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Chronology Of Iraq

’s Violations Of International Resolutions Essay, Research Paper FOLLOWING IS A CHRONOLOGY OF THE MAIN IRAQI VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL RESOLUTIONS SINCE THE LIBERATION OF KUWAIT IN 1991.

’s Violations Of International Resolutions Essay, Research Paper

FOLLOWING IS A CHRONOLOGY OF THE MAIN IRAQI VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL RESOLUTIONS SINCE THE LIBERATION OF KUWAIT IN 1991.

SEP 6-13 1991 – IRAQ FORBIDS THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMISSION (UNSCOM) IN CHARGE OF ELIMATING IRAQ’S MASS DESTRUCTION WEAPONS FROM USING CHOPPERS IN THEIR SEARCH EFFORTS AND SURROUNDS A 44-STRONG TEAM OF THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) AFTER THEIR SEARCH OF A SUSPECTED IRAQI NUCLEAR SITE.

JULY 1992 – INTENATIONAL INSPECTORS WERE FORBIDDEN FROM ENTERING THE IRAQI AGRICULTURE MINISTRY. DURING THEIR 18-DAY MONITORING OPERATION AT THE MINISTRY, THE INSPECTORS WERE ATTCKED BY IRAQI CROWDS AND THEYR WERE FORCED TO LEAVE THE SITE.

DEC 27, 1992 – U.S. F-16 FIGHTER SHOOTS DOWN IRAQI MIG IN THE NO-FLY ZONE IN SOUTHERN IRAQ.

JANUARY 1993 – U.S. AND ALLIED PLANES BLAST IRAQI MILITARY TARGETS OVER SEVERAL DAYS IN RETALIATION FOR VIOLATIONS OF CEASEFIRE TERMS.

JUNE 1993 – U.S. WARSHIPS FIRE 23 CRUISE MISSILES AT BAGHDAD, DESTROYING IRAQI INTELLIGENCE SERVICE HEADQUARTERS WING. ATTACK ORDERED TO AVENGE IRAQI PLOT TO KILL FORMER U.S. PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH DURING HIS VISIT TO KUWAIT EARLIER.

JULY AND AUGUST 1993 – U.S. PLANES STRIKE ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SITES IN SERIES OF MISSILE ATTACKS IN NO-FLY ZONES OVER SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN IRAQ.

OCTOBER 1994 – IRAQI REPUBLICAN GUARDS MOVE INTO SOUTHERN IRAQ NEAR BORDER WITH KUWAIT. UNITED STATES AND BRITAIN SEND FORCES TOWARDS KUWAIT. THE U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUES RESOLUTION 949 CONDEMNING THE IRAQI MASSING OF THE TROOPS AND CALLS FOR THEIR IMMIDIATE WITHDRAWAL.

APRIL 1995 – A UNSCOM CONFERENCE ON BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS DECALRES THAT IRAQ STILL POSSES A COPREHENSIVE UNDERGROUND BIOLOGICAL PROGRAM.

MAY 1995 – A UNSCOM CONFERENCE OF CHEMICHAL WEAPONS STRESS THAT IRAQ FAILED TO DATE TO DELIVER INFORMATION ABOUT IS CHEMICHAL WEAPONS PROGRAM.

JULY 1995 – FOR THE FIRST TIME, IRAQ RECOGNIZE THAT IT OWNS A BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS PROGRAM.

NOVEMBER 1995 – UNSCOM INVESTIGATIONS PROVES THAT THE IRAQI REGIME PURCHASED ADVANCED MISSILES CONTROL PANELS. THE JORDANIAN GOVERNMENT SEIZE A LARGE SHIPMENT OF MISSILES PARTS IN THEIR ROUTE TO BAGHDADA. UNSOM SEIZE SIMILAR EQUIPMENTS NEAR THE TIGRIS RIVER.

MARCH 1996 – INSPECTIONS TEAMS ARE FORBIDDEN FROM ENTERING FIVE SITES AND THEY WERE FORCED TO WAIT OUTSIDE FOR PERIODS OVER 17 HOURS. U.N SECURITY COUNCIL CONDEMNS THE IRAQI ACTIONS AND SAYS THAT THEY CONSTITUTE A VIOLATIONS OF U.N. RESOLUTIONS.

JUNE 1996 – IRAQI AUTHORITIES FORBID INSPECTORS FROM ENTERING FOUR IRAQI SITES. U.N SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUES RESOLUTION 1060 URGING IRAQ TO ALLOW THE IMMIDIATE, UNCODITIONAL AND UNRESTRICTED ACCESS OF THE INSPECTION TEAMS TO IRAQI SITES.

JULY 1996 – IRAQI AUTHORITIES FORBID INSPECTORS FROM ENTERING SUSPECTED SITES.

AUGUST 1996 – U.N SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS THAT THE IRAQI ACTIONS ARE A BLUNT VIOLATIONS OF U.N. RESOLUTIONS 687, 707 AND 715.

SEPT 3 1996- U.S. FORCES FIRE 27 SEA- AND AIR-LAUNCHED MISSILES AT TARGETS IN SOUTHERN IRAQ. WASHINGTON SAYS STRIKES ARE A WARNING TO IRAQ TO COMPLY WITH GULF WAR CEASEFIRE RESOLUTIONS. SADDAM HUSSEIN ORDERS HIS FORCES TO IGNORE THE NO-FLY ZONES AND SHOOT DOWN INTRUDERS.

SEPT 4 1996 – U.S. LAUNCHES SECOND WAVE OF CRUISE MISSILES AT IRAQI MILITARY TARGETS IN WHAT AMERICA SAYS IS EFFORT TO DESTROY IRAQ’S ABILITY TO ATTACK AIRCRAFT ENFORCING EXPANDED NO-FLY ZONE IN SOUTHERN IRAQ.

SEPT 11 1996 – IRAQ FIRES ONE SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE AT TWO U.S. F-16 JETS POLICING NO-FLY ZONE OVER NORTHERN IRAQ.

SEPT 13 – IRAQ ANNOUNCES THAT IT WOULD SUSPEND ALL ATTACKS AGAINST ALLIED WARPLANES PATROLLING TWO NO-FLYZONES. THE ANNOUNCEMENT COMES AS U.S. MILITARY BUILD-UP IN GULF GATHERS PACE.

MARCH 1997 – IRAQI FORBIDS INSPECTORS FROM ENTERING SITES IN BAGHDAD AND TIKRIT.

APRIL 1997 – UNSCOM CHIEF ROLF EKEUS ACCUSES IRAQ OF DELAYING UNSCOM WORK.

JUNE 1997 – IRAQ FORBIDS UNSCOM FROM ENTERING THREE SITES. EKEUS INFORMS THE SECURITY COUNCIL THAT IRAQIS WERE DESTROYING EVIDANCE ABOUT THEIR WEAPONS PROGRAMS AND SAYS THAT IRAQ CONTINUES TO CHALLENGE THE INSPECTORS AND FORBID THEIR FROM COMPLETING THEIR MISSION.

JUNE 21 1997 – U.N SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUES RESOLUTION 1134 CONDEMNING IRAQ FOR CONTINUING TO BLOCK INSPECTORS FROM ENTERING SITES AND THREATEN IRAQ TO ADOPT NEW SANCTIONS INCLUDING BANNING IRAQI OFFICIALS FROM TRAVELING ABROAD.

OCT 29, 1997 – IRAQ, ACTING IN RESPONSE TO SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION THREATENING BAN ON TRAVEL ABROAD BY IRAQI OFFICIALS WHO INTERFERE WITH WEAPONS INSPECTIONS, BARS AMERICANS FROM WEAPONS TEAMS ON ITS TERRITORY AND GIVES THEM WEEK TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY. SECURITY COUNCIL CONDEMNS DECISION AND THE U.N. SPECIAL COMMISSION (UNSCOM) SET UP AFTER GULF WAR TO ELIMINATE IRAQ’SWEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION SUSPENDS ALL FIELD OPERATIONS. THREE-WEEK-LONG CRISIS ENSUES DURING WHICH U.S. ASSEMBLES FORCE OF 30 WARSHIPS, 250 PLANES AND BOMBERS IN THE REGION.

NOV 3, 1997 – IRAQ WARNS WILL SHOOT DOWN U-2 SPY PLANES IF U.N. DOES NOT CANCEL THEM. BAGHDAD BLOCKS U.S. MEMBERS OF U.N. TEAM FROM WEAPONS SITE. U.N. HALTS THREE INSPECTIONS.

NOV 12, 1997 – SECURITY COUNCIL IMPOSES INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL BAN ON IRAQI OFFICIALS IMPEDING U.N. WEAPONS TEAMS, CONDEMNS IRAQ FOR BLOCKING AMERICAN U.N. ARMS INSPECTORS.

NOV 13, 1997 – IRAQ EXPELS AMERICAN ARMS MONITORS.

NOV 14, 1997 – UNSCOM HEAD RICHARD BUTLER PULLS INSPECTION TEAMSOUT OF IRAQ, LEAVES SKELETON STAFF.

NOV 20, 1997 – IRAQ AND RUSSIA AGREE ARMS INSPECTORS CAN RETURN TOWORK. RUSSIA TO PROMOTE LIFTING OF SANCTIONS AGAINST IRAQ ONCE BAGHDAD COMPLIES WITH U.N. RESOLUTIONS. IRAQ SAYS RUSSIA WILL GUARANTEE MEASURES INCLUDING ”BALANCED REPRESENTATION” OF MEMBERS IN UNSCOM, SUSPENDING INSPECTION OF PRESIDENTIAL SITES AND FLIGHTS OF U.S.-OPERATED U-2 SPY PLANES.

NOV 21, 1997 – U.N. ARMS INSPECTORS, INCLUDING AMERICANS, RETURN TO IRAQ TO RESUME INSPECTIONS.

DEC 15, 1997 – BUTLER SAYS IRAQ TOLD HIM IT WOULD NEVER ALLOW INSPECTORS TO ENTER PRESIDENTIAL SITES.

JAN 13, 1998 – IRAQ PREVENTS U.N. ARMS INSPECTORS LED BY AMERICAN SCOTT RITTER FROM WORKING. IRAQ SAYS RITTER IS A SPY, A CHARGE THE AMERICAN REJECTS.

JAN 17, 1998 – IRAQI PRESIDENT SADDAM HUSSEIN THREATENS TO HALT U.N. WEAPONS INSPECTIONS.

FEB 12, 1998 – IRAQ SAYS IT WILL NOT ACCEPT DEMAND FOR UNFETTERED U.N. ACCESS TO ALL PRESIDENTIAL PALACES.

FEB 20, 1998 – U.N. SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN ARRIVES IN BAGHDAD, SAYING HE HAS A ”SACRED DUTY” TO TRY TO DEFUSE THE CRISIS. SECURITY COUNCIL MORE THAN DOUBLES THE AMOUNT OF OIL IRAQ IS ALLOWED TO SELL TO PAY FOR IMPORTS OF FOOD AND MEDICINE.

FEB 22, 1998 – ANNAN HOLDS THREE-HOUR MEETING WITH SADDAM, AND THE U.N. CHIEF’S SPOKESMAN ANNOUNCES A DEAL ON WEAPONS INSPECTIONS.

FEB 23, 1998 – ANNAN SAYS THERE ARE ”NO TIME LIMITS OR DEADLINES” IN THE PACT. THE AGREEMENT PROVIDES FOR A ”SPECIAL GROUP”, COMPRISING U.N. WEAPONS EXPERTS AND SENIOR DIPLOMATS, TO CARRY OUT INSPECTIONS OF EIGHT KEY PRESIDENTIAL SITES.

MARCH 2, 1998 – SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS AGREE INFORMALLY ON A RESOLUTION WARNING IRAQ OF ”SEVEREST CONSEQUENCES” IF IT AGAIN BARS U.N. WEAPONS INSPECTORS FROM SUSPECTED SITES.

MARCH 26, 1998 – U.N. ARMS MONITORS BEGIN MISSION TO INSPECT A PRESIDENTIAL SITE FOR THE FIRST TIME IN SEVEN YEARS’ WORK. ACCOMPANYING DIPLOMATS PRAISE IRAQ’S COOPERATION.

APRIL 9, 1998 – U.N. REPORT SAYS IRAQ IS STILL FAILING TO PROVIDE A FULL ACCOUNT OF ITS BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAMME AND MAY STILL BE TRYING TO DECEIVE U.N. WEAPONS INSPECTORS.

APRIL 28, 1998 – IRAQI FOREIGN MINISTER DENIES THE AGREEMENT WITH ANNAN ALLOWED UNLIMITED INSPECTIONS OF PRESIDENTIAL PALACES.

MAY 1998 – IRAQ WARNS THE SECURITY COUNCIL THAT PROLONGING SWEEPING SANCTIONS AGAINST IT WILL LEAD TO ”GRAVE CONSEQUENCES”.

JUNE 1998 – IRAQ’S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS SAYS BAGHDAD WILL FORCE A ”LAST CRISIS” IF SANCTIONS ARE STILL IN PLACE AT THE END OF THIS YEAR. U.S. OFFICIALS SAY TESTS SHOWED IRAQ PUT VX NERVE GAS ON MISSILE WARHEADS BEFORE THE 1991 GULF WAR, PROMPTING PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON TO SAY SANCTIONS MUST STAY IN PLACE. IRAQ SAYS U.S. ARMY LABORATORY REPORT CANNOT BE ACCURATE. THE SECURITY COUNCIL RETAINS SANCTIONS.

JULY 23, 1998 – RICHARD BUTLER, HEAD OF U.N. SPECIAL COMMISSION (UNSCOM) ON IRAQI ARMS, COMPLAINS TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL THAT IRAQ IS REFUSING TO HAND OVER 10-YEAR-OLD DOCUMENTS ON MUNITIONS USED IN THE 1980-1988 WAR WITH IRAN.

JULY 23, 1998 – IRAQ CONDEMNS THE UNITED STATES OVER REPORTS THAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS SEEKING AUTHORITY FROM CONGRESS TO MOUNT COVERT OPERATIONS AGAINST SADDAM.

AUG 1998 – CHIEF U.N. WEAPONS INSPECTOR BUTLER LEAVES BAGHDAD AFTER TALKS WITH IRAQI OFFICIALS BREAK DOWN. HE SAYS IRAQ HAS REJECTED HIS PROPOSAL TO EXTEND HIS TEAM’S WORK ON MISSILE AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS.IRAQI PARLIAMENT VOTES UNANIMOUSLY TO FREEZE THE WORK OF U.N. ARMS INSPECTORS IN IRAQ.

UNSCOM SUSPENDS INSPECTIONS OF NEW SITES AFTER BAGHDAD’S DECISION TO HALT COOPERATION WITH THE UNITED NATIONS.

SEPT 1998 – IN A MOVE TO PUNISH IRAQ FOR DEFYING INSPECTORS, THE SECURITY COUNCIL SUSPENDS PERIODIC REVIEWS OF SANCTIONS.

OCT 1998 – IRAQ SUSPENDS ALL COOPERATION WITH UNITED NATIONS WEAPONS INSPECTORS AND MONITORS WITH IMMEDIATE EFFECT.

NOV 1998 – BUTLER ORDERS INSPECTION STAFF OUT OF IRAQ. MORE THAN 100 INSPECTORS AND SUPPORT PERSONNEL HEAD FOR BAHRAIN.

NOV 12, 1998 – U.S. DEFENCE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN WARNS BAGHDAD ANY MILITARY STRIKES WILL BE ”SIGNIFICANT”. IRAQI DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER TAREQ AZIZ SAYS THERE WILL BE NO PEACEFUL SOLUTION UNLESS WASHINGTON AGREES TO THE PRINCIPLE OF LIFTING SANCTIONS.

NOV 14, 1998 – CLINTON HALTS A FIRST PLANNED BOMBING ATTACK WITH JUST ONE HOUR’S NOTICE WHEN IRAQ OFFERS TO RESUME U.N. ARMS INSPECTIONS. A SECOND PLANNED ATTACK IS HALTED THE NEXT DAY AFTER CLINTON ACCEPTS IRAQ’S OFFER.

NOV 17, 1998 – EIGHTY-SIX U.N. WEAPONS INSPECTORS RETURN TO IRAQ.

DEC 16, 1998 – U.N. WEAPONS INSPECTORS WITHDRAW FROM BAGHDAD ONE DAY AFTER REPORTING IRAQ WAS STILL NOT COOPERATING WITH THEIR WORK.

DEC 17, 1998 – U.S. LAUNCHES DESERT FOX CAMPAIGN AGAINST IRAQ’S NUCLEAR, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS PROGRAMS AND ITS MILITARY CAPACITY TO THREATEN ITS NEIGHBOURS.

FEB 1999 – U.N FORMS THREE COMMITTEE TO FOLLOW UP IRAQ’S COMPLIANCE WITH U.N. DISARMAMENT RESOLUTIONS AND TO EVALUATE THE FUTURE OF WEAPONS INSPECTIONS. IRAQ REFUSES THE FORMATIONS OF THE COMMITTEES, LTER COPERATES WITH THEM.

APRIL 1999 – IRAQ REFUSES THE RECOMENDATIONS OF THE COMMITTEES. DEEP RIFTS AMONG U.N SECURIOTY COUNCIL MEMBERS ABOUT ADOPTING A NEW POLICY TOWARD IRAQ.

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