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The Dark Conspiracy Behind The Cia Essay

, Research Paper The Dark Conspiracy Behind The CIA During the early 1950s and into the mid 1960s there were a number of unusual activities involving the CIA, The Canadian

, Research Paper

The Dark Conspiracy Behind The CIA

During the early 1950s and into the mid 1960s there were a

number of unusual activities involving the CIA, The Canadian

Government, and the American Government. It was a conspiracy. No

one would ever guess that it was being supported by all three

groups.

During this time a number of experiments involving

hallucinogenic, along with what some might consider inhuman methods

of psychiatry, were performed on patients. This wasn’t the end of

the story. After three decades through endless court battles, a

mysterious death of one of the world’s most famous

psychiatrists/doctor, and numerous investigations, The CIA ended

up being the most dominant player and winner of this international

yet mysterious case.

Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA), U.S. agency est.(1947)

by the National Security Act. It conducts intelligence and

counterintelligence activities outside the U.S. It also engages in

domestic counterintelligence operations, but only in coordination

with the FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION and subject to the

attorney general’s approval. These limitations were mandated by a

1978 executive order, issued in the wake of abuses related to the

WATERGATE AFFAIR and of a presidential commission’s charge (1975)

that the CIA had engaged in unlawful domestic spying. The CIA has

also been criticized for taking an active role in the internal

affairs of foreign governments.

source:Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright 1994

Columbia University Press.

The Beginning of MKultra

The MKultra program emerged in 1953. It dealt with drugs and

counter-drugs involved in research and development.

MKultra immediate inspiration came from confessions made at

Stalin’s show trials and a public confession of Cardinal Mindzenty

of Hungary on February 3, 1949. He showed signs that made the

impression of being “broken down”. As a result of theses incidents

the C.I.A was interested in the reason behind all this.

Another factor was the Korean War. During the war, U.S

servicemen made radio propaganda which broadcasts for The Soviets.

Behind these broadcasts was the plea for an end with U.S

involvement in the war. People were confessing to the most

extraordinary charges in the communist courts. These events lead

The Senior C.I.A Staff to suspect that The Soviets had mind control

over the people. It was a time that the memory of The Nazi death

camps was still in the air, and previously facing massive bombing,

the best and brightest of the U.S Government thought that another

totalitarian threat was about to emerge and they were facing new

technical evils.

From all this paranoia, MKultra was created. It showed that the

CIA was in the context of it’s time, “sharing the concerns of

society, not removed from them” These concerns were reflected in

the following CIA analysis:

Since the notorious Moscow trial of 1937, overt Russian judicial procedure has been noteworthy for

the dramatic trials in which the defendants have exhibited anomalous and incomprehensible behaviour

and confessions. Characteristics and manner of the defendants, and formulation and delivery of the

“confessions” have been so similar in a large number of cases as to suggest factitious origin. Most

noteworthy and incredible has been the recent “confession” of His Eminence Cardinal Mindszenty while

on trial in the People’s Court of Hungary….

The evident incongruities prompted this study…It became apparent at the outset of the study that

the style, context and manner of delivery of “confessions were such as to be inexplicable unless

there had been a reorganization and reorientation of the minds of the confessees. There is adequate

historical experience to establish that basic changes in the functional organization of the human

mind cannot be brought about by the traditional methods of physical torture-these, at the most,

achieve a reluctant, temporary yielding and, moreover, leave their mark upon the victim. Newer or

more subtle techniques had, therefore, to be considered . .

a. Psychosurgery: a surgical separation of the frontal lobes of the brain.

b. Shock method: (1) electrical (2) drug: metrazol, cannabis, indica, insulin, cocaine.

c.Psychoanalytic methods: (1) psychoanalysis (2) narcoanalysis and synthesis

(3) hypnoanalysis and synthesis.

d.Combinations of the foregoing.

For the next twenty years, under several of names,the CIA began

research on controlling human behaviour. The first being Project

Bluebird.

During WWII the military hospitals discovered that soldiers and

patients intend to speak freely when they where under the influence

of anesthetics. For this reason the OSS used cannabis in their drug

experiments. The first field test was performed on underworld

figure known as August Del Gracio, a member of Charles “Lucky”

Luciano crime family in New York. He was given cigarettes heavily

laced with cannabis. As he smoked they questioned him about

underworld activities. Del Gracio and the OSS were also involved

in attempt to arrange and prepare for an invasion of Sicily, and

the protection of the New York docks against enemy sabotage.

Directed by Shefields Edwards (head of the CIA’s Office of

Security) the project goal was to determed whether a team

consisting of psychiatrists, lie detector experts, hypnotists, and

technicians could get better results with drugs over other means of

interrogation.

A month later the Korean War, the team worked in Tokyo to

investigate four people suspected to be double agents. The results

were considered to be successful. In October 1950 the team worked

on captured North Koreans.

When Bedell Smith became DCI, Project Bluebird goals were to

develop human robots. This experiment was called Project

Artichoke. It was carried out by CIA’s Office of Scientific

Intelligence. It’s intentions were ” to exploit along operational

lines, scientific method and knowledge that can be utilized in

altering attitudes, beliefs thought process and behaviour patterns

of agent personnel” Due to the sensitivity of the techniques

carried out and substances used, this was a highly confidential

project. Within a short time, there were rumours in the Dictorate

of Plans about double agents that were killed in the prior MKultra

experiments. Both projects were conducted in Germany, Far East,

and the United States.

In April 1953, under the direction of Allen Dulles and Richard

Helms, the program began to involve biological and chemical

materials. At the time, Dr. Harris Isabell was head of the drug

treatment center in Lexington, Kentucky, where he carried out

numerous experiments on drug addicts. The drugs used in the

experiments were supplied by the CIA. Here the testees where

informed of what exactly was involved in the research and their

consents were obtained ( no where else did this happen).

At the time L.S.D particularly interested the agency. The long

term effects of this drug was not known. There were one case where

the doctor kept seven men on L.S.D for 77 days. It was considered

to be even too much for “acid heads” of the 1960’s to handle! The

object of the experiments conducted were to see if it was possible

to control people for a long period of time, from faraway

distances. “The spectacle of people’s behaviour being controlled

in Soviet show trials indicated that the Russians had perfected

such techniques” The experiments wasn’t usually successful

because the patients that were used were previously hardened drug

addicts. So as in 1953 “normal” people were used.

Dr.Sidney Gotlieb was currently head of TSS at the time, where

he reported to Frank Wisner and Richard helms in the Dictorate of

Plans. He was mainly responsible for coordinating the MKultra

programs. In 1953 numerous projects under MKultra came into

existence and were under Gotlieb’s authority. There was Project

Chatter(1947), a navy program attempted to test and identify truth

drugs, due to the report of the amazing results obtained by the

Soviets. MKNaomi (1952), was designed for the production of

biological chemical weapons and substances for the agency’s use.

MKDelta (1952) was the procedure for governing the use of MKultra

material abroad. In all there were 149 MKultra subprojects, 33

additional subprojects that were solely funded by MKultra itself.

The 33 additional subprojects had nothing to do with behavioral

modification, toxins, or drugs. By then MKultra indicated how the

agency was ready, willing and prepared to face the world on a

different level.

There was one of the subproject that was considered to be

humorous, Subproject #94 involving cats, dogs, and monkeys. These

animals were used as guided bombs and microphones for

eavesdropping. Audio device was considered inefficient and didn’t

work effectively enough. They acted like cameras and would record

what they saw and the results were sometimes incomprehensive. An

example would be at cocktail parties where these devices would

record everything, therefore the outcome was fuzzy. So the CIA

began to invest alot of money and time on training a cat. This cat

was cut open and a microphone would be inserted in it’s cochlea and

an antenna in it’s tail. At first the cat would wander off

everytime it got hungary, so they split the cat in half once again

and wired it in order for it not to have the hunger sensation.

Finally when they released it and instructed in to listen into two

men talking in the park, it got ran over as it crossed the street.

Canada’s Involvement

Similar events took place in Canada during 1957 to 1962. Under

a false front called the Society for the Investigation of Human

Ecology. Experiments were led by Scottish-born Dr. Ewen Cameron.

Cameron was considered to some as “the godfather of Canadian

psychiatry”.

He worked at the Allan Memorial Institute in Montreal and was

the director there as well. He was also known for helping Allen

Dulles analyze the phycological mentality of some of the Nazi

leaders in WWII. In various stages of his life he served as the

President of Canadian, and American world psychiatric associations.

His experiments consisted of L.S.D, mesabine, truth serum, and

other mind altering chemicals. These experiments were also

followed by sleep deprivation, isolation chambers and massive

electro-shock treatments. “Some experiments involved patients

putting on black foot-ball helmets for up to 16 hours so they could

listen to a tape playing back their most painful memories.” During

his career, he seeked cures for shizophremia, depression, and

other mental disorders, and always had the belief of “doctor-knows-

best”.

All research subjects signed consent forms, which enable the

medical staff to do whatever they feel was necessary. Obviously

consents weren’t enough, in all there were 53 Canadians that were

victimized. Nine impaired for life.

When Cameron was investigated, he was found dead under

mysterious circumstances after a fall off a cliff in New England.

Shortly after his death his son Duncan, deliberately burned all of

his father’s files which contained information on the experiments

conducted.

As the connections between the CIA and the institute began to

emerged in the 1970’s, nine of the Canadians launched lawsuits

against the U.S Government. They were unaware that the CIA had

contributed $85,000 to such experiments. They also found out that

the Canadian Government also contributed $70,000. But the trial

proved less damaging to the governments and agency than to the nine

victims that were impaired for life. The CIA also tried to switch

the blame on the Canadian Government. In the end the nine victims

received $20,000 Canadian dollars each.

Presently today all investigations have not ended. The trials

are taking too slow in the courts, and both governments are too

ashamed to admit their involvements so the rely on delaying time

and expecting the victims deaths to silence the history of the

past.

Under Investigation

The CIA has been investigated a number of times by different task

force groups. In 1949 it was recommended that the organization

reorganized it’s itself and it’s operations. After the Bay of Pigs

invasion in 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed groups to

analyze the agency. In 1975 the CIA was under congressional and

White House examination. “It was found that the agency had been

engaged in “unlawful” domestic spying activities and had been

implicated in assassination attempts abroad.” Among the

Rockefeller commission it stated in it disclosure that:

“As part of a (CIA) program to test the influence of drugs on humans, research included the

administration of LSD to persons who were unaware that they were being tested. This was clearly

illegal. One person died in 1953, apparently result.

The victim was Frank Olson, who, a month later digesting L.S.D,

committed suicide. He jumped out a window from the tenth floor of

his apartment. President Ford at the time decided to apologize to

Olson’s widow. In 1976 the Congress passed a bill in order to pay

Mrs.Olson $750,000 in compensation.

As a result of these investigations, these committees were formed

and exists as of today to check on the agency. These committees

had jurisdiction over review of the CIA’s activities.

Current Developments and Reports

These are some of the most recent issues that originated or

relate to the program and intentions of MKultra:

- Over the past ten to fifteen years, a group of military personnel

( The New Age Army) in the Military Intelligence, directed programs

or projects that explored paranormal activities and capabilities.

Studies on Enhancing Human Performance has occurred during this

time.

- Dr. Ian Wickramasekera of Eastern Virginia Medical School has

studied the expansion of sensory input during trauma which would

lead to time dilation, etc. This gentleman has also studied the

effects of sensory deprivation on hypnotic susceptibility in young

women.

- In a recent article in U.S News & World Report, John Gittinger,

a CIA psychologist associated with a CIA front organization, the

Human Ecology Society admitted to knowledge of experiments in

developing ESP by giving electric shocks to subjects when they gave

wrong answers.

- Recently, a Russian researcher in psychotronics, Dr. Igor

Smirnov, has helped to start up a new Virginia company, called

Psyco-Technologies. It is supposed to conduct research on various

kinds of LTL technology, with a concentration on Soviet-developed

psychotronic warfare capabilities involving the use of

electromagnetic and sonic waves to influence and disable

individuals or crowds. Supposedly this ranges from simply falling

to influencing people thought via audio or visual subliminal

messages. source:mkultra.www.(internet)

Conclusion

From looking for ways to counter suspect communist breakthroughs

in techniques of interrogration, to causing death and emotional

pain to victims, one might conclude that the actual purpose and

intentions of such programs funded by the CIA, has minor

advantages. Looking at the whole picture abroad with the CIA

contributing over $25 million into these programs with altogether

50 universities and 21 countries involved, it might seem such

experiments were disadvantages and a waste of time in the long

run. The importance of such programs clearly indicates and

questions if society is entitled to know certain information, if

even though the keeper is a well respected organization, of any

sort. Who is entitled to know such information?

“…clinical research is designed not only to provide care to

patients but to generate scientific knowledge..”

Bibliography

1.Ranelagh, John.The Rise and Decline of CIA.New York:Simon and

Schuster.,1986.

2.Fotheringham Allan.Nominating a hero for 1987 Toronto:Maclean’s

Magazine. Issue Jan/19/87. pp.64

3.Andrew, Christopher.For The President’s Eyes Only.New York:

Harper Collins Publishers.,1995.

4.Microsoft Encarta ‘ 96 Encyclopedia. Central Intelligence

Agency.article by: Kirkpatrick Lyman. U.S.A:(c)1993-1995 Microsoft

.All Rights Reserved.(CD-ROM)

5.Lowther, William.Settling with the CIA.Toronto. Maclean’s

Magazine. (Iss.Oct/17/88.pp.51)

6.Rewster News Agency.Expert Says CIA files on A-Tests destroyed.

Toronto. Globe and Mail. (Iss.Jan/5/94.pp.A4)

7.Fotheringham Allan.Nominating a hero for 1987.Toronto.

Maclean’s Magazine (Iss.Jan/19/87.pp.64)

8.Elliot Carl & Weijer Charles.Cruel and unusual treatment.Toronto

Saturday Night (Iss. Dec/95.pp.31-34)

9.MKultra.WebSite(Internet)

10.Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright 1994

Columbia University Press. (CD-ROM)

Table Of Contents

Title Page

Introduction 1

Central Intelligence 1

Begining of MKultra 2

Canada’s Involvement 7

Under Investigation 9

Current Developments and Reports 10

Conclusion 11

Bibliography 12

Abbreviation:

(OSS):Office of Strategic Services

(DCI):Director of Central Intelligence

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