– Steve S. Essay, Research Paper
The bible states that blood is “The River of Life”. In William Shakespeare’s Macbeth, the symbol of blood is used in various contexts as an effective method in describing the theme of the play. This essay will outline how “Treachery and Treason,” “Honour” and “Guilt” thoughts are clearly represented.
The first reference of blood is one of honour, and occurs when Duncan sees the injured sergeant and says “What bloody man is that?” (Act 1, Scene 2, Line 1). This is symbolic of the brave fighter who been injured in a valiant battle for his country. In the next passage, in which the sergeant says “Which smoked with bloody execution” (Act 1, Scene 2, Line 20) he is referring to Macbeth’s braveness in which his sword is covered in the hot blood of the enemy.
After these few references to honour, the symbol of blood now changes to show a theme of treachery and treason. Lady Macbeth starts this off when she asks the spirits to “make thick my blood,” (Act 1, Scene 5, Line 46). What she is saying by this, is that she wants to make herself insensitive and remorseless for the deeds which she is about to commit. Lady Macbeth knows that the evidence of blood is a treacherous symbol, and knows it will deflect the guilt from her and Macbeth to the servants when she says “smear the sleepy grooms with blood.” (Act 2, Scene 2, Line 64), and “If he do bleed, / I’ll gild the faces of the grooms withal, for it must seem their guilt.” (Act 2, Scene 2, Lines 71-72) When Banquo states “and question this most bloody piece of work,” (Act 2, Scene 3, Line154) and Ross says “Is’t known who did this more than bloody deed?”(Act 2, Scene 4, Line 28) , they are both inquiring as to who performed the treacherous acts upon Duncan. When Macbeth is speaking about Malcolm and Donalbain, he refers to them as “bloody cousins” (Act 3, Scene 1, Line 33).
A final way, and perhaps the most vivid use of the symbol blood, is of the theme of guilt. First Macbeth hints at his guilt when he says “Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood clean from my hand?”( Act , Scene , Line ), meaning that he wondered if he would ever be able to forget the dastardly deed that he had committed. Then the ghost of Banquo, all gory, and bloody comes to haunt
Macbeth at the banquet. The sight of apparitions represents his guilt for the murder of Banquo which he planned. Macbeth shows a bit of his guilt when he says “It is the bloody business which informs thus,”( Act , Scene , Line ) he could not get the courage to say murder after he had killed Duncan, so he says this instead.
Lady Macbeth shows the most vivid example of guilt using the symbol of blood in the scene in which she walks in her sleep. She says:
“Out damned spot! Out I say! One: two: why,
then ’tis time to do’t: hell is murky. Fie, my lord, fie! a soldier and afeard? What need we fear who knows it, when none can call out power to account? Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him!”
(Act 5, Scene 1, Lines 32-37)
This speech represents the fact that she cannot wipe the blood stains of Duncan off of her hands. It is ironic, that she says this, because right after the murder, when Macbeth was feeling guilty, she said “A little water clears us of this deed.”( Act 2, Scene 2, Line 85 ) When the doctor of the castle finds out about this sleepwalking, he tells Macbeth “As she is troubled with thick-coming fantasies,”( Act 5, Scene 3, Line 44). What this means, is that Lady Macbeth is having fantasies or dreams that deal with blood. Macbeth knows in his mind that she is having troubles with her guilt, but does not say anything about it.
Just before the ending of the play, Macbeth has Macduff at his mercy, and lets him go, because of his guilt. He shows that he is guilty, when he says “But get thee back, my soul is too much charg’d / with blood of thine already.”( Act 5, Scene 8, Lines 6-7 ). Of which, Macduff replies, “I have no words; / my voice is in my sword, thou bloodier villain / than terms can give thee out!”
(Act 5, Scene 8, Lines 8-10 )
After the death of Macbeth at the hands of Macduff, the symbolic theme of blood swings back to what it was at the beginning of the play. It is the symbol of honour to Malcolm this time. The death of Macbeth is honoured feat that Macduff is congratulated for.
It has been demonstrated throughout this paper, that William Shakespeare effectively used the symbol of blood to highlight the ideals of the characters throughout the play. Without this tragic medium implied, the popularity of the play would have been considerably lessened.