Galileo Science And The Church Essay Research
Galileo, Science And The Church Essay, Research Paper
Wanting people to know that there was a double fault in the conflict
between Galileo and the Church Father Langford writes an account of the
facts in Galileo, Science and the Church.
Langford shows in the before mentioned book that in the beginning of
the sixteenth century the geocentric view was accepted in majority by
theologians and scientists alike, but by the end of the century scientific
ideas started to emerge that were different. Theologians also started
to speak of differences in beliefs. With the translation of the Bible
into a common language and its greater access through the invention
of the printing press individual opinions only increased. Through a
serious of events, by the end of the sixteenth century, the Church had
developed a stubborn dedication to the status quo, which tolerated no
suggestions of flaws in their beliefs.
Galileo had begun to believe the new way of thinking with regard
to science and he had begun to write of his beliefs and findings.
The controversy of Galileo?s discoveries and what they meant, apropos of
the beliefs of the Church, started a great conflict. By the beginning of
the seventeenth century the Church felt that they had to defend themselves
against the accusations of Galileo. Galileo did not see himself as
attacking the Church. He seemed to think once he had his beliefs out
that many would understand and just accept them. On the contrary, while
liberal-minded intellectuals saw his finding as a great contribution,
the theologians claimed that anyone could see how Galileo?s theory was
not possible. They stated that the sun rose in the morning continued
overhead at noon and set in the evening believing this supported the
Galileo continued to write of his findings becoming more and more apposed
to the scriptural normal. The theologians were now forced to retaliate
with scripture and the battle began. Without proof Galileo upset the
status quo stating that the Bible does not give a scientific explanation
of the universe. At this point in the controversy between Galileo and
the Church it seemed that the Church was ready to attempt a compromise,
but Galileo refused to speak of his beliefs as theory because he wanted
his beliefs to either be accepted as fact of rejected completely.
This attitude of Galileo?s only worsened matters. Galileo really could
not prove his theory, and he refused to speak of it as a hypothesis.
The Church now adopts the same attitude as Galileo and demands for
Galileo to abandon his ideas or face imprisonment. At this point the
facts become vague because of a discrepancy of the authenticity of
documents in the Holy files and weather or not Galileo received or even
agreed to the conditions of the decree of 1616 is still left unknown.
However, Galileo left Rome and lied in abeyance for a couple of years.
Then a study of comets emerged which Galileo could not resist writing a
refutation on. Langford points out a bit of Galileo?s charter showing
that the refutation was written in a matter of fact sarcastic style.
The publication of this gave Galileo hope while it struck fear in the
hearts of those that were still protecting the old order. Langford points
out at this point that although Pope Urban VIII encouraged Galileo?s
writings the authority of the Church was at stake and Galileo was to
write his beliefs as hypothesis with no attempt of demonstration.
Galileo?s writings lead to a Dialogue. It is seen that Galileo made a
grave mistake underestimating the strength of the Tychonic system to
many of the influential thinkers during this Dialogue. Galileo also
rejected the tide theory of Kelper?s hoping his own theory would be some
proof of the earth in motion but he did not prove that the earth was
in fact in motion. At the concluding of the Dialogue the decision on
weather of not to print it was very touchy with the decree of 1616 still
standing, but it was allowed. After the printing the Pope was convinced,
by others, that he had been betrayed and made fun of. It also became
evident that Galileo did in fact betray the decree of 1616 in hopes
of proving his point and then the decree would be forgotten. Now, the
Church must, to save face, act upon the injustice to their institution.
Galileo goes to trial, and the prosecution treated him as an example to
those that wanted to go against theology or authority. The prosecution
bombarded Galileo with writings of his own that were taken out of context.
With the condemnation of Galileo complete he spent most of the rest of
his days under house arrest.
Langford gave the facts that explained what led up to the condemnation of
Galileo with an optimistic view. Although Galileo was wrongly treated by
the Church because of the Churches refusal to allow him to write of his
discoveries or to try and prove them, and by the questionable way that
the prosecution handled the case. Galileo also wronged the Church by the
way he approached this matter. Had Galileo not so recklessly attacked
the beliefs of the Church or had he shown a respect for their authority
things might have been much different. A little subtlety was warranted
but not used on the part of Galileo and the result was thus. So the
point of Langford is well taken that there was, as in most misfortunes,
fault and bad judgment to be seen on the part of both parties.