Water Conservation Essay Research Paper The City

Water Conservation Essay, Research Paper

The City of Tucson is currently using far more water than it is replacing.

Options and plans to solve this problem in the future are severely limited

because of the fact that Tucson, Arizona is desert land. With the population

continually growing, and each populant continually using more water, something

needs to be done. The only answer that can be immediately put into action is

water conservation. This solution can be practiced by individuals, corporations

associations, and many other people – people need to realize that they need to

help now. Through research, this paper reveals the specific reasons that people

need to conserve water now, gives some insight to help the reader understand why

the water will run out, and tells the reader how they can help now. INTRODUCTION

Water is the source of all life, especially in a desert community such as

Tucson, Arizona – where the state’s average rainfall is less than 10 inches a

year (2c). Water is the reason that humans were able to settle in the Southwest,

and without it, the great city of Tucson would be non-existant. Humans also have

to realize that this supply of water is valuable and limited, and unable to

support this region indefinitely. Since we, the local residents of Tucson, are

currently using far more groundwater than we are replacing (8), consideration

and planning need to be addressed in the form of conserving this precious

supplier of life, water. MATERIALS AND METHODS In searching for materials

relevant to my topic, I was faced with several options. First, Dr. James Riley

gave me a couple of very useful phone numbers: one, to contact the Pima

Association of Governments – (520) 792-1093 – and the other, the Arizona

Department of Environmental Quality – 1-800-234-5677. Each was quite helpful and

offered to send me information through the mail, but my time span would not

allow this. So then, I turned to the University of Arizona’s Sabio Library

Reference search, available online at http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/, and

found numerous sources available by using the keywords "Tucson, Arizona

water conservation". Many of these were books that I felt were out-dated

and inadequate to my needs, so I turned to some other search engines on the

internet, using the same key words. I found several helpful sites, but the most

helpful was the homepage for Water Resources in the Tucson Basin, available at

http://ag.arizona.edu/swes/tucwater1/ — I scrolled down to the area labeled

internet links to find up-to-date sites with the most information available on

water conservation in the Tucson area. RESULTS In order to conceive the concept

that our water supply will not last forever, one must realize where the water is

coming from. As Water words, a quarterly newsletter produced by SAWARA,

explained it: "Nearly all water used in this area comes from an underground

aquifer formed over thousands of years of geologic time. The aquifer is made up

of varying layers of clays, sands and gravels that have been deposited in Avra

Valley and the basin which underlies the greater metropolitan Tucson and Green

Valley area. Substantial volumes of water, accumulated from years of snowmelt

and rainfall, are contained within the tiny spaces surrounding the grains of

these sediments." (8) This picture, shown on the Water Resources Research

Center WebPages, at http://www.ag.arizona.edu/azwater/ (2d) shows a nice diagram

of the explanation from above. By understanding how these aquifers formed over

thousands of years, hopefully you are able to associate that they do not quickly

replenish themselves. Therefore, at the rate humans are using the water from the

wells dug into these aquifers, it will soon be gone. So we must realize that

there are many actions that must be taken, the most important being

conservation. In research data presented by the Tucson Active Management Area,

it shows that Tucson is currently using about 312,000 acre-feet (AF) per year

(1a). The major sources that this water supply comes from includes groundwater,

effluent water, and CAP water. As show by the figure below (1b). Water Supplies

Used To Meet Demand – 1994 Source Acre-Feet Percent Central Arizona Project

24,000 7.7 Effluent 11,000 3.5 Groundwater 279,000 88.8 (One acre-foot equals

325,851 gallons.) As one can see, an overwhelmingly large amount of the water

supply comes specifically through groundwater. The very source that is the most

difficult to replenish because this groundwater supply has accumulated over

thousands of years. But as the number of water users is rapidly increasing each

year, as well as the amount of water each uses, it is easy to conclude that this

supply will eventually have to run dry (2d). Since little of this precious water

can be replenished as fast as it is being used, the only way to assist the

problem today is to use less and reuse the water that we can – one simple word,

conserve. Conservation is occurring on many levels. The government has formed

councils and committees to create new systems, methods, and solutions to

efficiently use the water available to us. Such groups have formulated

propositions that wisely use recharged wastewater, unsuitable for human

consumption, for such uses as lawn water and so on (4a). They have also come up

with programs that cause the water rates to raise once a consumer uses a certain

amount of water (4b): Therefore, discouraging wastefulness by putting part of

the punishment (a monetary fine in this case) on the consumer, and reducing the

penalty inflicted on the environment. This is a very effective and resourceful

thing to do because the consumer should be just as concerned with the problem,

realizing that they help contribute to it every day. Although many people think

that one person really cannot make a difference, that is not true, because every

gallon of water saved helps. Here are just a few things and numbers to get you

thinking, taken from the "Water Conservation and Beat the Peak" (3):

Get a water-saving showerhead Saves up to a gallon of water a minute Put an

aerator in your sink Saves up to a gallon of water a minute Sweep your sidewalk

- Don’t hose it off This can save up to 10 gallons a minute Fix your faucets

Saves up to 50 gallons a day Use the short cycle on your dishwasher Save 10

gallons of water every cycle Check your toilet for leaks A leaky stool may waste

up to 100 gallons a day Take shorter showers 5 to 10 gallons are wasted every

minute DISCUSSION The discovery of underground water is what made the desert

areas, such as Tucson, the livable communities they are today. Without water we

would not be able to adapt to these extreme conditions, making this state called

Arizona — nothing. Therefore, desert states need to realize that not all things

last forever and that they need to guard and use wisely the natural resources

that are available now. Water is an enormous benefactor to life in the Tucson

Water Basin, as well as the rest of the world, and the inhabitants must realize

that eventually the source will run out and they will have no where to turn to.

To prevent this, they need to prepare for the future and conserve this precious

resource before it turns into a bigger problem than we are facing today.

CONSLUSION Tucson’s future depends on the wise and efficient use of water – the

most precious natural resource found in this barren desert. If we do our part,

we can better prepare for the future and make this a better place for those yet

to come. Best said by Daniel R. Patterson, an arid ecosystem ecologist,

"Both citizens and industry must learn to live in true harmony with the


1. Arizona Department of Water Resources Homepage – by clicking on Arizona

Water Information link, then Statewide Overview link, then AMA Overview link,

then Tucson Active Management Area link, then Tucson AMA. (a)

http:www.adwr.state.az.us/AZWaterInfo/InsideAMAs/amatucson.html (b) http://www.adwr.state.az.us/AZWaterInfo/statewide/amas.html

2. Arizona Water Resources Homepage – through the University. (a) http://www.ag.arizona.edu/azwater/uses.html.

(b) http://www.ag.arizona.edu/azwater/hist.thml (c) http://www.ag.arizona.edu/azwater/clim.html

(b) http://www.ag.arizona.edu/azwater/ground.html. 3. City of Tucson, AZ

Homepage. http://www.ci.tucson.az.us/water/tsnwtr/conserve/beatpeak/tips.thm. 4.

Metropolitan Domestic Water Improvement District – Tucson, AZ Homepage. (a)

http://www.metrowater.com/conservation.htm (b) http://www.metrowater.com/rates.htm

5. Patterson, Daniel R.. "Eroding Our Quality of Life". The Arizona

Daily Star. September 24, 1998. 6. Sheldon, Dana. Estimated Water Balance.

Available on the internet – on the Water Resources in the Tucson Basin Colloquia

Homepage, under the 1996 Final Class Reports link. http://ag.arizona.edu/swes/tucwater1/final96.htm

. 7. Tucson Regional Water Council Homepage. http://www.azstarnet.com/~trwc/prior.thm.

8. Water Words. Published by SAWARA. Volume 16, No. 1 – Jan./Feb./March, 1998.


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