# Basic English

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ: Lesson 1 Read and translate the text into Ukrainian What Is A Computer Language? Instructing a computer is done with a computer language. A computer language is a set of words, symbols, and commands that a computer can ‘understand’. Computer languages are not spoken to the computer (except in some experimental systems with limited vocabularies).

Lesson 1

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian

What Is A Computer Language?

Instructing a computer is done with a computer language. A computer language is a set of words, symbols, and commands that a computer can ‘understand’. Computer languages are not spoken to the computer (except in some experimental systems with limited vocabularies). Instead, you type a computer language on the keyboard. The computer then translates what you typed into electrical impulses that represent 0’s and 1’s-the form in which the computer can understand and carry out your instructions. To translate your instructions, the computer needs a language processor that is either built-in into the computer itself or loaded into the computer from a disk. The language processor acts somewhat like a human interpreter who listen to someone speaking English and tells you what the words mean in Ukrainian. It does the translating.

There many different computer languages. You may have heard of BASIC, Pascal, Logo, FORTRAN, COBOL, and others. For your computer to understand one of these languages, it needs a translator for that language.

Why are there different computer languages? The reason for this is that different languages work well for different kinds of tasks.

Programming languages allow people to communicate with computers. Once a job has been identified, the programmer must translate, or code it into a list of instructions for a computer. A computer program for a given task may be written in several different languages. Depending on the task, a programmer will generally pick a language that will involve the least complicated program. It may also be important to the programmer to pick the language that is flexible and widely compatible if the program will have a range of applications. C and BASIC or commonly used programming languages.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian

Instructing a computer, a set of words, experimental systems, limited vocabularies, electrical impulses, to carry out instructions, loaded from a disk, human interpreter, to communicate with the computer, depending on a task, the least complicated program, flexible, widely compatible, a range of applications.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences

1. Cathy can’t come to the phone because she (wash) her hair. 2. Ann (wash) her hair every other day or so. 3. Cathy (sit, usually) in the front row during class, but today she (sit) in the last row. 4. Please, be quiet. I (try) to concentrate. 5. (You, always, lock) your apartment when you leave? 6. I wrote to my friend last week. She hasn’t answered to my letter yet. I (still, wait) for reply. 7. After three days of rain, I’m glad that the sun (shine) again today. 8. Every morning, the sun (shine) in the window and (wake) me up. 9. Look! It (snow). –It’s beautiful! This is the first time I’ve ever seen snow. It (not, snow) in my country. 10. Mike is a student, but he (go, not) to school right now because it’s summer.

4. Which form of Past simple or Past Continuous is correct in the following sentences

1. (You, go out) last night or (be) you tired? 2. Mozart (write) more than 600 pieces o music. 3. What (you, do) when I called? 4. My father (teach) me driving when our cousin (come). 5. We couldn’t afford to keep our car, so we (sell) it. 6. While I (read), Josh (play) the piano. 7. I was very thirsty. I (drink) the water very quickly.

5. Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb ‘to be’ and sentences with them:

To be absent бути відсутнім

To be afraid боятися

To be angry with сердитися на

To be away бути у від’їзді

To be back повертатися

To be pleased with бути задоволеним

To be displeased with бути незадоволеним

To be fond of любити

To be frightened лякатися

To be hungry бути голодним

To be ill (sick) бути хворим

To be in (out) бути присутнім (відсутнім)

To be in a hurry (for) поспішати

To be in high spirits бути в хорошому настрої

To be in low spirits бути в поганому настрої

To be interested in цікавитися

To be late (for) запізнюватися

To be … minutes fast поспішати на … хвилин

To be … minutes slow запізнюватись на … хвилин

Lesson 2

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Structured languages

You’ve already learned something about the BASIC language. You will probably go on someday to learn other programming languages as well. Different languages are designed for different purposes. BASIC is an all-purpose language, meaning that you can do almost everything in BASIC. But some things will be rather hard to do in BASIC. For example, although you have seen how to write programs with a top-down structure in BASIC, other languages make it easier to write such structured or modular programs.

Logo is a structured language that is often taught in schools and is available for many microcomputers. You may be familiar with Logo because many schools use it to do ‘turtle graphics’. ‘A turtle is a cursor on the screen. It’s called a turtle because it is often shaped like one. You can tell the turtle to move left, right, up, down, or turn a certain number of degrees. You can see the turtle move on the screen. The turtle can also draw on the screen. If you tell it to put its pen down, it traces a line as it moves, or it can pick up the pen and not draw a line. (There are also mechanical turtles that move on the floor).

Logo is the language that can help you to write structured programs. For example, in Logo you can tell a turtle to carry out a set of commands that draws a rectangle on the screen. Then you can call a set of commands ‘box’. Each time you tell the turtle to ‘do box’, it will draw the rectangle. ‘Box’ has become a module of a program. You can create a whole series of routines that draw different shapes or parts of pictures. Then you can combine them all in one statement and call the whole thing ‘house’. Then you can make ‘house’ part of another routine, and so on. Your whole program can consist of series of statements defining different routines and then a few statements calling theses routines in the correct order.

Logo doesn’t just do turtle graphics, it is a complete language. But whether you use the language t draw a house or compute complex mathematical functions, the modular structure of the language is the same.

Pascal is also a structured language. Pascal has some features that make structured programming easier. For example, it allows you to indent the statements in a loop so that you can see the beginning and the end of each loop. Pascal also has certain requirements that make you plan your program carefully. For example, you requires you to define all your variables before you begin.

One Disadvantage of Pascal is that it is often a compiled language. A compiled language is one that must be translated by a compiler into code that the computer can understand before the program can be run.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

To design for different purposes, all-purpose language, to be rather hard, top-down structure, modular programs, to be available, to trace a line, a set of commands, whole series of routine, to combine, in the correct order, to intend the statement, disadvantage.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1. He (attend) college from September to may every year, but in summers he (usually, have) a job at the post office. In fact, he (work) there this summer. 2. I (think) about the grammar. 3. I (have) trouble. 4. She (have) a good time. 5. The chef (taste) the sauce. 6. Don (smell) the roses. 7. The doctor (see) a patient. 8. Sue (feel) the cat’s fur. 9. I (look) out of the window. 10. The grocer (weigh) the bananas.

4. Translate into English:

1. – Ти ходив куди-небудь учора ввечері? – Ні, я залишився вдома. 2. Коли Нік їздив у Лондон? 3. Чайковський написав багато опер. 4. Що ти робив, коли я зателефонував тобі? 5. Мій батько вчив мене водити автомобіль, коли почався дощ. 6. Ми не змогли дозволити собі утримувати нашу машину, тому продали її. 7. У той час, коли я читав, Джон грав на піаніно.

5. R ead and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

Work for the Future

You may become the bookkeeper after graduating from the technological college and work at the industrial enterprises, banks, churches, hospital, political parties, retail stores, and a wide variety of other organizations. The students of the department ‘Accounting’ study following subjects: bookkeeping, computer studies, marketing, foreign languages, statistics, managements and others.

The bookkeeper has to know organization of industrial management, cost-accounting and audit. High-qualified book-keeper must work quickly and accurately with figures and data and concentrate on details.

Beginners handle routine transactions. After gaining more experience, they are given responsibilities involving payrolls and other records. Good bookkeepers have opportunities to advance to jobs on a higher level and, with additional training, to move into accounting departments. Many skilled, experienced bookkeepers hold positions in management.

More and more organizations depend on computers and other machines in the operation of their bookkeeping systems. Therefore, beginning bookkeepers should have a basic knowledge of data processing and know how to operate various office machines. People in this field must continually keep their skills up to date as employers use increasingly complex equipment to handle all aspects of bookkeeping.

The students are taught by highly-qualified stuff of teachers. Theoretical and practical training on enterprises is combined with scientific work. They operate modern equipment, read scientific literature which deals with their specialty. All these help to turn a student into a highly-skilled bookkeeper, ready for independent work.

6. Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb ‘to be’ and sentences with them:

To be in two minds сумніватися

To be of importance мати значення

To be of interest представляти інтерес

To be on іти (про спектакль, фільм)

To be on duty бути черговим

To be over закінчуватись

To be present (at) бути присутнім

To be ready (for) бути готовим (до)

To be responsible (for) бути відповідальним (за)

To be right бути правим

To be sorry for шкодувати (про)

To be sure (of) бути впевненим (в)

To be surprised (at) здивуватися

To be thirsty хотіти пити

To be tired (of) бути стомленим

To be through (with) закінчити (щось)

To be under construction будуватися

To be under consideration розглядатися

To be under discussion обговорюватися

To be under way відбуватися

To be up закінчитися

To be upset бути засмученим

To be worried хвилюватися

To be wrong помилятися

Lesson 3

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Some languages are very well suited to tasks that are hard to do in BASIC. For example, FORTRAN is a language that is very similar to BASIC, but it is better for scientific applications. FORTRAN contains commands that make it easier to do engineering problems and use mathematics for solving scientific problems. It allows the programmer to program mathematical formulas more easily than does BASIC. FORTRAN is available for some microcomputers.

COBOL is a language that was developed mainly for large computers and may be available on a few microcomputers. It is designed for business uses and is particularly good for report writing. It makes it easy to set up very complicated reports with rows and columns, and to print these on a screen or a printer.

Assembly language

The language described so far are called high-level languages because they are far removed from the low-level machine language binary command that the computer can understand directly. Many students who begin with BASIC go on to learn to write assembly-language programs. Assembly language is not a high-level language. It is much closer to the machine language of the computer.

In assembly language you work with what you might think of as building blocks to create your program. Because you can use these blocks in many ways, you can create commands that don’t exist in BASIC. You can also control the computer directly and control external peripherals like home security systems through the computer. A program that is written in an assembly language also runs much faster than a program that is written in BASIC because it does not need to be interpreted like BASIC.

Assembly language can also be used to write programs that will run on several different computers. Any computer with the same computer chip will use the same assembly language.

Unfortunately, assembly language is very difficult to use. It takes much longer to write a program in assembly language than it does in any high-level language. Assembly language is not a structured language, so it is very difficult for someone else to understand your programs.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

To be suited to tasks; scientific applications; commands; to do engineering problems; scientific problems; to be available; complicated reports; on a screen; assembly language; security systems.

3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences:

1. Sometimes Tom (be) foolish. 2. I can’t afford that ring. It (cost) too much. 3. Look. It (begin) to rain. Unfortunately, I (not, have) my umbrella with me. Tom is lucky. He (wear) a raincoat. 4. There’s a book on my desk, but it (not belong) to me. 5. Who is that woman who (stand) next to the window?-Which woman? (You, talk) about the woman who (wear) the blue and gold dress? –No, I (talk, not) about her. I (mean) the woman who (wear) the blue suit. –Oh, I (not, know) her.

4. Translate into English :

1. Зараз я сиджу в класі. Вчора в цей час я читав детектив. 2. Я не слухав учителя, тому пропустив те, що він сказав. 3. Вони не запросили Сью на вечірку, тому вона і не прийшла. 4. – У тебе вчора був час написати листа? – Ні, не було. 5. Коли я відкрив посилку, то виявив там сюрприз. 6. Я не чув грозу, тому що спав. 7. Я не хотів нікуди йти, тому що йшов дощ. 8. Коли я прокинувся, яскраво світило сонце та співали пташки.

5. R ead and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech:

A Bus Ride

Charles: Now come along, James. I’m going to take you for a bus-ride through London. Cheap and instructive.

James: Good idea.

Ch: We’ll go on top. You see more. In the good old days the top of the bus was open. Still, we can see a good deal.

Ch : What’s the fair to Victoria Station?

Ch : Now we’re going over London Bridge. Look, James, there’s a ‘Pool’. Fascinating place, with all the shipping.

J: Yes, I remember that.

Ch : And there’s the Monument. It was erected…

J: In memory of the Great Fire, which started in Fish Street in 17th century.

Ch : You know too much. Look, there’s the Bank… Passing along Cannon Street, we reach St. Paul’s…

J: Erected by sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire. That’s the Temple, isn’t it?

Ch : Yes, where the lawyers live. Now the bus makes a spurt and we arrive at Trafalgar Square-the National Gallery-finest collection of pictures in Europe.

J: Want to get out?

Ch : No, thank you. Over there is the Haymarket, leading to the theater land and Shaftsbury Avenue, Piccadilly Circus and the shopping district.

J : My turn. On the left, the House of Parliament, containing the House of Lords and the House of Commons…

Ch : And Westminster Abbey, begun by Edward the Confessor. When?

J : I’ve no idea.

Ch : I do like a bus-ride with the intelligent guide! Victoria Street.

J : Nothing much to say here.

Ch : Look at all the people leaving the continent. Biggest station.

J: You’re wrong here. Leipzig is bigger.

6. Try to remember the most frequently used expressions with the verb ‘to have’ and sentences with them:

To have breakfast снідати

To have lunch снідати другий раз

To have dinner обідати

To have supper вечеряти

To have coffee (tea) пити каву (чай)

To have soup (beefsteak, salad) їсти суп (біфштекс, салат)

To have a snack перекусити

To have a drink випити

To have a smoke покурити

To have a (good, nice, high) time (добре, чудово) провести час

To have a thin time мати неприємності

To have a quarrel посваритися

To have a row поскандалити

To have a talk поговорити

To have a walk прогулятися пішки

To have a look at подивитись на

To have a bath прийняти ванну

To have a shower прийняти душ

To have a rest відпочити

To have a break (time-out) зробити перерву

To have a rough time терпіти важкі часи

To have a meal поїсти

Lesson 4

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Computer Trespassing

Breaking into a computer system (using it when you don’t have the permission) is a crime. It s called computer trespassing.

People break into computer systems for many reasons. They might do it to find our private records, to change or destroy information, to steal money or goods, or simply to show they know how to do it.

Computer trespassing is a serious problem. Important information ranging from medical records to top secret military information is often stored in computer systems. If someone changes, destroys, or steals the information, he or she might cause a serious damage. For example, trespasser in a hospital computer system might endanger a patient’s health by changing his or her medical records. In a case of a government computer system, a computer trespasser might threaten national security by stealing military information. A trespasser in a bank’s computer system might steal millions of dollars.

How can we prevent computer trespassing? One way to prevent information stored in computer systems is to use passwords or number codes. The words or codes are programmed into the computer system. The system will admit only those people who enter the correct code. An alarm alerts a security guard if someone enters an incorrect code more than once.

The computer systems use cryptography (secret writing) to protect information. Such systems store information in the computer in coded or scrambled form. F you don’t know how to scramble the information, it is meaningless.

Federal and state laws also protect information stored in computer systems. One federal law prohibits people from using a computer system without permission. It also prohibits the use of a computer system: (1) to steal money or goods worth 5000$or more; (2) to use, change, destroy, or reveal restricted information in government files; (3) to obtain financial information and credit records that are protected by other federal laws. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Computer system; computer trespassing; change or destroy information; secret military information; serious damage; threaten national security; use passwords; to protect information; meaningless; federal laws. 3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences: 1. I’m tired. I (go) to bed now. Good night! 2. We can go out now. It (rain) any more. 3. How is your new job? Not so good at the moment. I (not, enjoy) it very much. 4. Nick phoned me last night. He’s on holiday in France. He (have) a great time and doesn’t want to come back. 5. I want to lose weight, so this week I (not, eat) lunch. 6. Ruth has just started evening classes. She (learn) Italian. 7. The population of the world (rise) very fast. 8. Josh is still ill but he (get) better slowly. 9. The world (changed). Things never stay the same. 10. The cost of living (increase). Every year things are more expensive. 4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences: 1. He (be) a reporter before he (become) a writer. 2. She (feel) a bit better after she (take) the medicine. 3. Jean was late. The teacher (already, give) the problem, when she (get) to class. 4. The weather was awful, but by the time film (be over), the rain (stop). 5. They got home late. The children (already, fall asleep). 6. You were at your mother’s place at 10 o’clock. Where (you, be) before that? 7. Yesterday she (go) to the dentist. 8. I (never, see) any of Rembrandt’s paintings before I (visit) the art gallery. 9. They almost (miss) their plane. By the time they (get) to the airport all the passengers (already, board). 10. Yesterday at the library I (see) my old friend Jack. I (not, see) him for many years. At first, I (not, recognize) because he (lose) almost half of his weight. 5. R ead and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech: At the Customs Customs officer : Good afternoon. Will you show me your passport? Tourist: Certainly. Here you are. CO : All right. Have you got anything to declare? T : Yes, I have. CO: What have you got? T : I’ve got some wine and some cigarettes. CO : How much wine have you got? T : Two bottles. CO : That’s all right. And how many cigarettes have you got? T : Two hundred. CO: O.K. What else have you got? T : A camera and two watches. CO : Good. What about perfumes? T : No, I haven’t got any. CO: Have you got anything of gold or silver? T : I’ve got a gold watch with a gold bracelet and a set of silver spoons. CO : What else? T : Er… Nothing more. CO: Now, open your case, please. T : Pardon? CO: Open your case, please… Oh, look at what you’ve got! Four bottles of wine, three cameras, six gold watches, ten gold bracelets, five sets of silver spoons and a lot of perfumes! T : Oh! 6. Language work: Ask questions in English to the sentences: a) They can build such a house. Вони можуть побудувати такий дім?- Так, можуть. Що ви можете побудувати? Ви можете побудувати такий дім, чи не так? Хіба ви не можете побудувати такий дім? Що ви можете зробити? b) You could inform us in advance. Ви могли проінформувати нас заздалегідь, чи не так? – Я міг. Хіба вони не могли проінформувати нас раніше? Хто міг проінформувати нас раніше? Коли ви могли нас проінформувати? c) She must apply for the job as soon as possible. Вона повинна подати заяву на цю роботу? – Так. Що вона повинна зробити якомога скоріше? Коли вона повинна подати заяву на цю роботу? Хіба вона не повинна подати заяву на цю роботу? d) They often have to work overtime. Їм доводиться часто працювати понаднормово? – Так. Як багато їм доводиться працювати? Їм часто доводиться працювати понаднормово, чи не так? Хіба їм не доводиться працювати часто понаднормово? Lesson 5 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: What Equipment Is Required? To run word-processing software, you must, of course, have a computer. If the computer does not come with a display screen, you will need a separate screen. Most word-processing software comes on disks, so a disk drive is required. It’s also good to have a couple of blank disks, in case you want to save something that you have written. And if you want to put what you’ve written on paper, you’ll need a printer. How does word-processing software work? Word-processing software works like any other computer program-you simply load the program into your computer. Then you type on the computer keyboard just as you would type on a typewriter. As you type, the words appear on the screen. He words that you type are also stored in the computer’s memory, so you can save your writing on a disk and work on it later, just as you can save a computer program on a disk and run or change it later. I you have a printer, you can print your writing on paper on much the same way that you print the output from the computer on a paper. In fact, you can print as many copies of your work as you like without having to retype it. How to use a word-processing program You’re probably thinking, ‘Word-processing software sounds great, but how do I use it?’ There are many answers to that question, because there are many different word-processing programs available. How you operate a program depends on which program you are using. Before you use a word-processing program, you should read the documentation carefully in order to determine exactly what that particular program does and exactly what you have to do to run it. Most word-processing programs perform the same basic functions. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Word-processing software; separate screen; blank disks; load the program; computer keyboard; retype it; sounds great; programs available; read the documentation; particular program. 3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences: 1. I (study) English at Glasgow University. 2. I’m on holiday at the moment and I (work) in a public library, I’m lucky to have this job. I (not get up) early. 3. The library (open) at 10 and (close) at 7. 4. It’s an interesting work because people (always, come in) and (ask) me to help them, so I (learn) a lot about different subjects. 5. I (enjoy) the job and (find) it very amusing, too. 6. People (use) the strangest things as bookmarks. 7. My colleagues (always, find) various things –even a 10 note, but I haven’t been so lucky. 8. I often (think) of a photo of a beautiful girl which I found. On the back there were the words, ‘I (love) you. I (miss) you and I’ll never forget you.’ 9. Young people (become) more and more aware politically these days. 10. She (drive) to te country at weekends. 4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences: 1. Thomas wasn’t at the party last night. He (arrange) to do something else. 2. Last year we (go) to France. We (never, be) in this country before. 3. Jack went to Jill’s house but she wasn’t in. She (go out). 4. Andrew didn’t want to go to the cinema because he (already, see) the film. 5. I didn’t know that man. I (never, see) him before. 6. When I phoned Colin (just, get) home. He (be) in Paris. 7. They weren’t hungry. They (just, have) dinner. 5. R ead and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech: City Transport. Travelling in the City. Mr. Black’s friend Rodney Williams is in hospital. He fell and broke his leg. Mr. Black decided to call on him after classes, but he doesn’t know exactly where St. James hospital; is located. He is asking a passer-by the way. Mr. Black : Excuse me, could you tell me the way to St. James hospital? I know it’s somewhere over here. Passer-by: Yes, sure. Go down this street four blocks straight ahead. You’ll see a church at the corner. Turn left at the traffic lights. B : Is it far from the church? P: Not very far. You should go straight and then take the second turn to the right. There is a supermarket there. You can’t miss it. You won’t get lost. B : Thanks a lot. Is there a bus? P : No. There is a tram. But you’d better go there on foot. All the trams are packed. It’s rush-hour. B : Thank you. I’ll take your advice. I can get on a tram on my way back. Is there a tram going to the center from there? P : Sure. It’s a number three tram. The stop is just in front of the hospital entrance. It’ll take a quarter of an hour to get to the center from there. B: Thank you. You’ve been extremely helpful. P : No thanks at all! B : Good luck. 6. Language work: Ask questions in English to the sentences: a) Jane has to tidy the flat every day. Джейн доводиться прибирати квартиру щодня? Як часто їй доводиться прибирати квартиру? Що їй доводиться робити щодня? Їй доводиться прибирати квартиру щодня, чи не так? b) I had to phone him once again. Вам довелось подзвонити йому ще раз? Що вам довелось робити? Вам довелось подзвонити йому ще раз, чи не так? Хіба вам не довелось подзвонити йому ще раз? c) They have got to correspond with many foreign firms. Вони повинні переписуватись з багатьма іноземними фірмами? Кому доводиться переписуватись з багатьма фірмами? З ким їм доводиться переписуватись? Хіба їм не доводиться переписуватись з багатьма фірмами? d) I’ll have to change my plans. Вам доведеться змінити плани. Що вам доведеться зробити? Вам доведеться змінити плани, чи не так? Хіба вам не доведеться змінити плани? Lesson 6 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Formatting a Document Before you print your document, you can choose how you want it to look on a paper. This is called a formatting. Some word-processing programs ask you to do this before you start writing. Others wait until you are ready to print your document and then give you a list of choices. The instructions that you use to tell the computer how to print your document are called formatting commands. What are some of the choices that you have for formatting text? Most word-processing programs allow you to adjust the line spacing on your document. That means that you can select the amount of empty space between printed lines. You can print your document using either single-spaced or double-spaced text. Some word-processing programs have a formatting command that prints justified lines. Justified lines form straight margins on both sides of paper. Printing a document Your word processor and printer work together to carry out formatting commands. Some printers are capable o performing more formatting functions than others. For example, your word-processing program may allow you to print italic type, but if your printer can’t produce italic type, the command is useless. The reverse is also true. A printer can’t produce italic type if it’s hooked up to word-processing program that won’t allow it. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: How you want it to look; formatting; start writing; a list of choices; formatting commands; word-processing programs; select the amount; printed lines; justified lines; formatting functions. 3. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Будь ласка, не гомоніть так голосно. Я намагаюся зосередитися. 2. Мої друзі будують дім. Я намагаюся допомогти їм. 3.-Джон працює цього тижня, - Ні, він у відпустці. 4. Ідемо на вулицю. Дощ уже припинився. 5. Вам сподобалася ця вечірка? 6. – Де Кріс? – Він приймає ванну. 7. – Ти сьогодні так напружено працюєш. – Так, у мене багато роботи. 8. Зазвичай я слухаю музику вечорами. 9. Він постійно губить свої окуляри. 10. Що ти робиш? 11. Я вважаю, він добра людина. 12. У нього є машина. 13. Він грає в теніс тричі на тиждень. 14. Ті квіти гарно пахнуть. 15. Я бачу метелика. А ти бачиш його? 4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences: 1. By the time we got to the cinema the film (already, begin). 2. Yesterday I (see) Tom. I (not, see) him for six years. 3. I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) straight to bed. 4. The house was quiet when they came. All children (go) to bed. 5. Sorry, I am late. My car (break down) on my way here. 6. I (try) to phone Ann in the morning, but she (already, go out). 7. I (meet) Jim two days ago. He (just, come back) from holiday. 8. After we (discuss) it on the phone, I (write) him a letter about it. 5. R ead and translate the dialogue and use it in your own speech: Mass Media A Serious Discussion -Don’t you think advertisements sometimes cause people to buy things they don’t need? Those who write them are so clever! They persuade us to buy a new washing machine or a new fridge to keep up with the neighbors. -You are quite right. Some advertisers do make use of social snobbery. But they mustn’t be blamed for that. I’ve known people who’ve bought a thing just because they’ve seen that their neighbors have one. -You know I never buy widely advertised brands. They are more expensive. Goods could be much cheaper if the advertising costs were cut down. -I’m not sure that’s always true. Advertising results in higher sales and the manufacturers may be able to use mass production. That usually means lower prices and cheaper goods. -Won’t there be mass production anyway if the article is something that everybody needs? -Cars are mass produced. Still the car manufacturers spend millions on advertising. -That’s because there’s so much competition. If there were only one company producing cars, advertising would be unnecessary and the cost could be saved. -That raises quite a different question-whether the competition serves any useful purpose. We’d better not start discussing that. 6. Language work: Say the sentences using can or could in requests . Use the words given bellow. Translate the sentences: 1) Lend lift ask come bring borrow name cope give trim put out explain give let borrow collect ask carry do fix 1. …you… my luggage, please? 2. …you… me a favor? 3. you…your cigarette, please? 4. you… me this question again, please? 5. you… me some money? 6. …you… to me how to fill in this form, please? 7. you me have a day of tomorrow, please? 8. you… my dress from the cleaner’s? 9. . ..you just… my hair at the back? 10. …I… a book to read? 11. …you…for lunch on Saturday? 12. …I…your calculator – I left mine at home. 13. …you… the door? 14. …I…my dog? She’s well-behaved. 15. …you… me some advice? 16. …you… the next patient to come in, please? 17. …you… me a description of your attacker? 18. …your hospitals… with major obstacles like a train crash? 19. …you… the actress who starred in ‘Gone with the wind’? 20. …you… this box? 2) Say the sentences in English using can or could after the verbs of perception : see (in the meaning of understand ), hear, understand, feel, taste, smell. 1. Том не бачить нічого без окулярів. 2. Я не пам’ятаю, скільки це коштує. 3. Я чула, що вона сперечалася, розмовляючи з кимось по телефону. 4. Ти не розумієш цей фільм, тому що ти не достатньо дорослий. 5. Ми чули кроки в коридорі. 6. Я розумію, чому він не подобається людям. 7. Я відчуваю цвях в черевику. 8. Я відчуваю, щось горить. 9. Ти відчуваєш щось дивне в цьому супі? 10. Якщо ви сильно застудились, ви нічого не відчуваєте на смак. Lesson 7 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Special Word-Processing Features Most word-processing programs allow to create, edit, format, print, and save document. Some of them also allow you to perform more complex functions. The following are two examples of the sophisticated features that some programs have. Spelling Checkers Some word-processing programs come with a spelling checker. A spelling checker works with a word-processing program to find misspelled words in your document. It does this by matching each word in your document with a list of words that have been programmed into its memory. This list is usually called a dictionary, but the name is misleading. Spelling checkers have no way of knowing what a word means. Their ‘dictionaries’ are simply lists of properly spelled words. When a spelling checker finds a word that does not match any of the words in its dictionary, it displays this word. Then you decide whether to change it or, if it is spelled correctly, add it to the spelling checker’s dictionary. This is often necessary, since the dictionary does not contain every word you will want to use. Unusual words, technical terms, and proper names will usually need to be added to the dictionary. While a spelling checker can help you with your writing, it is not a substitute for good language skills. Because it only matches combinations of letters, a spelling checker cannot determine whether you are using words correctly. For example if you use too in a sentence that requires two , a spelling checker will not detect the error because too is spelled correctly. If you are typing the sentence ‘I wish I were at the beach’ and you make a mistake and type ‘I fish I were at the beach’, the spelling checker will not detect the error, since fish is properly spelled. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: To create; save document; complex functions; sophisticated; spelling checker; misleading; properly spelled words; spelled correctly; technical terms; substitute. 3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Perfect are correct in the following sentences: 1. I (not, attend) any parties since I came here. 2. Try not to be absent from class again for the term. You (already, miss) too many classes. You (miss) two classes just last week. 3. Last December, I (see) snow for the first time in my life. 4. In her whole lifetime, Anna (never, see) snow. 5. I (know) Nick for ten years. 6. So far this week I (have) a quiz and two tests. 7. Up to now, Professor Higgins (give) our class five tests. 8. What (lean, you) since you (come) here? 9. How many new friends (you, make)? 10. I hope you (already, meet) a lot of interesting people. 4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences: 1. They (look) the gates before I (get) there. 2. By the time we (arrive) to the party, it (finish). 3. I (ring) at the shop as soon as I (check) the contents of the box. 4. We (have) a good rest when our guests all (leave). 5. When he (ring) to the office this morning, Ann (already, leave). 6. We’ve had to wait two hours at the airport because the bad weather (delay) all the flights. 7. They missed their train, so by the time they reached the theater, the play (end) and they (leave) the theater. 8. At the end of their meal they found that they couldn’t pay the bill because they (not, bring) money with them. 9. When I came out of the cinema I (find) that a thief (take) my car radio. 10. When a film star came into the restaurant I (not, recognize) her because I (not see) any of her films. 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: Ukraine Ukraine is situated in the east of the European continent. It is bordered by the Black sea and the Sea of Azov. The total area of Ukraine is 603,700 square kilometers. The country is known for its mild climate and attractive scenery, with numerous lakes, rivers, the forested Carpathian mountains in the west and the Crimean Mountains in the South. Ukraine is rich in mineral resources such as iron ore, manganese ore and coal. Agriculture is also extremely important. Grain, industrial crops (maize, sunflower, and sugar beet), potatoes, fruit and vegetables are produced. There are a lot of enterprises in the fields of engineering, metal working, chemical engineering coal mining, fuel production, light, and food industries. Diesel locomotives, sea-going ships, aircraft, buses, television sets, microscopes, computers and many other commodities are produced in Ukraine. The population of the country is about 50 million, some 65% of whom live in the cities. The country is divided into 24 regions. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is an integral part of Ukraine. The capital city is Kyiv. The Supreme Council of Ukraine passed the Act of Proclamation of Independence of Ukraine on August 24, 1991. The Constitution of Ukraine was adopted by the Supreme Council in June 1996. The Ukrainian currency, the hryvnya, was introduced in September 1996. Our country is a member of the United Nations and its representatives are active in the work of UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) and other international organizations. 6. Language work: Say the sentences using to be able to or to be unable in the correct form. Use the words from the box. Translate the sentences: 1) Walk think rent reach help look come describe attend have finish come walk carry do come and pick work improve write sleep 1. My hands were shaking so much that I … … my name on the exam paper. 2. She… … this computer program next month. 3. He lay awake all night …. 4. … you …these bags on your own? 5. I ……. Faster because I was too tired. 6. She … … tonight she had an accident on the way home. 7. Fortunately, she … … her attacker in great detail. 8. I … … the report in a week. 9. Three weeks after the accident, she … … even exercises in the gym. 10. As senior students, we … … some university classes. 11. Unfortunately, Tina … … children. 12. Unfortunately, I … … them. 13. I’m afraid I … … to the meeting after all. 14. Many passengers … … the lifeboats in time. 15. I’m afraid that I … … on Friday. 16. That’s fine. I … … at the station. 17. In the end, we … … a suitable office near the Central Station. 18. Now I’ve got an extra weekend, I ……. At the proposal in more detail. 19. I … … of anything. 20. Greg … … since he was injured in a riding accident. 2) Say the sentences in English using may to express permission or polite requests: 1. Ви можете подзвонити мені додому ввечері. 2. Можна поставити вам два запитання? 3. Можна у вас попросити цю книгу? 4. Можна я запізнюсь на 5 хвилин? 5. Можна пронести вашу сумку? 6. Ви можете прийти завтра? 7. Ти можеш взяти гроші у мене в гаманці. 8. Можна зробити пропозицію? 9. Ви можете прийти, якщо хочете. 10. Можна скористатися вашим телефоном? 11. Можна запитати, хто телефонує? 12. Можна подивитись ваші рекомендації? 13. Можна запитати, як вас звати? 14. Ви можете піти з роботи раніше сьогодні. 15. Можна мені взяти відгул в п’ятницю? 16. Я можу пожити у вас деякий час? 17. Ти можеш піти в банк завтра. 18. Можна запросити вас в ресторан? 19. Ви можете показати ці документи нашому гостю. 20. Можна відправити ці листи завтра? Lesson 8 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian What makes a good word-processing program? That depends entirely on how the person who is buying it intends to use it. A novelist would want certain features. A student might want different ones. And the owner of a store might want still others. Someone who is choosing a word-processing program should start by asking three questions: Selecting a Word-Processing Program 1. What tasks do I want to accomplish? 2. What tasks can this word-processing program accomplish? 3. How easily can this word-processing program accomplish these tasks? The first question is the most important one. Potential buyers must know what kind of writing they plan to do with a word-processing program before they can choose the program that’s best for them. For example, someone who plans to use the program for simple writing tasks like letters and school reports doesn’t need sophisticated program with many features, such as one that allows the user to select a variety of type styles. Once a potential buyer has made a list of necessary features, it should be a simple matter to find a program that offers just those features. It should be, but it often isn’t. Many software packages will have all the features except one or will come with one or two extra features that are not on the list. Then the buyer will have to decide whether it is worth it to pay extra for features that aren’t really necessary or if it’s better to give up a feature or two in order to save some money. Last but not least, the buyer should check how easily the word-processing program performs these functions. The best way to do that is to load the program, type in some text, and try editing it. Some programs are easier to operate than others. Buyers have to determine which software is the easiest for them to work with. 2. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Word-processing program; certain features; to accomplish; potential buyers; sophisticated program; type styles; necessary features; save some money; to pay extra; programs are easier to operate. 3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences: 1. Since classes began, I (not, have) much free time. I (have) several big tests to study for. 2. Last night my roommate and I (have) some free time, so we (go) to a show. 13. I admit that I (get) older since I last (see) you, but with many luck at all, I (get, also) wiser. 14. The science of physics (advance) a great deal in the 19th century. 15. Since the beginning of the 20th century, medical scientists (make) many important discoveries. 16. Libraries today are very different from those in the 1800s. For example, the contents of libraries (change) greatly through years. In the 1800s, libraries (be0 simply collections of books. However today most libraries (become0 multimedia centers that contain tapes, computers, films, magazines, music, and painting. The role of the library in the society (change). In the 1800s, libraries (be) open only to certain people, such as scholars or the wealthy. Today libraries serve everyone. 17. Are you talking Chemistry this semester? - No, I (take, already). I (take) it last semester. – No, I (take, already). I (take) it last semester. 4. Find out which form Past Simple or Past Perfect is correct in the following sentences: 1. When we reached the city center we couldn’t find a parking place, so we (decide) to go by the next time. 2. I couldn’t find my bag on the bench. Somebody (take) it. 3. I wasn’t hungry because I (have) a big breakfast. 4. We were late. The lecture (start) half an hour before. 5. We (finish) all the work by 5 o’clock. 6. He was more worried after he (see) his lawyer. 7. After (see) a lot of sights, we (feel) a bit tired. 8. She (read) the book before Ann (call) her. 9. My parents (already, eat) when I (get) home. 10. After the guests (leave), I (go) to bed. 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: Healthy Way of Life Sport is one of the few things that make people healthy. The general belief if that a person who goes in for sports can’t be weak and ill. Physically inactive people get old earlier than those, who find time for sport activity. And of course good health is better than good medicine. Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It was raising with the development of human society. In ancient times men competed with each other in strength and deftness to decide who was the worthiest. Nowadays sport is being widely popularized all over the world and in our country in particular. Thus, children are taught to love sport since early childhood. In kindergartens a child takes his first sporting steps. He learns to run, jump and dance. In schools and colleges sport is a compulsory subject. Many young people attend sport sections. Some of them dream to become professional sportsmen; others would like to stay an amateur. As for me, I’m fond of aerobics. First of all aerobics helps to keep myself fit. It also attracts me because it resembles dancing and is carried with the accompaniment of music. Besides, twice a week I go to the swimming pool. Such sport activity helps me to feel cheerful, active and full of energy. 6. Language work : 1) Say the sentences using may or might to express future possibility: 1. Можливо, піде дощ. Візьми парасольку. 2. Вона, можливо, скаже йому про це. 3. Можливо, він прочитає хорошу лекцію. 4. Можливо, вона запізниться на потяг. 5. Можливо, вона отримає цю роботу. 6. Сотні людей можуть втратити роботу, якщо забастовка продовжиться. 7. Можливо, ми закінчимо роботу до вечора. 8. Давай купимо лотерейний квиток. Можливо, ми виграємо. 9. Він, можливо, приїде завтра. 10. Потяг, можливо, запізниться. 2) Say the sentences using must to express obligation. Look up the words in the dictionary if necessary: 1. You … to live in stress. (навчитися) 2. All passengers … seatbelts. (пристебнутися) 3. I … my homework. (піти і зробити) 4. …we … our passports with us? (взяти) 5. Accidents … to the safety officer. (докладати) 6. … you … so soon? (піти) 7. I … a letter to my mother. (написати) 8. You … if you don’t want to. (іти) 9. I … back to Anny and tell her about the news. (написати) 10. Passengers in the airport … their luggage unattended at any time. (залишати) 11. Employees … the office phones to make personal calls. (користуватися) 12. You … a file before you turn the computer off. (зберігати) 13. You … this information with anybody. It’s highly confidential. (обговорювати) 14. Drivers wishing to hire a car … over 21 and have a driving license. (бути) 15. You … to customers like that. (розмовляти) 16. You … a receipt. (мати) 17. I really … to stop smoking. (намагатися) 18. You … library books on time. (повертати) 19. Remember, you … to Pat about this. (розмовляти) 20. All drivers … insurance. (мати) Lesson 9 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian Computerizing a Database As you have seen, you can set up a useful data base manually-and you do, whenever you create any kind of list or record or organize Information. But what happens when your collection of data gets really big? You start out with notes on a single index card. Gradually you accumulate a pile of index cards. You set up an organizational system and file the cards in a box. Before long there’s a second box, and then a third. Soon you need an index to your index cards in order to find information. That’s where a computer and a database management system come in handy. A computer, as you know, is an ideal tool for collecting and manipulating data. A data-base management system, or DBMS, is a special program designed to enable you to manage data on a computer in a useful way. With a database management system, you can transfer the contents of your cards, notebooks, and file cabinets onto disks. Then you can use the computer to retrieve the data, organize it, update it, and even sort through it for specific information. Need an alphabetical list o all the players in your baseball card collection? A list of those players born in 1987? A list of shortstops? Tell the computer what you want. In seconds t pulls the information out of your data base and displays it on the screen. The Advantages of Using Electronic Files The larger and more complex your collection of data is, the more likely it is that you should set up electronic files. Sing them, you can store data more efficiently in much less space. You can retrieve information in much less time with much less trouble. To get a better idea of the advantages of using electronic files, compare what happens when you try to find a book using a familiar data base-a library card catalogue-and a computerized data base-a computerized catalogue. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Useful data base; organize Information; single index card; accumulate; management system; manipulating data; in a useful way; transfer the contents; to retrieve the data; an alphabetical list. 3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences: 1. Hi, Jane. Welcome to the party. (You, ever, meet) my cousin? 2. Hi, Jane. Welcome to the party. (You, visit)? 3. –(You, go out) last night? – Yes, I (go) to the cinema but I (not, enjoy) the film much. 4. –When (Mr. Clark die)? –About ten years ago. 5. They (not, invite) her to the restaurants, so she (not, go). 6. –(You, have) time to write the letter? – No, I (do). 7. –What (you, do) at the weekend? –I (not, do) anything. 8. I (see) Tom yesterday but I haven’t (see) him today. 4. Translate into English: 1. Він був репортером до того, як став письменником. 2. Вони повернулися додому пізно. Діти вже заснули. 3. Учора вона ходила до зубного лікаря. 4. Томаса не було вчора на вечірці. Він домовився із Джин піти в кіно. 5. Минулого року ми їздили до Німеччини. До цього ми ніколи там не були. 6. Джек не хотів іти в кіно, тому що він уже подивився цей фільм. 7. Вони не були голодними. Вони тільки-но пообідали. 8. Учора я бачив Енн. Я не бачив її 5 років. 9. Перепрошую, я запізнився. Моя машина зламалася по дорозі сюди. 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: At the Doctor’s Patient : How do you do, doc.! Doctor : How do you do! Take the seat, please… Well, have you got the results o your stomach test on hand? P : Yes, I have. Here you are. D : Ah… Well, they are not quite good, rather, they are warning. P : What do you mean? Warning about what? D : I must say you’ll have ulcer very soon if you don’t change your way of life. P : Is it so serious? What am I to do? D : First of all, you should remain quiet in all situations of our daily life. You shouldn’t respond to its challenges, but you must respond to treatment. P : You mean I should never be nervous on any occasion, don’t you? D : That’s it. Then, your diet should be sparing. P: Well, you know that I am a frugal eater. D : I know that, but remember you mustn’t eat pork, fat, salt fish o any kind. You must exclude everything fried from your diet – potatoes, meat, fish, and eggs. But if you boil these foodstuff, you may eat them safely. P : What about vegetables and fruit? D : You may eat vegetables if they are fresh. But you mustn’t eat pickled vegetables. Besides, you may eat fresh apples for the time being, and other fresh fruit except bananas. P : May I eat lemons? D : Only in the tea if you like to drink tea with lemon. P : Hoe about drinks? D : If you mean soft drinks, take only mineral water after degassing it. As for strong drinks, you shouldn’t take beer or wine of any brand. You may have sometimes a small drink of whisky. P: Well, I am in for a dull life, doc. What can I do to make it acceptable? D : Observe my prescriptions and you’ll be in good health in the long run. 6. Language work: 1) Say the sentences using have to \ be to in the correct form to express obligation. Look up the words in the dictionary if necessary: 1. At our last lesson we … about the advantages and disadvantages of living in the city. (написати) 2. At what time … I … there? ( бути) 3. She … early because she wasn’t feeling well. (піти) 4. If you fail the test, you … it again. (здавати) 5. She … at the age of 50 because of health problems. (піти на пенсію) 6. The man was armed and the police … him. (застрелити) 7. He had …. (піти у відставку) 8. Paola came from a wealthy family and she … not. (працювати) 9. … you … military service? (проходити) 10. I … to avoid the truck. (звернути в сторону) 11. We … all our files into floppy disks. (переписати) 12. They … in June. (одружитися) 13. I used my student card, so I … the full price. (платити) 14. She spilled some coffee on the application form and I … it all again. (переписати) 15. The computer crashed and deleted all my work. I … the essay all again. (почати) 2) Say the sentences using shall or need where necessary. 1. … go to the cinema together? 2. You …\not\go there at once. 3. You … \not\to do the washing-up today. 4. … we dine out together? 5. … we get ready for classes together? 6. What document … we … to rent a flat in your country? 7. She … to work harder. 8. You … \not\to take a lot of things when you go on holidays. 9. …. I open the window? 10. You …\not\to do any homework for Monday. 11. I … stop a minute, just to get my breath back. 12. … I make a copy for you? 13. You … to be on your guard at the airport. There are a lot of pickpockets around. 14. The cat looks as if it … goes to the vet. 15. … the boy wait? Lesson 10 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Setting Up a DBMS (Data-Base-Management-System) Now that you know the advantages of electronic files, let’s set up a database management system in order to learn how one works. Assume that you are in charge of your school’s video library. You have access to a microcomputer and are interested in computerizing your ever-expanding catalogue. Since you already have a data base –a title and a subject card catalogue-you have a good idea of the information that people want and how they can best find it. After consulting with the computer lab instructor, you buy a DBMS. You’re ready to begin. Before turning to the computer, you review the documentation that accompanies the program and become familiar with the terminology, or jargon, of a DBMS. You learn three important words: field, record , and file. Field. A field is a single category of information in your data base. It can be made up of numbers, letters, or a combination of numbers and letters. You look at a catalogue card in your current data base and identify 11 fields, including type of movie, movie title, and call number. Record. A record is a collection of fields. Each catalogue card with all its entries about a single movie is a record. Since your catalogue currently consists of title and subject cards, you have two records for each movie listed in your data base. File. A file is a collection of related records. Your subject catalogue is one file; your title catalogue is another. Your DBMS will eliminate duplicate records and combine the two files. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Advantages; electronic files; assume; interested in computerizing; consulting with the computer; terminology; your current data base; entries; related records; eliminate duplicate records. 3. Find out which form-Past Simple or Present Perfect are correct in the following sentences: 1. Where’s your key? I don’t know. I (lose) it. 2. He (tell) me his name yesterday but I (forget) it. 3. Is Kathy here? No, she (go out). 4. I can’t find my bag. (You, see) it? 5. Ow! I (cut) my finger. It’s bleeding. 6. The road is closed. There( be) an accident. 7. The police (arrest) two men in connection with the robbery. 8. It was warm, so I (take off) my coat. 9. The food wasn’t very good. I (not, enjoy) it very much. 10. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I (not, disturb) her. 4. Translate into English: 1. До того часу, як ми дісталися Бена, вечірка вже скінчилася. 2. Коли я вийшов з кіно, то виявив, що злодій украв мій радіоприймач у машині. 3. Коли кінозірка увійшла до ресторану, я її не впізнав, тому що не бачив фільмів з її участю. 4. Я не був голодний, тому що добре поснідав. 5. Після того як ми оглянули багато визначних місць, ми відчули себе трохи стомленими. 6. До того часу, як я дістався додому, мої батьки вже повечеряли. 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: English-speaking countries The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Location: The British Isles; area: 244,100 sq. km.; population: over 55 mln.; capital: London; largest cities: London, Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester , Glasgow; Highest point: Ben Nevis 1, 343 m.; longest river: The Severn 350 km.; main languages: English; government: Parliamentary Monarchy. The United States of America: Location: the central North America; area: 9,364,000 sq. km.; population: over 260 mln.; capital: Washington; largest cities: New York, Los Angeles, Detroit, Chicago, Boston.; highest point: Mount McKinley 6,194 m.; longest river: the Mississippi 5,900 km.; main languages: English; government: Federal Republic of 50 states. Canada: Location: North America; area: 9,922,230 sq. km.; population: over 27 mln.; capital: Ottawa; largest cities: Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver; highest point: Mount Logan 6, 050 m.; longest river: the Mackenzie 3,800 km; main languages: English, French; government: Federal Union of 10 provinces and 2 territories. Australia: Location: the Island continent of Australia; area: 7,688,884 sq. km; population: over 20 mln; capital: Canberra; largest cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane; highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,280 m; longest river: the Murray (with the Darling 3, 750) km; main languages: English; government: Federal Union of 6 states and 2 territories. 6. Language work: 1) Giving or asking for advice say what people should or shouldn’t do. Use the words given bellow. Translate the sentences: Take impose be visit be reported do avoid take worry leave do go work try be be late be neat tell come stay 1. You …in bed too late. 2. You … always on time. 3. You … for classes. 4. You … a taxi if you’re late. 5. You … clean and tidy. 6. You … tactful. 7. You … stupid things. 8. You … lies. 9. You … to bed early if you’re feeling tired. 10. You … so much. Everything will be alright. 11. You … as hard as possible. 12. You … to do your best t become a good specialist. 13. You … a chance to travel while you’re still young. 14. You … making up your mind before you know all the facts. 15. You … your children alone at home. 16. He … his parents more often. 17. All accidents … to the health and Safety officers. 18. The drug … during pregnancy. 19. What … I … if the baby starts crying? 20. The courts … tougher punishment on offenders. 2) Say the sentences using ought to for moral obligation: 1. If your friend is in trouble, you … help her. 2. If your friend is ill, you … visit her very often. 3. If you see a beggar, you … give him some coins. 4. If the child is asleep, you…\not\ make a noise. 5. It’s too late. The children … be in bed. 6. It’s your sister’s birthday. We … send her a present. 7. You … not \ speak too loudly in public. 8. You … not \ be lazy when everybody is working hard. 9. You … not \ smoke in the room when somebody is in. 10. I think you were very rude and you … apologize. 11. Do you think we … get permission before we do it? 12. The government … spend more money on education. 13. We … not \ use animals for experiments. 14. The doctor told Dan he … exercise more. 15. She … not \ drive if she’s been drinking. Lesson 11 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Using Databases Imagine getting the information you need by simply entering command or type on your computer keyboard. Many people do this. They use data-base management system- special software developed for record keeping-to create electronic files. Then the computer does all the work of sorting through the files to retrieve specific information. Data are facts or figures. A data base is a source of facts and figures-it is a collection of related information. A telephone directory is a data base. So is a dictionary… and a television program guide. These collection all differ from one another in both content and format. Characteristics of a good data base: A useful data base has four important characteristics. The more complete a data base is, the more likely it is to have the information that you need. For example you’ll find Dave Winfield’s batting average only if you have his baseball card. You’ll be able to check your friend Jan’s telephone number only if you’ve listed it in your address book. You might organize facts alphabetically, chronologically, or by topic. How you organize your data base depends on both its content and its intended use. The more structured your data base is the easier it is to find information. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Getting the information; simply entering command; keyboard; record keeping; sorting through the files; retrieve specific information; a source of facts; related information; content; format. 3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences: 1. I was very tired, so I (go) to bed early. 2. The bed was very uncomfortable. I (not, sleep) very well. 3. Sue wasn’t very hungry, so she (not, eat) anything. 4. We went to Kate’s house but she (not, be) at home. 5. –Would you like something to eat? –No, thanks. I (just, have) lunch. 6. Hello! (You, just arrive)? 7. –Don’t forget to post the letter, will you? –I (already, post) it. 8. –What time is Mark leaving? – He (already go). 9. (It, stop) raining yet? 10. I (write) the letter but I (not, post) it yet. 4. Define which form of will or going to is correct in the following sentences: 1. Sue (graduate) soon. After that she (begin) to work at an electronics company. 2. Fred (be) at the meeting tomorrow. I think Jane (come) too. 3. – Can you give John a message for me? – Sure. I (see, probably) him at the meeting this evening. 4. The damage we do to our environment today (affect) the quality of life of future generations. 5. – Mr. Andrews (not, be) here next term. He has resigned. – Who (be) the new teacher? Do you know? – Yes. Mary Jefferson. Ms. Jefferson (teach) the same courses Mr. Andrews taught German, physics, and geometry. 6. I (be) in her geometry class. Do you know which algebra class you (be) in next term? 7. This letter is in French, and I don’t speak a word in French. Can you help me? – Sure. I (translate) it for you. 8. Do you want to go shopping with me? I (go) to the shopping center. 9. – his light doesn’t work. The bulb s probably burned out. Where are the new light bulbs? 10. It’s really cold in here. My nose is cold and my fingers are cold too. I (make) a hot cup of tea. 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: Great Britain Great Britain is the heart of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Great Britain has ranked among the leading nations of the world for more than 500 years. The British people have been leaders in many fields – in science, exploration, government, and arts. The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The island of Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales. Northern Ireland, which covers about one fifth of Ireland also is a part of the United kingdom. London is the capital and largest city. The face of the land varies from one part of the country to another. Great manufacturing cities and thriving farms lie on the green plains of England. Deposits of coal and other valuable minerals are mined in the steep hills and mountains of Wales. The Scottish Lowlands support manufacturing and shipbuilding industries. The low grasslands and mild climate of Northern Ireland provide excellent grazing for livestock. Great Britain became a world power about 250 years ago, when England was united with Scotland and Wales, but the British people have many traditions that go back thousands of years. They are deeply devoted to the Royal family and their form of government. 6. Language work. 1) Say the sentences using modal verbs in the past actions . 1. He may… not to come. (decide) 2. I might … the keys in the office. (leave) 3. There must … 10 of them in the car. (be) 4. There should … you your money back long ago. (give) 5. I’m sorry, I shouldn’t … at you. (shout) 6. They ought … the police when it happened. (call) 7. Yes, I know. I should … more time studying. (spend) 8. We shouldn’t … such a big car. (buy) 9. I shouldn’t … him of lying. (accuse) 10. He really should … you – though to be fair he’s been very busy. (call) 11. The windows needn’t … today. (clean) 12. We shouldn’t … those shares. (sell) 13. This information should … to the tax authorities two years ago. (give) 14. I shouldn’t … such a valuable air ticket. 15. Someone could … mu money. (steal) 2) Translate from Russian into English using modal verbs: 1. Він повинен підготувати рахунок до наступного понеділка? 2. Чи повинна я сидіти в готелі весь час? 3. Це, мабуть, важка задача. 4. Ти мусиш написати їй хорошого листа. 5. Чи дійсно мені погодитися з цією пропозицією? 6. Хіба ти не мусиш інколи навідувати своїх старих батьків? 7. Що ж мені робити? Яким чином я повинна прийняти участь в цій справі? 8. О котрій годині повинен прибути автобус з Ліверпуля? 9. Вам не потрібно йти туди зараз. 10. Я змушений був економити гроші, щоб заплатити за своє навчання. Lesson 12 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Electronics Helps Men Our age has been called a variety of things: the Space Age, the Electronic Age, the Atomic Age, etc. One of them, however, is very exact and that is the age of Automation. Automation is considered to be the highest stage in the development of technology. It has made the development of rocket production and nuclear industry possible. Automation is known to be very effective in continuous cycle production rolled stock production and operation of thermal and hydropower plants. Automation of production processes is impossible without automatic control; the required machines based on electronic computations. Electronic computing techniques find broad application in many spheres and are a basis for the development of modern program-controlled machine tools and the controlling of spaceship flights. The following can be given as examples of how electronics helps man. The letters at the General Post Office are now handled by electronic automats. Not long ago hundreds of women sorted letters arriving from all the world by hand. Now, one girl sits at a control panel watching a screen which is like that of a television set. The address appears on the screen and the girl having read the number of the post office to which the letter is addressed presses the necessary button and the envelope is conveyed to the mail bag which is then taken to the post office indicated on the envelope. A number of higher learning establishments are installing electronic data processing systems for the counting of educational data. Automatic translating machines, computer-based teaching devices and other different applications of computer technology are the things which help people in their life, work and study. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: A variety of things; the age of Automation; the highest stage; production processes; automatic control; electronic computations; computing techniques; program-controlled machine; presses the necessary button; educational data. 3. Translate into English: 1. Минулої зими я вперше в житті бачив сніг. 2. Я знаю Джона багато років. 3. Що ви вже вивчили з того часу як приїхали сюди навчатися? 4. Сподіваюся, ви вже познайомилися з багатьма цікавими людьми. 5. Ви багато мандруєте? Які країни ви вже відвідали? 6. Я бачив Тома вчора, а сьогодні я його не бачив. 7. Шляхи закрито. Сталася аварія. 8. Було тепло, тому я зняв пальто. 9. Кейт не була голодна, тому вона нічого не їла. 10. – Привіт! Ви що, тільки-но приїхали? 11. Дощ уже припинився? 12. Я написав листа, але ще не відправив його. 13. З Різдва стоїть гарна погода. 14. Мені завжди хотілося мандрувати різними країнами. 15. Два роки тому я відвідав Південну Африку. 4. Define which form of will or going to is correct in the following sentences: 1. – Oh! I’ve spilled coffee on my shirt. – Just a minute. I (get) a damp cloth for you. 2. – What do you want to be when you are grown up? – I (be) an astronaut. 3. Do you mind if turn the TV off? I (have) a long distance call, and it’s hard to hear when the TV is on. 4. – Who wants to clean the board? Are there any volunteers?- I (do) it! 5. – Why do you have an eraser in your hand? – I (erase) the mistakes. 6. I think the weather (be) nice later. 7. Look at those black clouds. It (rain). 8. I feel terrible. I think I (be sick). 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: Scientific and Technological Progress The advantages of living in the twentieth century are clear to anyone who spends time in one of the world’s highly developed nations. The disadvantages of modern life, however, are sometimes not so quickly seen. Consider the average man today in contrast with man 200 years ago. Without doubt, man’s life has been eased considerably. Machines now perform for him many of the services that he previously had to do for himself. They cut his grass, wash his car, open and close his doors, walk for him, climb stairs for him, serve him coffee, and both put him to sleep and wake him up to music. In two major areas – transportation and communications- great progress has been made. Mass publishing practices have spread newspapers, magazines, and paperback book around the globe. Relayed across oceans by Telstar satellites, television informs and entertains people in every hemisphere. Mail moves swiftly and efficiently; telephone cables connect all continents. More than any other single invention, the gasoline engine has revolutionized modern life. City streets, clogged with automobile traffic tell us that. More recent discoveries have led to the surge of jet and supersonic plane travel. Even as man darts throughout the world, he is protected from disease as no man before him has been, and he can look forward to living a longer life than his grandfather did. Man now commands a more plentiful supply of the world’s goods. He may own not only a car and a home but also a stove, a refrigerator, a washing machine, books, phonograph records and cameras. Even his old age is better provided for through pension and retirement plans offered by the government and by industry. Thus the advantages of living in the twentieth centuries are many. 6. Langua ge work: 1) Natasha Morozova is having an interview. This is what she is saying about herself. Read the information and say about her using reported speech : Model: She said that… 1. I live in this city. 2. I came here 3 years ago. 3. I graduated from university 5 years ago. 4. I have a degree in economics. 5. I like to work with people. 6. I’m going to change my present job, because it is not interesting. 7. I don’t like when other people tell me what to do. 8. I want more responsibility. 9. I am interested in working with a good team and reliable people. 10. I will consider your offer and let you know about my decision. 2) Report the requests and commands using He asked me… or He told me… 1. ‘Post this letter immediately.’ 2. ‘Send them the fax as soon as possible.’ 3. ‘Please don’t disturb me.’ 4. ‘Please give me that English-Russian dictionary.’ 5. ‘Don’t go on the grass.’ 6. ‘Don’t prompt her.’ 7. ‘Don’t interfere with my work, please.’ 8. ‘Please, do your own business.’ 9. ‘Entertain the guests, please.’ 10. ‘Don’t make a mess of the job.’ Lesson 13 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: The Computer as a Communication Tool Communicating by computer is almost as easy as punching the keys on a keyboard. Information is sent electronically from one computer-microcomputer, minicomputer, or mainframe-to another, either via telephone lines or through special cables and wires. What kinds of information can be sent? You name it: magazine articles, airline reservations, bank transactions, statistics, news reports, job listings, games, movie reviews, business correspondence, football scores, computer programs, personal messages, stock prices, medical records, graphic images, weather reports. Advantages of computer communication: Computer communication is playing an increasingly important role not only in offices but also in schools, hospitals, libraries, and homes. People are realizing that sending and receiving information electronically offers several advantages: 1. Fast, accurate, and direct exchange of information. Sending and receiving data electronically takes only a fraction of the time needed to send it by mail or messenger. And since the information goes directly to the receiver, the sender doesn’t have to worry about lost packages or incorrectly addressed envelopes. 2. Rapid information processing. Computers can sort or search through huge amounts of information in a flash. Suppose you were a lawyer who needed a history of all court cases involving the theft of government secrets. How could you get the information? Well, you could go to a law library and search through the reference books. That might take you five hours. You could, instead, use a computer that is electronically linked to a special data bank of legal information. Using that method, you could obtain the information in less than an hour- and never even leave your law office. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Communicating by computer; punching the keys; through special cables; personal messages; increasingly important role; receiving data; a fraction of the time; messenger; directly to the receiver; amounts of information. 3. Find out which form-Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect are correct in the following sentences: 1. This house (build) in 1930. 2. A lot of money (steal) in the bank. 3. This room (clean) yesterday. 4. We (woke up) by a loud noise during the night. 5. Did you go to the party? No, I (invite). 6. How much money (steal)? 7. The roof of the building (damage) in a storm a few days ago. 8. (You, invite) to the wedding. Why didn’t you go? 9. Originally the book (write) in Spanish and a few years ago (translate) into English. 10. The letter (post) a week ago and it (arrive) only yesterday. 4. Define which form of will or going to is correct in the following sentences: 1. Tom probably (arrive) at about 6 o’clock. 2. I think he (read) that book. 3. I think Ann (like) the present we bought for her. 4. – why are you turning off the TV-set? – I (watch) the news. 5. – Oh, I’ve just realized. I haven’t got any money. – haven’t you? Well, don’t worry. I (lend) you some. 6. – I’ve got a headache. – Have you? Wait there and I (get) an aspirin for you. 7. – Why are you filling that bucket with water? – I (wash) the car. 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: Computers Student 1 : Computers appeared in our country not long ago but today we may say that the age of computers has begun. First of all, computers let you access to a lot of information. And they let you communicate very quickly, by e-mail or using the Internet. Student 2: They’re a great help at offices because they can do jobs very quickly, for example sending out large numbers of letters or bills. You can access any information you need from the office using a modem. Large amounts of information can be stored on computer in a database. Student 1: Do you know any other advantages of using computers? Student 2: Yes. The best one, to my mind, is that computers make it possible to work from home. So they save us a lot of time. Student 1: Really, computers are great thing. But what about disadvantages? Student 2 : First and foremost, computers can get viruses that can destroy the information stored in it. Student 1: Software often has bugs, and sometimes computers crash. What is more, anyone can put information or images on the Internet, so it can be easily used by criminals to communicate with each other, or t send pornography (pictures, film, or writing that show sexual acts). There are no laws to stop this yet, and it is extremely difficult to police the Internet. Student 2: I suppose, students shouldn’t spent too much time working or playing on computers. Student 1 : Quite agree with you. Some children spend too much time playing computer games, which can be very dangerous. Student 2: Thanks a lot. I think that despite some disadvantages computers are really the wonders of the world. 6. Language work: 1) Say in English the sentences using reported speech: 1. Він запитав мене, скільки мені років. 2. Він запитав мене, чи є в мене телефон. 3. Він запитав мене, чи живу я зі своїми батьками. 4. Він запитав мене, де я працюю. 5. Він запитав мене, скільки часу я працюю на цій фірмі. 6. Вона сказала, що раніше багато подорожувала. 7. Вона сказала, що хворіє вже 2 неділі. 8. Мама сказала, що Аня приїжджає о 3 годині. 9. Вона запитала мене, о я робила в той час. 10. Я сказала, що в той час я зайнята. Я роблю домашнє завдання. 2) Say the sentences in English using embedded questions: 1. Чи не скажете, котра година? 2. Цікаво, де він був вчора. 3. Ви не знаєте, відмінили збори? 4. Скажіть, будь ласка, о котрій годині відправляється наступний потяг. 5. Цікаво, банк відчинений у неділю? 6. Ви не знаєте, він прийде на збори? 7. Чи не можете ви сказати, які питання будуть обговорюватися на зборах? 8. Цікаво, як ви отримали цю інформацію. 9. Цікаво, як вона проживає в цій країні? 10. Вибачте,я не знаю де знаходиться ця вулиця. Lesson 14 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Electronic Mail Did you ever have to go out in the rain to mail a letter that couldn’t wait? Have you ever received a letter weeks late because it had been mysteriously ‘lost’ in the mail? If so, you will be very happy to know that electronic mail is here. What exactly is electronic mail? It’s just what you’d imagine: the sending of messages electronically by computer. Here’s how it works. Suppose that you are a subscriber to the Source of CompuServe. You have ten friends who subscribe as well. A few months ago, you lent one of these friends a record. You want the record back, but you can’t remember who has it. Using a microcomputer and a modem, you plug into the information service’s network of subscribers. Once you are on-line, you send the same message to all ten of your friends. Your message is stored in your friends’ ‘electronic mailboxes’. These mailboxes are nothing like those that are used by the U.S. Postal Service. They are simply storage locations in the information service’s computer system. When your friends come on-line, they will check to see if they have any mail. When they do, your message will appear on the screen. Not all electronic mail delivery is tied to an information service like The Source or CompuServe. In fact, organizations already exist that specialize in delivering electronic mail. MCI Mail and EasyLink are two examples. Subscribers to these electronic-mail services can send messages around the world on their computer. In addition, the addressee doesn’t even need a computer to receive mail through one of these services. Both will transmit a letter most of the distance electronically, then print and send it the rest of the distance either by mail or by courier. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Electronic mail; sending of messages electronically; subscriber; the record back; a modem; network of subscribers; electronic mailboxes; storage locations; come on-line; transmit a letter. 3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences: 1. When he was young, Ron (bring) up by his grandparents. 2. While I was on holiday, my camera (steal). 3. Where (these photographs, take)? 4.All fights (cancel) because of fog. 5. I (accused) of stealing money. 6. I didn’t realize that somebody was recording our conversation. I didn’t realize our conversation (record). 7. When we entered the classroom the test (write) by the students. 8. When we got to the stadium, we found that the game (cancel). 4. Define which form of will or going to is correct in the following sentences: 1. I (go) to a party tomorrow night. Would you like to come too? 2. I think Jane (get) the job. She has a lot of experience. 3. I can’t meet you this evening. A friend of mine (come) to see me. 4. – Have you decided where to go for your holiday? – Yes, we (visit) Italy. 5. There’s no need to be afraid of the dog. It (hurt) you. 6. Don’t worry about your exam. I’m sure you (pass) it. 7. Why don’t you try on this jacket? It (look) nice on you. 8. You must meet Ann sometimes. I think you (like) her. 9. It’s raining. Don’t go out. You (get) wet. 10. I wonder what (happen). 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: The United States of America The USA is the name of the country composed of 50 states joined in a federal republic. It is one of the world’s largest countries (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the area over 9 mln square km and has a population of about 260 mln people. Representatives of different nationalities live there. English is the official language of the country. The flag of the USA has 13 red and white stripes-representing the original 13 states – and 50 stars – for each of the 50 states of the country in our days. The capital of the country is Washington, named after the first president of the USA. The other largest cities are New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Los Angeles. The USA is a highly developed industrial country. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, computer techniques – hardware and software, cars, television sets, furniture. Electronic and electric engineering, transport, communication can be found almost in all large cities of the USA. The United States is a democracy. It means that the Constitution, laws and traditions of the USA give the people the right to decide who will be the leader of the nation, who will make the laws and what the laws will be. The Constitution guarantees individual freedom to all. 6. Language work: 1) Read the sentences and report what someone says using the necessary reporting verb: order, advise, encourage, remind, persuade, promise, apologize, refuse, deny, admit. 1. ‘It’s really a very good job for you. a) They offered her a very good job. Will you accept it?’ 2. ‘We’ll fix your computer in two days.’ b) They … to fix my computer in two days. 3. ‘I’ll do it by all means.’ c) She … to do it by all means. 4. ‘I’m sorry. I’ve been rude to you.’ d) She … … … to me. 5. ‘I think you ought to go to the doctor.’ e) She … me to go to the doctor. 6. ‘You shouldn’t be afraid to speak English.’ f) She … me to speak English. 7. ‘If you work hard, you will be a success.’ g) She … to work hard. 8. ‘I won’t pay anymore.’ h) She … to pay me anymore. 9. ‘I will give you the sum of money.’ i) He … to give me the money. 10. ‘I didn’t steal the money.’ j) He … … the money. 11. ‘I think I’m wrong.’ k) He … … wrong. 12. ‘Your warranty is out of date. We can’t l) They … to repair it free. Repair it free.’ Lesson 15 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Computers in Business, Industry and Agriculture Computers have revolutionized the business world. As the cost of computer technology has decreased, more and more businesses have ‘gone computer’. Computers are no longer limited to factories, banks, and big corporations. Small companies, retail stores, law firms, employment agencies, supermarkets, and even many farms now use computers. In fact, according to a recent study, now four out of every five workers use a computer as part of their job. Computers in the office. In large and small offices alike secretaries use word-processing to write letters and reports. Managers switch on their desktop computer to help them prepare spreadsheets and graphic displays. Accountants and bookkeepers use computer power to help them manage company finances. Computer systems are used to manage company records, to send electronic mail, and to tie into data banks. Electronic networks link computer users who are located in the same building or across the country. Computers serve a broad range of manufacturing purposes. For example, if you were a supervisor in a large factory, you might have a computerized control system to help you keep track of continuously running machinery. Computers are also used to monitor the temperature and pressure of production processes. For example, in a chemical plant or power-generating station, computers may be connected to regulating devices. If the temperature or pressure rises or falls too much, the computer instantly signals the regulating device. The device then makes the needed adjustment-automatically. 2. Translate the following words and word combinations into Ukrainian: Revolutionize; computer technology; computers are no longer limited; according to a recent study; desktop computer; prepare spreadsheets; graphic displays; manage company records; electronic networks; control system. 3. Find out which form-Present Continuous or Present Simple are correct in the following sentences: 1. I (bear) in Chicago. Where (you, bear)? 2. The police (give) the information after the accident (happen). 3. I (offer) the job but I refused it. 4. The men (pay) 1.000 to do the work. 5. Mrs. Johnson is very proud of her new grandson who (bear) last week. 6. My family live in Scotland but I (educate) in France. 7. The bridge (destroy) during the flood. 4. Translate into English: 1. Ти можеш мені допомогти з французьким перекладом? – Звичайно, я допоможу тобі. 2. Ти хочеш піти зі мною за покупками, я йду до торгового центру. 3. – Ким ти хочеш стати, коли виростеш? – Космонавтом. 4. – Хто хоче стерти з дошки? – Я зроблю це. 5. Подивись на ці чорні хмари. Буде дощ. 6. Мабуть, Том прийде о шостій вечора. 7. Я гадаю, Енн сподобається подарунок, який ми їй купили. 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: English as a means of international communication One of the reasons why a lot of people all over the world learn English is that English has taken the positions of the world language. It means that: -750 million people all over the world use it; -it has become the language of the planet; -it’s the first truly global language; -it’s the main language of business, sports, science; -it’s one of the richest languages; -there are many borrowings from English in other languages; -three quarters of the world’s mail are in English; -English is the world’s computer language. 6. Language work: 1) Translate into Ukrainian and pay attention at the infinitive used in the sentences: 1. To prolong doubt was to prolong hope. 2. To wash in icy water was awfully unpleasant. 3. To bring the experiment to an end they had to work the night through. 4. Tom opened the window to let the spring air in. 5. In order to see the performance better we will take opera glasses. 6. This Texan is difficult to understand. 7. Our house is easy to find. 8. This water isn’t safe to drink. 9. He wasn’t an interesting person to talk to. 10. The wanted man is believed to be living in New York. 2) Translate from Ukrainian into English using infinitive: 1. Здається, Джулія дуже зайнята сьогодні. 2. Сталося так, що у мене з собою недостатньо грошей. 3. Виявилось, ніхто не знає останніх новин. 4. Робота виявилась важчою, ніж ми очікували. 5. Здається, він втратив смак до життя. 6. Здається, Джек безробітний вже кілька місяців. 7. Виявилось, що містер Джонсон чесна людина. 8. Він точно намагатиметься уникнути розмови. 9. Дженіт, напевно, перекладе вину на когось іншого. 10. Навряд чи йому дали шанс. Lesson 16 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Mainframes Mainframes are the fastest computers, and use the largest storage system. As a result, they can solve more complex problems and handle more information than can any other category of computer. Mainframes are also the largest computers. Most of them are housed in several large cabinets. Some mainframes do a single job, such as copying and storing the information generated by a laboratory experiment. Others perform many different tasks. Hundreds of people may be logged on a large mainframe at the same time. Such users are said to be timesharing. In this situation, the mainframe appears to be processing information for all the users every instant. However, the computer is actually switching rapidly from program to program, doing a small amount of work on one, and then hurrying to another. The fastest mainframes are called supercomputers. These machines are used for major projects, such as the design of aircraft, the study of weather system, and the design and analysis of drug molecules. Supercomputers are few in number because they are extremely expensive. Supercomputer users-mostly scientists and engineers at large scientific installations-sometimes run programs by means of long-distance telephone networks. The fastest supercomputers are parallel computers. They are fast because they have dozens or even hundreds of microprocessors that operate at the same time. Each processor works on a separate piece of a program. Minicomputers and super minis have many of the capabilities of mainframes, but they are smaller, less expensive, and less powerful. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Mainframes; the fastest computers; the largest storage system; handle more information; perform many different tasks; processing information; supercomputers; major projects; extremely expensive; parallel computers. 3. Translate into English: 1. Цей будинок збудовано в 1980 році. 2. У цій кімнаті вчора прибирали. 3. – Ти ходив на вечірку? – Ні, мене не запросили. 4. Спочатку книгу було написано французькою мовою, а потім перекладено іспанською. 5. Коли Рон був маленький, його виховували дідусь і бабуся. 6. Де було зроблено ці фотознімки. 7. Усі польоти відмінили через туман. 8. Я гадав, що наша розмова записується. 9. Я народився в Чикаго. А де народився ти? 10. Мені запропонували роботу, але я відмовився. 11. Їм заплатили за роботу 100 доларів. 12. Міст було зруйновано під час грози. 13. Скільки запитань тобі поставили під час іспиту? 14. Шлях закрили кілька днів тому. 15. Новий будинок купили за 100 тисяч доларів. 4. Translate into English: 1. – ти йдеш за покупками? – Так, я збираюся купити щось на вечерю. 2. – Алло! Можна поговорити із Джимом? – Я покличу його. 3. Не хвилюйся за лист, який ми загубили. Я впевнений, що ти знайдеш його. 4. Сьогодні ввечері я йду на вечірку. Підеш зі мною? 5. – Ви вже вирішили, куди поїдете у відпустку? – Так, ми збираємося поїхати до Англії. 6. Не хвилюйся за результати іспиту. Я впевнена, що ти його складеш. 7. Іде дощ. Не виходь, бо промокнеш. 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: Environmental protection Abilities and powers of man are increasing now. Technological progress allowed to use nuclear, chemical, laser, biological, and other machines and technologies instead of hand-operated and mechanical techniques. However, scientific and technological progress, as a rule, was separated from social progress. Such approach has let a man use the means negative consequences of which are globally destructive. 100 billion tons of minerals are mined annually, and more than 90% of them go in waste. Amount of oxygen, consumed by certain countries, already exceeds its manufacture by the plants of these countries. Tropical forests-main ‘lungs’ of the Earth-is more than 40% felled. The speed of its felling is more than 20 hectares per minute. Almost one thousand of species of animals and 25 thousand species of plants are now under the threat of extinction. Recently medicine has aced the problems of worsening natural ecological conditions, chronic stresses, reduction of immunity, change of nutrition ration, and many other factors, unknown by now. Felling forests, pollution of environment by industrial waste and automobiles have already caused global warmth on the planet. Misuse of pesticides, mineral fertilizers, water pollution, impact of Chernobyl accident on the people-this is not a complete list of the factors determining dangerous changes in human organism and growth of diseases and death rate. Man is now using permissive principle and its trying to take everything from his life today. Mankind has driven itself into a dead-end… However, we still have an exit from it. The quality of man’s life is impossible without solving ecological problems: preservation of genetic fund of flora and fauna, preservation of clean and productive natural environments (atmosphere, hydrosphere, soils, and forests), preservation of ozone. Only having realized that the reason of the ecological crisis which burst in the 20 century was lack of unity of Man and Nature, civilization can achieve progress. 6. Language work: 1) Translate from Ukrainian into English using the infinitive: 1. Вона не чекала, що її син повернеться так рано. 2. Вони хотіли, щоб я взяла участь у дискусії. 3. Я не можу уявити тебе одягнутою в таку сукню. 4. Ми не хочемо примушувати тебе жити тут. 5. Ви винайдете новий метод. 6. Постарайтесь примусити його пояснити, що відбувається в домі. 7. Чарльз чекав, щоб двері відчинились. 8. Ми бачили, що шторм наближається дуже швидко. 9. Я чув, хтось грав на фортепіано в сусідній кімнаті. 10. Я не можу дозволити, щоб таке сталось. 2) Finish the sentences using the infinitive and translate the sentences into English: 1. Dick is always the first (жалітися) when anything goes wrong. 2. The captain was the last person (покидати) the sinking ship. 3. Who was the last (пішов з) the building on Friday? 4. Douglas isn’t the man (залякати) easily. 5. There is some packing (зробити). 6. There was nothing (видно) in the passage. 7. There is nothing (боятися). 8. I’ve got kids (турбуватися). 9. He had no home (піти). 10. Here is the problem for you (вирішити). Lesson 17 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: CD-ROM A CD-ROM is the same size, and works in the same way, as an audio compact disc. On one side of the CD-ROM are tiny pits and flat spaces that represent 0’s and 1’s. A laser device uses a beam of light to ‘read’ the disc, producing bit charges. Most new PC’s have a built-in CD-ROM drive to play the discs. A standard CD-ROM can store about 650 megabytes, roughly equivalent to 325000 pages of double-spaced typewritten text. Because of their high capacity, CD-ROM’s are the primary means of distributing multimedia programs. Such programs combine several forms of information-text, illustration, animation, and sound. A kind of optical disc called the DVD appeared in 1996. A DVD is the same size as a CD-ROM but can store much more information. A DVD stores data on one or more sides. Capacities range to a total of 17 gigabytes for storage on both sides. The DVD requires a special drive, which can also play CD-ROMs. Yet another kind of storage disc, called a platter. Works like a CD-ROM, but is much larger and can hold many gigabytes of data. Platters are expensive, so most of them are used by businesses, government agencies, and institutions for storing large databases. Tape drives, that is used to store data works in much the same way as audio cassette tapes. Tape drives are much slower than disc drives are. The main use of type drives for file storage is to back up information stored oh hard discs. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Works in the same way; an audio compact disc; flat spaces; a laser device; producing bit charges; to play the discs; roughly equivalent; high capacity; combine several forms; storage disc. 3. Use the correct form of Past Simple or Continuous in the following sentences: 1. The film wasn’t very good. I (not, enjoy) it very much. 2. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I (not, disturb) her. 3. I was very tired, so I (go) to bed early. 4. The bed was very uncomfortable. I (not, sleep) very well. 5. Sue wasn’t hungry, so she (not, eat) anything. 6. We went to Kate’s house but she (not, be) at home. She (study) at the library. 7. They (have) dinner from 2 to 3. 8. It was a funny situation but nobody (laugh). 9. The window was open and bird (fly) into and out of the room. 10. The hotel wasn’t very expensive. It (not, cost) very much. 4. Find out which form- Present Simple or Present continuous should be used in the following sentences: 1. He (play) tennis on Monday afternoon. 2. She (go) to the dentist on Tuesday morning. 3. They (have) dinner with Ann on Friday. 4. What (you, do) on Sunday evening? I (go) to the theater. 5. What time (Cathy, arrive) tomorrow? At 10.30. I (meet) her at the station. 6. I (not, work) tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere. 7. Tan (not, play) on Saturday. He’s hurt his leg. 8. What (you, go) to do on Saturday evening? 5. R ead and translate the text and use it in your own speech: Shopping Last year I was in Great Britain on an exchange student’s trip. On my last day in London I went shopping to Oxford Street, as it is one of the busiest trade centers in London. The shops in Great Britain are always well stocked but the prices are too high. Most of the people were wandering from one department to another looking at various articles on the counters and rails. First I bought some souvenirs for my relatives, I bought some English books, an umbrella for my sister, a pullover for my brother and a woolen skirt for my mother. Then I made some purchases for myself. In the shoe department I tried on a pair of shoes. They were not too expensive and looked great. Unfortunately, they pinched a little, so I asked for another pair, a size larger. The shoes were just my size and I took them. Then I bought a raincoat, which fitted me perfectly and was very much in the latest style. I also wanted to buy a shirt for my father but the one I liked very much was too loud for him in my opinion. I found it hard to choose a scarf as there was a great variety of them and I was at a loss which one to take. I also bought some souvenirs for my friends in the souvenirs department. So, it was a great shopping day for me. 6. Language work: 1) Read and write the following cardinal; numerals: - 3; 13; 30; 4; 14; 40; 5; 15; 50; 2; 12; 20; 8; 18; 80. - 21; 82; 35; 44; 33; 55; 96; 67; 79; 41; 53; 22. - 143; 258; 414; 331; 972; 205; 101; 557; 999; 313. - 1 582; 7 111; 3 013; 5 612; 2 003; 9 444; 4040. - 15 500; 57 837; 45 971; 92 017; 65 331; 11 443. -235 142; 978 218; 106 008; 321 103; 627 344; 552 331. -1 352 846; 4 125 963; 35 756 394; 257 382 761. 2) Form, read and write ordinal numerals from the following: a) 7; 4; 8; 9; 5; 12; 3; 2; 1; 13; 15; 11; 10. b) 20; 21; 30; 32; 40; 43; 50; 54; 60; 75; 80; 98. c) 100; 120; 125; 200; 230; 231; 300; 450; 563; 892. Lesson 18 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: Computer Networks The communication of data over telephone lines and by radio is one of the most important and influential uses of computers. Using modems, people can send texts and graphic files, exchange messages, and search databases over worldwide computer networks. As more of the world’s information is digitized, more people seek access to the global ‘digital library’. The combination of computers, modems, databases, and communications lines has become known as the information superhighway. The World Wide Web consists of tens of millions of documents, databases, bulletin boards, and electronic publications, such as newspapers, books, and magazines. Much of the information has been converted from print into digital form, but even more has been created specifically for the Web. Every site on the Internet-whether a World Wide Web site or not-has a computer address is known as the site’s uniform resource locator (URL). Using software that connects to the Internet-called navigation or browser software-a computer operator can select a URL that contains information the operator wishes to examine. The computer then contacts that address, making the information available to the operator. Computers can connect to the Internet through local access providers, computer services that operate in most communities. The user pays the provider a monthly fee. To gain access to the Internet, the user contacts the provider via modem. The provider then connects the user to the Internet. On-line services are commercial computer networks to which subscribers pay monthly or hourly fees. The largest on-line services have millions of subscribers. Most services provide news, bulletin boards, databases, games, software libraries, and other features, often including Internet access. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian: Communication; telephone lines; using modems; exchange messages; search databases; worldwide computer networks; information is digitized; seek access; information superhighway; a computer operator. 3. Use the correct form of Past Simple or Continuous in the following sentences: 1. Who (cook) the cakes when Sue (phone)? 2. I don’t want to go to the zoo today because it is raining. The same thing happened yesterday. I (want, not) to go to the zoo because it (rain). 3. I (call) Roger last night, but he (be, not) at home. He (play) tennis. 4. He (cry) a lot when he was a baby. 5. I often see Mike. I (see) him again only yesterday. 6. As teenagers, we always (understand) each other very well. We still understand each other. 7. I hardly (know) Ray’s wife. Did you know her at all? 8. We always meet on Sunday. We (meet) last Sunday from 5 to 7 o’clock. 9. I often find things on the beach. I (find) this very old bottle yesterday. 10. Someone’s always leaving that window open. Who (leave) it open last time? 4. Find out which form- Present Simple or Present continuous should be used in the following sentences: 1. The train (leave) Plymouth at 11.30 and (arrive) in London at 14.45. 2. What time (the film, begin)? 3. It (be) Wednesday tomorrow. 4. I (start) my new job on Monday. 5. What time (you, finish) work tomorrow? 6. What time (you, meet) Ann tomorrow. 7. What time (you, leave) tomorrow? 8. What time (the train, leave) tomorrow? 8. I (go) to the cinema this evening. 9. The film (start) at 8.15 this evening. 5. Language work: 1) Answer the following questions: 1. How much is 17 plus 19? 2. How much is 25 plus 32? 3. How much is 120 plus 205? 4. How much is 13 minus 4? 5. How much is 200 minus 45? 6. How much s 7 multiplied by 8? 7. How much is 42 divided by 6? 2) Read and write out in words the following common and decimal fractions: a) 1/7; 1/5; 1/9; 1/3; 1/12; 1/15; 1/25; 3/8; 2/5; 4/7; 9/23; ѕ; 5/9; 1 3/40; 1 3/5; 2 5/7; 5 1/3; 4 1/6. b) 3.5; 2.34; 12.3; 52.51; 0.1; 0.25; 0.302; 132.054; 5.37; 6.4. Lesson 19 1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian: The Computer Industry The manufacture, development, sales, and servicing of computer hardware and software make up one of the largest industries in the world. The United States has the world’s largest computer industry, employing more than 2 million people. The United States also have more computers than any other country. Japan ranks second in number of computers. Manufacturing. From a few dozen companies in the early 1960’s, the computer industry has grown to more than 10 000 firms throughout the world. These companies manufacture computers and such peripheral equipment as modems and printers. They also develop and publish software and provide computer supplies, such as magnetic discs. Many companies make computer components, including processors. Others make the boards and cables used to create networks. In the mid-1990’s total annual sales of computer hardware and software in the United States exceeded 200$ billion. The largest computer manufacturer in the United States-and the world-is International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), the Hewlett-Packard Company ranks second. Other leading U.S. computer makers include Digital Equipment Corporation, Dell Computer, Apple Computer Inc., Compaq Computer Corporation, and Sun Microsystems Incorporated.

The largest computer manufacturers outside the United States are Fujitsu and NEC Corporation, both o Japan. The leading computer companies in Europe include Group Bull of France and Siemens AG of Germany. The largest software company in the Unites States and the world is Microsoft Corporation.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Manufacture; servicing of computer hardware and software; largest industries; the computer industry; peripheral equipment; publish software; magnetic discs; computer components; leading computer companies; printers.

3. Which form of Past simple or Past Continuous is correct in the following sentences:

1. It was beautiful yesterday when we went for a walk in the park. The sun (shine). The birds (sing). 2. I am sitting in class right now. I (sit) in class at this time yesterday. 3. –(You, go) out last night? – Yes, I (go) to the cinema but I (not, enjoy) the film much. 4. When (Mr. Nickolson die)? About ten years ago. 5. I (not, listen), so I missed what the teacher said. 6. They (not, invite) her to the party, so she (not, go). 7. We stayed because we (enjoy) ourselves. 8. – (You, have) time to write the letter yesterday? – No, I (do). 9. –What (you, do) at 6 o’ clock yesterday?- I 9not, do) anything special. 10. I work in travel agency now. Before that I (work) in shop.

4. Find out which form- Present Simple or Present continuous should be used in the following sentences:

1. I (go) to the theater this evening. 2. (The film, begin) at 3.30 or 4.30? 3. We (have) a party next Saturday. 4. The art exhibition (open) on 15 of June and (finish) on 15 August. 5. I (not, go out) this evening. 6. – (You, do) anything tomorrow morning? – No, I’m free. I (stay) at home. 7. They (go) to a concert tonight. It (begin) at 7.30.

Lesson 20

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

Computer Security

Many people fear that their right to privacy is threatened by the possible misuse or unauthorized disclosure of information in computer databases. Certain databases hold private and personal information, such as medical, banking or tax records. Others contain business plans or inventions that a company wishes to conceal from competitors. Still others store top-secret military information and other kinds of data important to a nation’s security. Laws limit the disclosure of information in databases, and operating systems are designed to prevent unauthorized entry into a computer. Many computers require a user to enter a secret password. In addition, some computer systems automatically scramble information so it can be decoded by authorized personnel. But, computer crimes still occur. Industrial spies and thieves often use telephone lines to gain access to computers. Some of these criminals steal or change the information in a computer database. Others steal money by transferring funds electronically. In the late 1980’s computer experts became aware of a dangerous type of program called a computer virus. A computer virus s designed to do mischief, sometimes by deleting or changing information and sometimes by simply inserting a message. A virus can enter a computer’s operating system via a modem, a floppy disc, or a CD-ROM. A virus can spread through a network. Antivirus programs are available to prevent viruses.

2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Fear; right to privacy; threatened; possible misuse; certain databases; personal information; contain; to conceal from competitors; top-secret military information; automatically scramble information.

3. Which form of Past simple or Past Continuous is correct in the following sentences:

1. He (work) in the garden all weekend. 2. We (invite) them to our party but they (decide) not to come. 13. The police (stop) me on my way home last night. 4. She (pass) her examination from 6 to 7 yesterday. 5. I (be) angry because they (be) late. 6. Jack and Sue (constantly, improve) their farm before they moved. 7. (The weather, be) good when you (be) on holiday? 8. They weren’t able to come because they (be) so busy.

4. Find out which form- Present Simple or Present continuous should be used in the following sentences:

1. Excuse me. What time (this train, get) to Moscow? 2. I’m bored with this film. When (it, finish)? 3. My wife has an appointment with the doctor. She (see) dr. Mike next Tuesday. 4. Sam has already made his plans. He (leave) at noon tomorrow. 5. What (you, go) to do this afternoon? After lunch I (meet0 a friend of mine. We (go) shopping. 6. The museum (open) at ten tomorrow morning. 7. Classes (begin) next week. 8. John’s plane (arrive) at 6.05 p.m. next Monday. 9. I (take) four courses next semester. 10. My brother’s birthday is next week. I (give) him a sweater.

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