French Monuments Essay, Research Paper
Eiffel Tower, wrought-iron tower in Paris, a landmark and an early example of wrought-iron construction on a gigantic scale. It was designed and built by the French civil engineer Gustave Alexandre Eiffel for the Paris World’s Fair of 1889. The tower, without its modern broadcasting antennae, is 300 m (984 ft) high. The lower section consists of four immense arched legs set on masonry piers. The legs curve inward until they unite in a single tapered tower. Platforms, each with an observation deck, are at three levels; on the first is also a restaurant. The tower, constructed of about 6300 metric tons (about 7000 tons) of iron, has stairs and elevators. A meteorological station, a radio communications station, and a television transmission antenna, as well as a suite of rooms that were used by Eiffel, are located near the top of the tower.
Notre Dame, cathedral of Notre Dame (Our Lady), on the island called +le de la Cit at the heart of Paris. Notable for its elegant proportions, it was a model for the French Gothic cathedrals of the Middle Ages. An earlier church (perhaps preceded by a Roman temple) probably existed on the site of the present building, which was begun in 1163 by Bishop Maurice de Sully and completed, for the most part, by 1250. The original plan was later compromised by the construction (late 13th and early 14th centuries) of a run of side chapels completely encircling the nave and choir.
The west front of the cathedral is a classic of French Gothic style (see Gothic Art and Architecture), with three richly carved portals, or doorways. The central portal depicts the biblical story of the Last Judgment. The north and south transept fronts, which date from the second half of the 13th century, are decorated with two rose windows, circular stained-glass windows constructed using a technique called bar tracery, an elaborate stone support system. Another rose window, at the west front of the cathedral, is considered a masterpiece of Gothic engineering for its large glass surface area, which is supported by a seemingly delicate web of carved stone tracery.
The cathedral’s interior, 35 m (115 ft) tall, has lost most of its medieval glass, as well as its original fittings (largely removed during liturgical reorderings in the 18th century). Vandalized during the French Revolution (1789-1799), the building was restored by French architect Eug ne Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc during the 19th century: The tall spire over the crossing is his work. French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and the Empress Josephine were crowned at Notre Dame in 1804.
Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe, Paris, triumphal arch at the center of the Place Charles de Gaulle, at the top of the Champs +lys es Boulevard, where twelve avenues converge. Completed in 1835, it has become a central landmark of Paris and one of the best-known monuments in the Western world.
The Arc de Triomphe was commissioned by French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (see Napoleon I) in 1806; it was designed by French architect Jean-Francois-Th r se Chalgrin, but was completed after his death by French architect Jean-Armand Raymond. The design of the monument was inspired by the ancient Arch of Constantine in Rome, but, at 50 m (164 ft) high and 45 m (148 ft) wide, it is twice as high and twice as wide as the original. Sculptural reliefs and panels on the Arc de Triomphe depict various Napoleonic and subsequent French military victories and treaties.
Today, the Arc de Triomphe is considered the national war memorial of France; beneath it lies the tomb of the Unknown Soldier. It has also been the focus of some momentous historical occasions, such as the return of Napoleon’s body from the island of Saint Helena in 1840 and the victory march of General Charles de Gaulle through Paris in 1944, after the liberation of the city from German occupation forces
Place de la Concorde avec L Obelisque
Stands at the eastern end of the Champs Elysees. It features fountains, statues, and an Egyptain pillar called the Obelisk of Luxor.
Le Palais du Luxembourg vu du Jardin
Provides Parisians and visitors with a quiet, scenic resting place in the busy Left Bank area. The landscaped grounds include rows of colorful flowers. Luxembourg Palace, overlooks Luxembourg Gardens. It dates from the early 1600 s.
Le Pont des Arts et l Institut
Pont des Arts, a bridge for pedestrians, crosses the Seine in Paris. The Pont des Arts was Paris s first iron bridge when it was erected in 1803. Seen in the background is the ile de la cite on of the two islands in Seine.
La Colonnade du Louvre
The Louvre, one of the world’s great art museums, houses many works of fundamental importance in Western cultures, including the Victory of Samothrace and Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. Originally a royal fortress and palace built (12th century) for Philip II, the Louvre is an immense complex of buildings erected in Paris over a span of four centuries.
The basilica of Sacre-Coeur occupies the hill of Montmartre, the highest point in the city of Paris. The building was begun in 1874 by Paul Abadie and completed in 1910 by Lucien Magne. Its massive walls and Byzantine-inspired domes constitute an outstanding example of late-19th-century historicism. The vast interior is covered with glittering mosaics. Abadie chose for his model the 12th-century Romanesque church of Saint Front, Perigueux, which he had earlier restored. Although the artistic merit of Sacre-Coeur has long been debated, the white exterior is a striking feature of the Parisian skyline.
Le Palais de Justice et la Sainte-Chapelle
St. Louis ordered it to be built to be worthy to hold the Holy Cross and the Crown of Thorns, it was finished in 3 years. More than half the stain glass original and the windows cover almost 6,500 feet and contain some 1,00, illustrations.
Le Theatre National de l Opera
It covers an area of 11,000 square meters and auditorium can seat 2,200 people. The top of the arches are decorated with statues.
Fontaine de la Victoire et Tour Sainte-Jacques
La Rue Soufflot et le Pantheon
L Hotel de Cluny
Le Grand Palais
Has the architecture of iron and stone, the style like that of the Opera House. Quadriga stands guard at the four corners. Designed by houvet, it is 780 feet long and 65 feet high, while the interior stands beneath a vast flatland dome. Today, people visit to see temporary art exibitions in the National Galleries and to visit the Palace of Discovery.
La Tour de l Horloge et le Conciergerie
Philip the Fair had this built. There are four old towers on the edge of the Seine. The square Clock Tower is the first public clock in Paris.
Le Dome des Invalides
Was designed by Robert de Cotte and is laid out 540 yards by 270 yards. In front of the gardens is a bronze cannon which emphasizes France s military history. There is also a carved statue of Louis XIV and two statues of Mars and Minerva. Several military dignitaries are buried into the crypt.
L Eglise de la Madeleine
Le Palais de l Assemblee Nationale
Pont d Iena et le Palais de Chaillot
The museum of compared sculpture was opened in 1882 on the initiative of Viollet-le-Puc and Jules Ferry s minister for Public Education. Usually it displays sculpture of mural paintings and architectural scale models. These reproductions enable the visitor to understand the evolution of sculpture and architecture from the Roman style to the 19th century and including Gothic Renaissance and classic styles.
La Colonne Vendome
L Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel