Mussolin Essay, Research Paper
Even though the governments of Adolph Hitler and Benito Mussolini were both Fascist governments, there were still some aspects that were not quite the same in them. Some of these include their use of violence or the extent of their racism and nationalism. There were still some similar aspects in both of them however, such as they both came to power during times of economic unrest (The Great Depression).
In Hitler’s mind, the Germans were the master race (Aryans) and all other races were far below them. Hitler didn’t think that any other races should be allowed in the German society. Whereas Mussolini believed that birth into an Italian cultural family was enough to be accepted into the society. Hitler was also much more of a racist than Mussolini, who in fact had Jews in high office before he came under Hitler’s influence.
Many fascists seek to turn back the clock to a period of past national grandeur. This could be done in different ways, Mussolini favoured a return to the customs of ancient Rome, as well as to create a social-economic system modelled after medieval guilds. Hitler sought to do this by creating a new religion based on the Norse gods, such as Odin, Thor and Loki.
The rise to power of these two rulers was somewhat alike, (in some aspects). They both came to power after the countries had recently unified, neither of their countries had a long history of democracy so they could easily be changed, and both were very unhappy over the outcome of World War Two. They also used the fear of a communist revolution to further their own ends. They also took advantage of the economic instability caused by the Great Depression by promising a better and more powerful and stable country.
Their methods of coming to power also differed in some aspects. While they were both unsuccessful in their first attempts, Hitler kept the same ideals, whereas Mussolini made a complete change to his beliefs, going from extreme left to extreme left wing. As the Nazi party grew in power, they convinced the president to appoint Hitler as Chancellor, which allowed Hitler to gain more support and win a majority in the Reichstag. Mussolini was given the power after an oversight on the king’s behalf. In the March On Rome, the Squadristi took control of many important government offices. When the king recalled to army, which was sent out to take care of the Squadristi, he was unaware that they were practically unarmed. He then appointed Mussolini the new premier.
Both governments were dictatorial, but Italy still retained its constitutional monarchy. Mussolini was given a vote of confidence and granted the dictatorial powers until 1923. He gradually gained more and more power, allowing the Chamber of Deputies to operate, but only by choosing the candidates for elections. Germany on the other had been a complete dictatorship, with the Nazi party gaining power through legal means.
In their rise to power, both Hitler and Mussolini used private armies (Storm Troopers/Squadristi respectively), which they had complete control over, to instill fear in the people and to eliminate their competition. However, Hitler also began to use his army against his own people, killing several people whom he suspected of conspiring against him, one of which was one of his good friends. Mussolini used his army for a single purpose, to eliminate his competition, mainly the Communist party.
Even though both governments did have their differences, they were both after the same main objective, to raise their country above all others and to become the most powerful nation in the world.