education institutions, the five-grade scale is used, from 1 to 5, 1 being the lowest and five being the highest on the scale.
Although, to the best of my knowledge, 1 is extremely rare used.
Also, for some subjects two-grade scale is used and a student gets either pass or fail.
The structure of school education consists of two levels: the compulsory education and the secondary education.
Children are admitted to school at the age of 6 years and end this level at the age of 15.
Thus, the duration of compulsory education is nine years.
School students who successfully graduate this level may enter senior high school to get complete secondary education, which lasts two years from the age of 15 until students are 17 years old.
Also, those who finished compulsory education have an option to enter a vocational school providing professional education.
At vocational schools, students usually finish secondary education and get trained as technicians or skilled workers in various trades.
In any case, every student who finished 11 years of schooling is awarded a Certificate of Secondary Complete General Education.
This certificate gives school-leavers an opportunity to apply for entrance to a higher education institution.
The are several types of higher education institutions in Russia: University, Academy, Institute, Conservatory, College, Vocational School.
Apart from the school-leaving certificate, each of these institutions set obligatory entrance exams and/or tests.
Only those who successfully passed entrance exams may hope to be admitted.
At some universities entrance exams are very competitive and only the best of the best get through.
Of course, grades from the school-leaving certificate are also taken into account.
Higher education institution may be public or state and non-public.
Higher education as well as school education used to be provided on a fully free basis.
Presently, part of students of public and all students of non-public institutions have to pay for their tuition.
The tuition fee range considerably depending on the university reputation and specific departments.
Today, there are over 600 public and more than 200 accredited non-public or non-state higher education institutions in Russia.
Currently, Russian educational system is undergoing drastic reforms.
Every university or institute has been given a great part of autonomy in their every day activity.
At the university level, students usually study for five years.
The curriculum includes general and special courses in sciences, the humanities, and professional training.
After completion of final research project called Diploma project and passing State final exams they are awarded Diplomas of Higher Education.
Then, they can leave university and find a job according to their specialization.
However, many students choose to continue their studies at the post-university level.
After additional 2 years, they are awarded the Master’s degree.
Most dedicated to scientific research decide to go in for doctoral degrees.
There are two levels of doctoral degree, which do not have equivalent in Western systems of education.
They are Kandidat Nauk degree (or Candidat of Sciences) and Doktor Nauk degree (or Doctor of Sciences degree).