Notes On Chemistry Essay, Research Paper
Ch 12 QuestionsSection Review p460 4-104. Would you get a higher boiling point by adding 1 mole of table sugar or 1 mole of tablesalt to equal masses of water? = 1 mol of salt produces 2 particles in solution; table sugar produces only 15. What would happen if insoluble salt were add to the water in the conductance apparatu? = The lamp will remain dark. Insoluble salt doesn t disscoiate in solution6. Explain the conductance of concentrated and dilute acetic acid solutions? = Concentrate acetic acid contain few water molecule with which to react andform ion so it has low conductance. Diluting the acid promote ion formation henceconductance.7. State the theory of ionization for both ionic and molecular compounds? = Ionically bonded compounds do not react with the polar solvent but aretransferred throught the solution by the solvent molecules. Covalently bonded molecularcompounds react with water to form hydronium ions.8. Describe the process of dissolving ionic and molecular compounds in water? = Water molecules remove the ionically bonded solute molecules individually fromthe surface of their crystal structure and then cluster around the solute molecules byorienting their negative ends toward the cations and theirpositive ends toward the anions.In covalently bonded molecular compounds, water molecules break the covalent bondbetween hydrogen and the reast of the molecule, leaving a proton and an anion. Waterthen reacts with the proton to form a hydrogen ion.9. Name some substances dissolved in sea water. Which might be worth relaiming? Whatmight lie undissolved on the ovean floor? = The 4 most abundant ions in sea water are Cl-, Na+, SO4 2-, and Mg2+. Whilemost elements may be found in sea water, few exist in concentrations above 10 ug/L,which is too little for feasible recovery. Heavy elements tend to precipitate and accumelateon the ocean floor. Some of these elements, such as manganese, have been recovered.
10. Explain why the 3 people stranded for 11 days on a raft had to be concerned aboutelectricity from lighting during a thunderstorm? = If lighting strikes the ocean surface, the electricity will e conducted through thesea water and anything in contact with it.Section Review p468 11-1411. Explain why the reaction runs to completion rather than being reversible? = Gaseous carbon dioxide escape from the reaction so equilibrium is never reached12. Explain what is happening in the solution equilibrium if the salt does recrystallize? = As salt recrystallizes, the equilibrium moves to the right13. Using the equations for complex ions make a hypothesis about how would eachsystem change under the following conditions? A.= Equilibrium shifts to the right producing Cu (NH3)4 2+ B.= Equilibrium shifts to the right producing CoCl4 2- C.= AgCl is insoluble so adding AgNO3 will remove Cl- by forming AgCl.Equilibrium moves to the right producing more [Cr(H2O)6}3- and Cl- D.= Equilibrium shifts to the right, producing more H3O + and [Zn(H2O)3(OH)]+ E.= Equilibrium shifts to the right as acidic H3O+ is neutralized water is formedand [Zn(H2O)3(OH)+14. What would be one way to seperate water from salt that would be a reaction that goesto completion? = Any process that shifts the reaction in item 12 far to the right would produce acomplete reaction. Examples of this are solution until the sat recrystallizes.Section Review p478 17+19 17. What info does the Keq value for a reaction provide? = If all but one component s concentration is known, knowing Keq for the givenconditions allows one to calculate the unknown concentration. Keq provides qualitativeinfo about whether the reaction under the given conditions favors product or reactantformation.19. Why does the concentration of undissolved salt now appear in the Keq expression? = The concentration of the solid, undissolved salt does not change, so that anychange in the equilibrium of the solution occurs only with change in ion concentrations