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Genetic Engineering DNA Fingerprinting Gene Therapy Essay

Genetic Engineering, DNA Fingerprinting, Gene Therapy Essay, Research Paper State a feature of genetic material can be transferred between species because the genetic code is universal Genetic material can be transferred between species because the genetic code

Genetic Engineering, DNA Fingerprinting, Gene Therapy Essay, Research Paper

State a feature of genetic material can be transferred between species

because the genetic code is universal Genetic material can be transferred between species because the genetic code

is universal Outline a basic technique used for gene transfer involving plasmids, a host

cell, restriction enzymes, and DNA ligase. ? Use of E.Coli ? Most of its DNA is in

circular chromosomes ? It also has plasmids ? The plasmids are removed

and cleaved by restriction enzymes at target sequences ? DNA fragments from another

organism can also be cleaved by the same restriction enzyme and these pieces can

be added to the open plasmid and spliced together by ligase ? The recombinant plasmids

formed can be inserted into host cells and cloned. State two examples of the current uses of genetic engineering in agriculture

and/or pharmacy ? Improved crops and animal

breeds by increased disease resistance ? Bacteria that can be made

to produce insulin Explain one potential harmful result of genetic engineering Release of genetically engineering organisms into environment that

subsequently spread to other species. E.g. resistance to pesticide to weeds.

State what PCR does PCR copies and amplifies minute quantities of nucleic acid State what gel electrophoresis involves the separation of fragmented pieces

of DNA according to their charge and size Gel electrophoresis involves the separation of fragmented pieces of DNA

according to their charge and size State which process is used in DNA profiling Gel electrophoresis Describe two applications of DNA profiling 1. Determining Parentage 2. Criminal Cases Outline the process of gene therapy using a named example ? Defective genes are

replaced. ? White blood cells or bone

marrow cells are removed, and by means of a vector, the normal gene is

introduced and inserted into the chromosome ? The cells are replaced in

the patient so the normal gene can be expressed ? Examples are cystic

fibrosis.

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