Untitled Essay Research Paper Of all the

Untitled Essay, Research Paper

Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most

of these do not understand this man’s work, everyone knows that its impact

on the world of science is astonishing. Yes, many have heard of Albert Einstein’s

General Theory of relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that

led this scientist to discover what some have called, “The greatest single

achievement of human thought.”Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, 1874. Before his first birthday,

his family had moved to Munich where young Albert’s father, Hermann Einstein,

and uncle set up a small electro-chemical business. He was fortunate to have

an excellent family with which he held a strong relationship. Albert’s mother,

Pauline Einstein, had an intense passion for music and literature, and it

was she that first introduced her son to the violin in which he found much

joy and relaxation. Also, he was very close with his younger sister, Maja,

and they could often be found in the lakes that were scattered about the

countryside near Munich.As a child, Einstein’s sense of curiosity had already begun to stir. A favorite

toy of his was his father’s compass, and he often marvelled at his uncle’s

explanations of algebra. Although young Albert was intrigued by certain mysteries

of science, he was considered a slow learner. His failure to become fluent

in German until the age of nine even led some teachers to believe he was

disabled.Einstein’s post-basic education began at the Luitpold Gymnasium when he was

ten. It was here that he first encountered the German spirit through the

school’s strict disciplinary policy. His disapproval of this method of teaching

led to his reputation as a rebel. It was probably these differences that

caused Einstein to search for knowledge at home. He began not with science,

but with religion. He avidly studied the Bible seeking truth, but this religious

fervor soon died down when he discovered the intrigue of science and math.

To him, these seemed much more realistic than ancient stories. With this

new knowledge he disliked class even more, and was eventually expelled from

Luitpold Gymnasium being considered a disruptive influence.Feeling that he could no longer deal with the German mentality, Einstein

moved to

Switzerland where he continued his education. At sixteen he attempted to

enroll at the

Federal Institute of Technology but failed the entrance exam. This forced

him to study locally for one year until he finally passed the school’s

evaluation. The Institute allowed Einstein to meet many other students that

shared his curiosity, and It was here that his studies turned mainly to Physics.

He quickly learned that while physicists had generally agreed on major principals

in the past, there were modern scientists who were attempting to disprove

outdated theories. Since most of Einstein’s teachers ignored these new ideas,

he was again forced to explore on his own. In 1900 he graduated from the

Institute and then achieved citizenship to Switzerland.Einstein became a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office in 1902. This job had

little to do with physics, but he was able to satiate his curiosity by figuring

out how new inventions worked. The most important part of Einstein’s occupation

was that it allowed him enough time to pursue his own line of research. As

his ideas began to develop, he published them in specialist journals. Though

he was still unknown to the scientific world, he began to attract a large

circle of friends and admirers. A group of students that he tutored quickly

transformed into a social club that shared a love of nature, music, and of

course, science. In 1903 he married Mileva Meric, a mathematician friend.In 1905, Einstein published five separate papers in a journal, the Annals

of Physics. The first was immediately acknowledged, and the University of

Zurich awarded Einstein an additional degree. The other papers helped to

develop modern physics and earned him the reputation of an artist. Many

scientists have said that Einstein’s work contained an imaginative spirit

that was seen in most poetry. His work at this time dealt with molecules,

and how their motion affected temperature, but he is most well known for

his Special Theory of Relativity which tackled motion and the speed of light.

Perhaps the most important part of his discoveries was the equation: E=

mc2.After publishing these theories Einstein was promoted at his office. He remained

at the

Patents Office for another two years, but his name was becoming too big among


scientific community. In 1908, Einstein began teaching party time at the

University of Berne, and the following year, at the age of thirty, he became

employed full time by Zurich University. Einstein was now able to move to

Prague with his wife and two sons, Hans Albert and Eduard. Finally, after

being promoted to a professor, Einstein and his family were able to enjoy

a good standard of living, but the job’s main advantage was that it allowed

Einstein to access an enormous library. It was here that he extended his

theory and discussed it with the leading scientists of Europe. In 1912 he

chose to accept a job placing him in high authority at the Federal Institute

of Technology, where he had originally studied. It was not until 1914 that

Einstein was tempted to return to Germany to become research director of

the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics.World War I had a strong effect on Einstein. While the rest of Germany supported

the army, he felt the war was unnecessary, and disgusting. The new weapons

of war which attempted to mass slaughter people caused him to devote much

of his life toward creating peace. Toward the end of the war Einstein joined

a political party that worked to end the war, and return peace to Europe.

In 1916 this party was outlawed by the government, and Einstein was seen

as a traitor.In that same year, Einstein published his General Theory of relativity, This

result of ten years work revolutionized physics. It basically stated that

the universe had to be thought of as curved, and told how light was affected

by this. The next year, Einstein published another paper that added that

the universe had no boundary, but actually twisted back on its self.After the war, many aspects of Einstein’s life changed. He divorced his wife,

who had been living in Zurich with the children throughout the war, and married

his cousin Elsa Lowenthal. This led to a renewed interest in his Jewish roots,

and he became an active supporter of Zionism. Since anti-Semitism was growing

in Germany, he quickly became the target of prejudice. There were many rumors

about groups who were trying to kill Einstein, and he began to travel

extensively. The biggest change, though, was in 1919 when scientist who studied

an eclipse confirmed that his theories were correct.In 1921, he traveled through Britain and the United States raising funds

for Zionism and lecturing about his theories. He also visited the battle

sites of the war, and urged that Europe renew scientific and cultural links.

He promoted non-patriotic, non-competitive education, believing that it would

prevent war from happening in the future. He also believed that socialism

would help the world achieve peace.Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He gave all the money

to his ex-wife and children to help with their lives and education. After

another lecture tour, he visited Palestine for the opening the Hebrew University

in Jerusalem. He also talked about the possibilities that Palestine held

for the Jewish people. Upon his return he began to enjoy a calmer life in

which he returned to his original curiosity, religion.While Einstein was visiting America in 1933 the Nazi party came to power

in Germany. Again he was subject to anti-Semitic attacks, but this time his

house was broken into, and he was publicly considered an enemy of the nation.

It was obvious that he could not return to Germany, and for the second time

he renounced his German citizenship. During these early years in America

he did some research at Princeton, but did not accomplish much of

significance.In 1939 the second World War began to take form. There was heated argument

during this time over whether the United States should explore the idea of

an atomic bomb. Einstein wrote to President Roosevelt warning him of the

disaster that could occur if the Nazi’s developed it first. Einstein did

not participate in the development of the bomb, but the idea did stem from

his equation E=mc2. Just as he knew that the bomb was under development,

he also knew when it was going to be used. Just before the bomb was dropped

on Japan Einstein wrote a letter to the President begging him not to use

this terrible weapon.The rest of Einstein’s life was dedicated to promoting peace. After the war

ended, he

declared, “The war is won, but the peace is not.” He wrote many articles

and made many speeches calling for a world government. His fame, at this

point, was legendary. People from all over would write to him for advice,

and he would often answer them. He also continued his scientific research

until the day he died. This was on April 18, 1955. There is no doubt that

he was dissatisfied that he never was able to find the true meaning of existence

that he strove for all his life.BibliographyClark, Ronald W., Einstein – The Life and Times, New York: World Publishing,

1971.Dank, Milton, Albert Einstein, New York: An Impact Biography, 1920.Dukas, Helen and Banesh Hoffman, eds., Albert Einstein: The Human Side,


University Press, 1979.Einstein, Albert, Carl Seelig, ed., Ideas and Opinions, New York: Bonanza

Books, 1954.”Einstein, Albert.” Random House Encyclopedia, Random House Press, 1990

edition.Hunter, Nigel, Einstein, New York: Bookwright Press, 1987.Nourse, Dr. Alan E., Universe, Earth, and Atom: The Story of Physics, New

York and

Evanston: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1969.


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