Discuss The Role Of Management As An

Integrating Activity Essay, Research Paper

There is no one definition for

the term management. However Fayol (1916) defined the term management as; ?To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate

and to control.??Mc Ilwee.T and

Roberts I, (1991): p.g117Management is not

homogeneous and is undertaken at all levels of the organisation, as it is an

integrating activity. Managers have to manage in order to achieve the overall

objectives and strategy of the firm. All firms are seeking effective managers,

and the quality of management is a key element of business success. In this

assignment the responsibility of management is going to be addressed. Henri Fayol (1961)

introduced four managerial roles and these were planning, organising,

commanding. Co-ordinating and controlling. Organising- being

responsible four jobs and tasks being carried out by individuals. Commanding-

giving orders and instructions and expecting them to be carried out.

Co-ordinating- all activities are arranged and adjusted in time and situation

to ensure smooth running. Controlling- involves directing, inspecting and

regulating work. Planning- determines in advance what should be accomplished

and how it should be accomplished. (Bounds G, Yorks L, Adams M, Ranney G, 1994)However Fayol has been

criticised by Mintzberg as it provides only vague managerial objectives. As an

alternative Mintzberg proposes ten roles. Three ?interpersonal roles-figurehead (social activities), liaison

(communicating internally and externally),and leadership. Three informational

roles- monitor, disseminator (passing information to subordinates), spokesman

(passing information externally) and four decisional roles-entrepreneur (risk

taker), disturbance, handler, resource allocator and negotiator. The ten roles

mentioned are not easily isolated in practice but form an integrated whole. (Betts.P,

1989)An important and integral

part of management is the role of supervisors.?The supervisor is usually regarded as being the first of the management

hierarchy of an organisation. Although the role varies between organisations,

generally the supervisor is the management person most directly concerned with

the workforce and with whom they have the most contact.? ( Lewis R and

Trevitt R(1995): pg. 355)They have a prime

responsibility for seeking that others do work. At the authors par time job ?Boots

the Chemist? the supervisor constructs a rota, which entails what each employee

will be doing for the rest of the day at different times. For e.g. 9-10 chemist

counter 10-11 cash and wrap 11-12 break etc. It is the supervisor?s

responsibility that tasks are carried out. It is the employee?s duty to carry

out the task and the supervisor?s responsibility to make sure the tasks are carried

out. We also have job rotation therefore have a multi ?skilful workforce. As

the store is very busy and sometimes there is short of staff others can do the

job as they have been trained. It is important to have good teamwork. Group

work is also an important management activity. Group work would enable

employees to share ideas with others. However, group work is not always

effective if employees dislike one another of have conflicting opinions. Brech (1957) identifies four

main elements of management and these being planning, control, co-ordination

and motivation. Today motivation is an important management activity. I.e. ?getting

the members of the teams to pull their weight effectively.?(E.Brech, (1975): pg.

12) ?Whether of not workers carry out

tasks effectively will depend on the degree to which the manager motivates

them. As management is about getting things done it is therefore important to

motivate people so that tasks are carried out. In the authors part time job at ?Boots

the Chemist? employees receive performance-related bonus. Whether or not you

receive a bonus is dependent on the contribution made by an employee to the

success of the firm. Each employee?s performance is monitored every week. Employees

at the firm were also asked to sign a contract saying that if any time is taken

of work during the Christmas period they will not be entitled to pay rise or Christmas

bonus. This has been newly introduced to avoid absenteeism, as the Christmas

period is the firm?s busiest period. In the eyes of the author this approach is

going to be very successful and that employees are going to be motivated to

work hard and attend work. Taylor had a very simplistic view of what motivated

people at work-money. Taylor however overlooked that people also work for other

reasons other than money. An alternative view to that of Taylor comes from

Herbery. ??Needs such as achievement and recognition are positive motivators

whilst others such as pay and working conditions, can determine if they are

satisfactory, but will not motivate positively for long if they are satisfying?

(Litterer J (1978): p.g65)An alternative view to

motivation comes from Mc Gregory?s theory X and Y. In theory X managers tend to

dislike their subordinates, they believe employees do not really enjoy their

work and need to be controlled. Whereas theory Y employees do enjoy work and

they want to contribute to ideas and effort. A theory Y manager is therefore

more likely to involve employees in decisions and give them more

responsibility. The way in which managers view their employees will reflect

their management style. The management style will also depend on a number of

factors i.e. personality of manger and workers and the nature of the task. The

way in which the manager deals with its colleagues will have a real impact on

their motivation and how effectively they work. The degree to which workers

need to be motivated will depend on the organisational structure. (Mullins. L

1999)At any level in the

organisation it is unlikely that management will be able to cope adequately

with all aspects of their job on their own. ?Delegation exists because no one person can effectively control all the

functions of a large business. A manager delegates certain powers to subordinates.?

(Floyd. D (1994): p.g75)To function efficiently they must

delegate. Management is about getting work done through other people, this

entails delegation. Delegation is one of the most powerful management skills.

It is the process by which authority to make specific decisions are given to

lower level management. Is involves subordinates making decisions. At ?Boots

the Chemist? some subordinates are given the authority to do exchanges and

refunds. Some are also given the authority to open the counter cache this is

where all the notes in excess of the working float are placed. However at times

the counter cache does get blocked and we can inform those subordinates who are

authorised to open the counter cache. It is very useful as most of the time the

supervisor is not on the shop floor and therefore can get the subordinates who

are authorised to do the refunds of exchanges. This would not only maintain

good customer service but would also allow the supervisor to be doing other

things. ??It is important that the manager chooses the right subordinates to

whom to delegate authority and responsibility and therefore should be able to

allocate important aspects of their jobs to subordinates. The limitation with

delegation is the delegator might be unwilling to delegate tasks to subordinates.Good communication is vital

in organisations and lies at the heart of effective management. ?Effective communication is essential for organisations without it employees

do not know what to do, how to do it or when to do it by? (Marcouse. I, Gillespile. A,

Martin. B, Surridge. M, Wall. N, (1999): pg. 242)If there is Communication at all

levels employee would feel part of the company and will then in return

contribute more. ?People need to know

their targets what they are doing right and areas, which they need improving

on. At ?Boots the Chemist?, every 6 months the employees have to review their

contracts with their supervisor. Here employees concern is discussed as well as

targets, their performance and areas, which they can improve on. This enables staff

to know how well they are doing and what is expected from them. This is also

more likely to produce a much more focused and committed workforce. We also

have staff meetings here managers are able to inform staff of new developments,

listen to staff views, answer questions and provide feedback. There is also a

staff notice board where notices relating to staff can be put up. This is a

good means of getting information to staff in the store.Likert (1961) identifies a

four- fold model of management systems. Explotitive-very little teamwork or

communication and responsibility centred at the top of the hierarchy.

Benevolent- limited teamwork or communication, responsibility at management

level but not lower down. Consultative- fair degree of teamwork and

communication, responsibility spread more widely. Participative- higher degree

of teamwork and communication and responsibility widespread through out all

levels. This model can be related to Mc Gregors X and Y theory. Explotitive and

Benevolent can be related to Mc Gregors theory X and Participative can be

corresponded to theory Y. The culture of the organisation will also effect the

management. The organisations culture is expressed in the way that people who

make up the organisation act. (Mullines. L, 1999) ?If employees have theory X expectations and managers expect theory Y

attitudes the results are delegation and involvement is likely to produce poor

quality output and misdirection effort.? (Floyd D (1994): pg. 125)There can be potential

problems when both employees and managers have a different set of beliefs or

expectations. In conclusion, there are numerous

definitions of management. The role of management is primarily dependent on the

management style adopted and the culture of the organisation as well as its aims

and objectives. All firms are seeking good management, as it would effect the success

of the business. The effectiveness of management can be measured against level

of staff turnover and absenteeism. References 1. Mc

Ilwee, T, Roberts, I. (1991).Human Resourse Management 2. Litterer,

A. (1978). An introduction to management 3. Mullins,

L. (1999). Management and organisational behaviour 4. Floyd,

D.(1994). A Level Business Studies 5. Lewis,

R, Trevitt, R.(1995) GNVQ Advanced Business 6. Marcouse,

I, Gillespie A, Martin, B, Surridge, M, Wall, N.(1999). Business Studies 7. Brech,

E(1975). The Principles and Practice of Management 8. Fearns,

P. (1980).Business Studies an integrated approachBibliography 1. Litterer,

A. (1978). An introduction to management 2. Mullins,

L. (1999). Management and organisational behaviour 3. Floyd,

D.(1994). A Level Business Studies 4. Bounds,

G, Yorks, L, Adams, M, Ranney, G.(1994). Total Quality Management 5. Lewis,

R, Trevitt, R.(1995) GNVQ Advanced Business 6. Marcouse,

I, Gillespie A, Martin, B, Surridge, M, Wall, N.(1999). Business Studies 7. Betts,

P.(1989). Supervisory Studies 8. Brech,

E(1975). The Principles and Practice of Management 9. Makin,

P, Cooper, C, Cox, C.(1994) Managing people at work 10.Bolton,

W.(1986). Supervisory Management 11.Armstronge,

M(1990) Management Processes And Functions 12.Evenden,

R, Anderson, G (1992). Making The Most Of ?People 13.Drucker,

P(1977). People And Performance 14.Fearns,

P (1980) Business Studies an integrated approach 15.Sisson,

K (1989) Personnel management in Britain


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