ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ ФИЛИАЛ государственного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Дальневосточный государственный технический университет
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
государственного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования
«Дальневосточный государственный технический университет
(ДВПИ имени В.В. Куйбышева)» в г. Петропавловске-Камчатском
МК филиала Директор филиала
___________ Помогаева Г.Н. __________ Разумеев М.Л.
«____» ___________ 2007 г. «____» ___________ 2007 г.
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ И ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЙ МИНИМУМ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ
Специальности: «Менеджмент организации»,
«Государственное и муниципальное управление»
Согласовано: Утверждены на заседании кафедры
Заведующий кафедрой Гуманитарных и социальных дисциплин
Менеджмента от «__25 __» ____10 ____ 2007 г.
_________ к.э.н., доц. Морозова Ю.С.
_____________ к.ф.н. доц. Разумеев М.Л.
Разработал – ст. преподаватель
1. OFFICE FURNITURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. OFFICE EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
3. COMPUTERS IN AN OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. STATIONERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. ORIENTATION INSIDE AN OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
6. OFFICE SAFETY & SECURITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
7. THE COMPANY YOU WORK FOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8. WELFARE SCHEME FOR EMPLOYEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
9. BUSINESS ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
10. JOB TITLES& PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
11. JOB CONTENT AND OPPORTUNITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
12. SALARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
13. COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
14. SPEAKING OVER THE PHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
15. ARRANGING AN APPOINTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
16. PETTY CASH & CHANGING MONEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
17. MONEY & BANKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
18. SPECIAL FINANCING INSTITUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
19. THE FINANCIAL MARKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
20. TODAY'S EXCHANGE MARKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
21. THE EUROCURRENCY MARKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
22. FINANCIAL FUTURES AND TRADED OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . 52
|fittedwardrobe||встроенный шкаф (для одежды)|
|desk||канцелярский (письменный стол)|
|typingdesk||стол для пишущей машинки|
|filing (file) cabinet||шкафдлякартотек|
|filingshelves||полки для картотеки|
|filingdrawer||ящик для картотеки|
|top / bottomdrawer||верхний / нижний ящик|
|conferencegrouping||уголок для проведения совещаний|
|conferencetable||большой офисный стол|
|high-backdeskchair||стул с высокой спинкой|
|visitorchair||стул для посетителя|
|mobilechair||стул на колесиках|
|upholstered||мягкий (о мебели)|
|coat stand (rack for coats)||вешалка|
|umbrellastand||стойки для зонтиков|
|planter (plantstand)||ящик для комнатных цветов|
|waste-paperbasket||корзинка для использованнойбумаги|
MODERN OFFICE – WELL PLANNED, COMFORTABLE, TIME-SAVING
Modern modular furniture offers great flexibility to create interesting configurations. Movable partitions can change the size of the space: being moved around they divide big spaces into work cubicles.
A senior management office can be divided into three zones: a working zone, a conference zone for meetings with employees and an area for relaxation and entertaining visitors.
Modular and ergonomic furniture optimizes the amount of usable space and can organize functional and comfortable workstations, Manufacturing companies offer a selectable of Corner constructions, shelves, compact desks with rounded corners, light weight filing cabinets with wheels which can be tucked away under desks, conference groupings and upholstered or leather furniture, office wardrobes of various designs and sizes.
The colour of the floor has an effect on people: they tend to feel less confident when walking on shiny floors отод light carpeting. Dark carpeting gives visitors a feeling of stability.
Neutral colours and surfaces are recommended for conservative offices: warm colours such as beiges keep people relaxed, while cool colours - blue, grey - keep people energetic and concentrated. For offices where desk-top computers are the main means for work, it is recommended to have the walls painted in a light shade of green, as green is relaxing on eyes that have been 'glued' to a computer monitor.
Artwork - watercolors, landscapes - placed on a wall will also help-cope with fatigue and irritation.
2. OFFICE EQUIPMENT
|personalcomputer (PC)||персональный компьютер|
|desktopmodel||стационарная настольная модель|
|Intercom||внутренний телефон или селекторная связь|
|callingcentre||АТС для организации|
|with digital memory||сцифровойпамятью|
|witherrorcorrection||с системой исправления ошибок|
|manualtypewriter||механическая печатная машинка|
|electrictypewriter||электрическая печатная машинка|
|totype||печатать (на машинке)|
|wpm (words per minute)||словвминуту|
|totypeat 40 wpm||печатать со скоростью 40 словв минуту|
|tohavehighshorthand||показывать хорошие скорости|
|andtypingspeeds||стенографирования и печатания|
|ribboncassette||катушка с лентой|
|paperbailwithroller||планка для прижатия бумаги с роликами|
|paperreleaselever||рычаг освобождения бумаги|
|Keyboard||клавиатура; кнопочный номеронабиратель тел.|
|a new line||краснаястрока|
|colon /: /||двоеточие|
|semicolon / ; /||точкасзапятой|
|full stop (US : period) /. /||точка|
|comma /, /||запятая|
|hyphen / - /||дефис|
|dash / - /||тире|
|apostrophe /' /||апостроф|
|brackets / () /||скобки|
|inverted commas, or quotation marks / "..." /||кавычки|
|questionmark /? /||вопросительный знак|
|exclamationmark /! /||восклицательный знак|
|oblique /||наклонная черта|
|asterisk / * /||"звездочка"|
Most offices start with the basics: a telephone/fax machine combination, computer and a copying machine. A modern fax machine can be combined with a digital answering machine, telephone, digital memory, and error correction.
It is important that the computer suits the needs of the user. There are Internet machines (Net Stations') that do not have hard disks and are specifically for web browsing. Computers are usually bundled with the software from which you can choose what you need. A network laser printer is economical and efficient, as office workers from many workstations can print from the same machine.
The latest copiers have digital functions, colour capabilities, high quantity stacking capabilities.
Very often it is possible for every employee in an office to have a telephone extension at the desk. Workers can make direct calls from their own phones to anybody else in the office, through internal switchboard and telephone switching systems or calling centres. Calling centres have a great capacity, and can accommodate from hundreds to tens of hundreds of subscribers. It is possible to use voice mail to call a person if he or she is not available at the desk.
Another must in an office is a document shredder. Big offices generate lots of waste paper, and a shredder is particularly useful when there are checks, bank statements or other confidential materials to be shredded.
3. COMPUTERS IN AN OFFICE
Компьютеры в офисе
|webbrowsing||навигация в сети|
|tailoredtospecificneeds||приспособленный под определенные потребности|
|accurate informationnetwork||точная информация|
|networkserver||сеть (сетевой) сервер|
access to the files
|доступ к файлам
local area networks
|CD-ROM disk||диск CD-ROM|
|CD-ROM drive||дисковод CD-ROM|
|CPU (Central Processing Unit)||центральныйпроцессор|
|floppydisk||магнитный минидиск, дискета|
|floppydrive||дисковод для магнитных мини дисков|
|format||формат (данных) форматировать|
|hard disk, HDD (Hard Disk Drive)||жесткий диск, винчестер|
|hardware||аппаратная часть, устройство|
|mousepad||коврик для мыши|
|RAM (Random Access Memory)||оперативная память|
|software||программное обеспечение, программа|
A computer really makes office life easier as it can do all sorts of different jobs. The same computer could be used, for example, as a word processor, for filing, printing, working out statistics for the accounts department, communicating with other offices, web browsing.
When a company decides to install a computer, it usually gets a system administrator to study the ways in which the machine might best be used. If the company is a large one, the system administrator may be a full-time employee, looking after the continuous improvement and adaptation of the computer system. The system administrator will recommend what kinds of program and computer equipment are required.
Many companies buy ready-written programs 'off the shelf, or buy programs that can be tailored to specific needs but are mostly standard. This reduces the cost of the system, for programming is very expensive and time-consuming. Once it is installed and running, a well-designed computer system can take over much of the routine work and at the same time provide accurate information about the business quickly and efficiently.
LOCAL AREA NETWORK FOR A SMALL COMPANY
Such network consists of a central computer, with a number of other computers, laser printers, and other machines, such as might be used in a modern office. Each computer that is linked to the network is referred to as a terminal or a workstation. The central computer is referred to as a network server. As each workstation has access to the files held on the hard disk system of the server, information held there can beobtained by any of the workstations, subject to the right password. Thus the accounts manager can obtain historical data about sales, for example, and use his workstation to produce his statistics.
Wide area networks link offices in different parts of the country or of the world by special communication lines. Wide area networks link the same kinds of machine as local area networks, but you may find a facsimile machine at each end of the long-distance link. The facsimile machine can scan any document or photograph and transmit a copy of it to the machine at the other end of the link.
It is possible to transmit information over the normal 'speech' telephone lines, using a device called a modem. The output of the computer is converted into an audible signal, and sent down the telephone lines. A modem at the other end translates the signal for the receiving computer. Because telephone lines are intended for speech, they are not ideal for data. The speed of transmission is only a fraction of what can be obtained using proper data lines, and the reliability is not as good. The advantage is its cheapness.
Канцелярские товары (принадлежности)
|correspondencepaper||писчая бумага высшего качества|
|stock of notepaper||пачкабумаги|
|carbonpaper||копировальная бумага (копирка)|
|flimsypaper||папиросная (тонкая) бумага|
|shorthand pad||блокнот для стенографии
|correcting (correction) fluid||жидкостьдляисправленияошибок|
|archboardfile||скоросшиватель с пружиннымзажимом|
|folder||палка для документов, корреспонденции|
|stapler (stapling machine)||скоросшиватель|
|staples||скобы металлические для скоросшивателя|
|paper clip / paper fastener||скрепка|
|adhesive tape dispenser||катушкасклейкойлентой|
|tear-offedge||кромка-лезвие для отрыва ленты|
|rubberbands||резинки (для скрепления чего-л.)|
|eraser, rubber||резинка (для стирания следов карандаша с бумаги)|
|gluepot||пузырек с клеем|
set of drawing instruments
|felt tip pen||фломастер|
|fiber tip (marker) pen||маркер|
|deskset||настольный письменный прибор|
|desk mat (blotter)||пресс-папье|
|pettycashbook||журнал регистрации мелких расходов|
SPEAKING ABOUT STATIONERY
Here is the drawer for ball-point pens, rulers, drawing instruments, boxes of drawing pins and paper clips, small and large. There is a stapling machine and a hole punch, too. Here we have all types of storage (places to keep things). In that built-in closet there ought to be envelopes, headed notepaper, plain paper, stationery, glue-pots, adhesive tapes, packing tapes, rubber bands and erasers. This is a drawer for all sorts of files and here is another drawer for personal things. In the top drawer there are two telephone directories, one of them containing the employees' home phone numbers.
- Good morning. Is that the sales department?
- Yes. Miss Warner speaking.
- Good morning, Miss Warner. My name is Elsie Brown from BSD International. I'm ringing about our last order.
- Could you give me the delivery number, please.
- Yes, 3839.
Right. Here it is. Now, what can I do for you?
- Well, firstly, the pencil sharpeners we ordered didn't arrive.
- No. I'm afraid our suppliers didn't deliver any pencil sharp to us. I'll try to send them to you next week.
- The other thing is that we ordered large paper-clips, and you've sent small ones.
- I'm very sorry. We'll send you the correct ones this after noon and collect the ones you've got.
- Well, I'm afraid I can't sign the delivery note.
- Could you change it to what you actually received and then sign it?
- I'll do that.
- And I'll arrange for our accounts department to issue a credit note for the difference in price. They've probably already prepared the invoice from the delivery note.
- That's fine. I look forward to receiving the correct paper clips this afternoon.
- Sorry for all the trouble. We've got a new man working in the stock room.
- Well I hope it won't happen again. This is the second time this month that you've sent the wrong order.
PHRASES TO BE USED when buying or ordering something for your office (furniture, equipment, stationery):
We want... (say what and how much you want).
Нам нужно ... (скажите, что и сколько вам нужно).
We would like / prefer to have ...
Нам бы хотелось / Mbi бы предпочли приобрести...
How much does it cost?
Сколько это стоит ?
Is there a guarantee?
Имеется ли гарантия ?
Will we get a discount?
Можем ли мы иметь скидку?
How big will a discount be?
Какая скидка будет предоставлена?
Это легко устанавливается?
Is it easily fitted and removed?
Легко ли это устанавливается и убирается?
Is it water repellent / stain resistant / washable?
Это водонепроницаемо /не пачкается /стирается?
How soon can you deliver it?
Когда вы сможете это доставить?
When can we have the invoice?
Когда мы можем получить счет-фактуру?
5. ORIENTATION INSIDE AN OFFICE
Путеводитель по офису
|onthegroundfloor||на первом (наземном) этаже|
|turnleft/right||повернуть налево / направо|
|go this way as far as the||идти в этом направлении до лифта|
|elevator (Am) /lift (GB)||лифт, подъемник|
|take the lift to the ... floor||поднятьсялифтомна ... этаж|
|next to the counter / entrance||следующийзастойкой / входом|
|youcan'tmissit||вы легко его найдете (вы не сможете не заметить и пройти мимо)|
|upstairs / downstairs||вниз (внизу) / вверх (вверху)|
|downthecorridor||дальше по коридору|
|opposite the lift||напротивлифта|
|in the middle of the lobby||вцентрезала|
|behind the central pillar||зацентральнойколонной|
|in front of||перед|
|canteen||столовая, буфет (на заводе, в учебном заведении и т.п.)|
|round the comer||зауглом|
|in the right / left wing||в правом / левом крыле|
|go straight on||идти прямо|
|takethesecondright /||второй поворот направо / первый|
|the first left||(поворот) налево|
|go down / up staircase||спускайтесь / поднимайтесь по|
|( number or letter)||лестнице ... (номер или буква)|
|out of the back of the buildine||из тыльной (задней) части здания|
FINDING YOUR WAY ABOUT. GIVING DIRECTIONS
- Excuse me, I'm looking for the personnel department. Do you know where it is?
- I'm a stranger here myself, but I happen to know that it's on the second floor, in the left wing.
- Thank you very much.
- Excuse me, where is the store room?
- It's on the ground floor. At the end of the corridor turn left, room 27.
- Excuse me, what floor is the general manager's office on?
- Go this way as far as the elevator. Take it to the third floor. His office is next to the samples exhibition counter, on your right, you can't miss it.
- May I ask to help me?
- Sure. What can I do for you?
- I can't find your marketing services. Are they upstairs or downstairs?
- The marketing section is just on this floor, over there, down the corridor. Rooms 304 and 305, next to the stationary store.
- Where's the managing director's office?
- Go upstairs and turn right. It's the second door on the right, opposite the transport manager's office.
-The mail room is next to the entrance, opposite the lift. And the information desk is in the middle of the lobby, behind the central pillar, in front of the public telephones. Our canteen with a small bar are round the corner, in the right wing. To get to the guards' rest facilities, you should go straight on, take the second right, then the first left.
-As you know, there was a small fire in one of our show rooms yesterday, so I want to make sure that you all know what to do if we have another one. In rooms 1 to 10, you should go down staircase A, out of the back of the building by door 2 and then wait in the car parking outside. If you are in any other room, use staircase B. Go out of door 5 and assemble by the fountain.
6. OFFICE SAFETY & SECURITY
Безопасность и охрана офиса
|embezzlement||растрата; присвоение чужогоимущества или чужих денег|
|defraud||отнимать (с помощью обмана)|
|deter||останавливать, отпугивать, удерживать|
|shoplifting||воровство (покупателей) в магазинах, магазинные кражи|
|screen||тщательно отбирать, проверять|
|hire||нанимать на работу|
ADVICE ON SECURITY MEASURES
Crimes ranging from armed robbery to embezzlement can destroy even the best businesses. You should install a good physical security system. Just as important, you must establish policies and safeguards to ensure awareness and honesty among your personnel. Because computer systems can be used to defraud as well as keep records, you should check into a computer security program. Consider taking seminars on how to spot and deter shoplifting and how to handle cash. Finally, careful screening when hiring can be your best ally against crime.
SECURITY AND SAFETY IN AN OFFICE
A simple but reliable security system, such as special sensors attached to the doors and windows are often used. Taking security to the next level, a video camera or several video cameras are used in blind or hidden spots in corridors or corners of big buildings or places attractive to intruders. Adding a video tape recorder to the security camera is recommended so that you have a visual record to take to the police if necessary. There exist some security systems that search a visitor for weapons.
These are some rules for the staff to follow:
1. Always keep money in a safe place, never leave it in an unlocked drawer. It is recommended to keep it in a safe.
2. Be careful with keys - don't leave spare keys lying around.
3. Close windows when you are out - a thief needs only 2 minutes.
4. Don't leave a visitor alone in your office - use the telephone to find out if someone can see him.
5. Don't give strangers confidential information. Watch out for people behaving suspiciously.
6. In cases of pilfering and petty theft call the police.
7. Always remember safety rules when using electrical appliances: switch them off before leaving the office or before adjusting them, don't leave the electric cables on the floor.
8. Do not smoke in an office, only in special places, if you cannot give up that harmful habit.
9. Have proper ventilation for heaters and other small appliances.
10.Install smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, maintain them regularly and keep fresh batteries in smoke detectors for proper operation. Have, discuss and rehearse escape plans.
11.In case of fire, sound the alarm. If possible put out the fire yourself. Use foam not water ftear electrical appliances. If you cannot do that call the fire brigade immediately. Leave the building by the nearest exit - fire escape.
12.Please be responsible and careful. Always.
INSTRUCTING ON SAFETY
- We've got a new man working in the stock room. He should be instructed on our security and safety rules.
- I have already informed him about our routine in this, but he should read the instruction and sign in the register.
-The main things which should be remembered and always observed are: not to leave money in an unlocked drawer and always put it in a safe at night, close windows when one is out, not to leave a visitor alone in the office. Very important is also not to give strangers confidential information.
- Yes, he'll find all this in our safety instruction, and I've also told him to take care of his own belongings.
- Right you are. I hope he will prove to be a responsible person.
7. THE COMPANY YOU WORK FOR
Компания, в которой вы работаете
|headoffice||главный офис (контора)|
|startbusiness||начать деловую деятельность|
|launch||запустить (производство, товар на рынок)|
|totalsales||общие продажи, реализациятовара|
|to hold top-ranking position||заниматьлидирующееместо|
|corebusiness||главная, основная деятельность|
|aggregates||зд. наполнители (бетона)|
|to be committed||бытьприверженным|
|netoperatingincome||чистый операционный доход|
|groupshare||все выпущенные акциикомпании|
KKK is a famous computer manufacturer based in... (the name of the country).
The Head Office is in ... (the capital of the country), and there are offices in other cities.
KKK is a leader in the field of minicomputers and business microcomputers, and it is a major software producer It has a large customer service division, with a wide network of dealers and agents.
KKK has three main production workshops and is planning to expand manufacturing capacity in the next two years.
ККК started business in 1981, and produced small electronic components for the first few years. Then it launched its first micro and moved into the computer market in 1986. Now it has five branch offices; in 1991 it opened its overseas subsidiary.
In 1997 KKK launches the famous L66 models and gets the contract to build control systems for the Space Program.
The Company's total sales exceed.... The turnover in 2000 exceeded.... Its profits reach ....
KKK works through five divisions: Research & Development, Production & Engineering, Software, Administration fc Central services, Sales & Marketing.
SPEAKING ABOUT COMPANIES
1. A world leader in construction materials, ZZZ holds top-ranking positions in all six of its core businesses: cement, ready-mix concrete, aggregates, gypsum, specialty products and roofing. ZZZ employs 65,000 people andgenerates annual sales of $ .... It is committed to the development of construction materials which bring greater comfort, aesthetic appeal and safety to our everyday lives. Net operating income reached $ .... Net earnings (Group share) reached $..., net earnings per share rose to $ .... These increases are the highest in ten years.
2. XXX is a multinational technical service company employing 63,500 people and operating in more than 30 countries. Last year the company generated $... in revenue from its main activities. XXX has been active in this country since December 1998, through a joint venture with ODD.
3. Established in 1996, BBB broke away from ADD in 1999. . Balance loss was .... The statutory fund is .... Realizing that its chances of remaining on the market on its own are slim, the company initiated a plan for merging with ADB, the main supplier in the& industry.
PHRASES TO BE USED when speaking about a company:
- to be established in 19... быть образованным в 19...
- to have a strong position in the market иметь сильную позицию на рынке
- to enjoy an excellent reputation иметь отличную репутацию
- to have qualified / skilled / technically trained employees иметь квалифицированных / обученных / технически подготовленных служащих
- to be a state-owned enterprise быть государственным предприятием
- to be in the process of transformation into a joint-stock company находиться в процессе преобразования в акционерное общество
- to provide services to ... обеспечивать обслуживание / услуги
- to offer high-quality products and innovative technologiesпредлагать высококачественные товары и новейшие технологии
8. WELFARE SCHEME FOR EMPLOYEES
Система социального обеспечения служащих
|Welfare||социальное обеспечение; материальная помощь; благополучие, благосостояние|
|sickleave||отпуск по болезни|
|Noncontributory(non-contributary)||пенсионное обеспечение за счет нанимателя|
|pension scheme (plan) relief /dole||пособие по безработице|
|flexible working hours||гибкийрабочийграфик|
|benefit||преимущество, привилегия, пособие (пенсионное, по страхованию и т.д.)|
|allowance||пособие, содержание (годовое, месячное и т.п.), скидка|
|parkingfacilities||стоянка для автомашин|
|sportsfacilities||условия для занятий спортом|
|canteen||столовая (на предприятии)|
|subsidy||субсидия, денежная помощь|
|forselfanddependents||для себя и членов семьи|
|gratuity||денежный подарок, пособие|
COMPANY'S WELFARE INFORMATION
The benefits package of a company can contain medical insurance, annual leave, sick leave, paid maternity leave, creche facilities, pension scheme (noncontributary pension scheme), relief (dole), regular incentives, flexible working hours, paid overtime, fringe benefits. Also, big companies may offer their staff some benefits for remuneration package: dental benefits, relocation costs to and from the company, car allowance, free parking and sports facilities, the company's canteen, educational subsidies for children, furnished accomodations at nominal rent, annual leaves with airfares for self and dependents, annual gratuities, etc. Such benefits packages and rewards are usually commensurate, and the opportunities for a person who performs well may be considerable.
9. BUSINESS ACTIVITIES
Виды деловой деятельности
|legal services||юридическая служба|
|stockbrokerage||биржевые брокерские операции|
|keepaccounts||вести учет, отчетность|
|data processing||обработка данных|
|database -||база данных|
|distribution||распределение, раздача, распространение|
|delivery||поставка, доставка, разноска|
|accomplish objectives||осуществить цели|
|run a business||управлять компанией, предприятием|
|mode of live / living||образжизни|
|sale ability||возможность сбыта|
|stapleproducts||основные товары (продукты)|
|returnoninvestments||прибыль на инвестированный капитал|
|in quantity (ies)||в (большом) количестве|
|decision making||принятие решения|
|promotion||меры по увеличению сбыта, по продвижению товара на рынке|
|channels of distribution||каналы доставки (товара)|
|human resource||человеческие ресурсы, кадры|
|hire / recruit||нанимать|
|compensation plan||система вознаграждения (за труд)|
|benefitpackage||пакет пособий (пенсионного, страхового и т.д.|
SOME BUSINESS FIELDS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS
Production - the activity of making or growing something. Manufacturing - making goods to sell from raw materials.
Services - the provision of work, accommodations, or ministrations desired by a consumer. Services familiar to most consumers are in the field of maintenance and repair, transport, travel, entertainment, education, and medical care. Business-oriented services include computer applications, management consulting, banking, accounting and legal services, stock brokerage, and advertising.
Marketing - the actions of identifying, satisfying and increasing the buyer's demand for a company's products; the movement of goods and services from manufacturer to customer in order to satisfy the customer and to achieve the company's objectives.
Finance - money as a resource for business and other activities; the acquisition and utilization of capital in order to start up, operate, and expand a company; the management of money for business and other activities. Accounting - the handling of large amounts of information generated by business operations; the work of keeping or checking accounts. Data processing - using a computer to analyze and classify information stored in a database; the measurement and communication of financial information, computerized control of statistical data.
Trading - the buying and selling of goods, services, currencies or securities. Exporting - sending goods, services, ideasor people to other countries. Importing - bringing goods, services, ideas or people into a country from another country.
Transportation - the movement of goods or people from one place to another, the movement, or distribution, of goods to places where they can be sold; the arrangement made for this. Delivery - taking letters, messages, goods, etc to the places or people they are addressed to.
Advertising - business that deals with making, distributing and. selling advertisements; activities for making a product, a service, a job vacancy, an event, etc publicly known. It is done on television, radio, signboards; in newspapers, magazines, and catalogues; and through direct mail to the consumers.
Management - the activities guiding a company io accomplish its objectives; the control or organization of people, a business, a department of a firm, a project or a process (e.g. financial, information, product, retail, cash flow, staff, database management).
MULT/FACETED PROCESS OF RUNNING A BUSINESS
A variety of operations keep businesses, especially large corporations, running efficiently and effectively. Common business operation divisions include production, marketing, finances, and human resource management.
Production includes those activities involved in conceptualizing, designing, and creating products and services. Marketing research is conducted to study consumer behaviour. Changing attitudes and modes of living directly affect the sale ability of products. The purchase of durable or long-lived goods, such as refrigerators, cars, and houses, or luxury products may be deferred when the economy is declining and may increase rapidly in periods of prosperity. Staple products, such as food and clothing, tend not to be seriously affected by the business cycle. Consumers today expect product innovations. Competition between manufacturers of similar products naturally accelerates the speed of changes made in those products.
The two basic components that affect product pricing are costs of manufacture and competition in selling. It is unprofitable to sell a product below the manufacturer's production costs and unfeasible to sell it at a price higher than that at which comparable merchandise is being ottered. Other variables also affect pricing. Company policy may require a minimum profit on new product lines or a specified return on investments, or discounts may be offered on purchases in quantity.
Marketing concentrates primarily on the buyers, or consumers, determining their needs and desires, developing strategies to persuade them to buy. Marketing management includes planning, organizing, directing, and controlling decision making regarding product lines, pricing, promotion, and servicing. In addition, the marketing department of a busi ness firm is responsible for the physical distribution of the products, determining the channels of distribution that will be used and supervising the transportation of goods from the factory or warehouse. Marketing and sales departments pre pare documentation, handle cargo, do packing for clients, advise on insurance and the best means of transport, handle customs procedures.
Finance involves the management of money, controlling capital on hand to pay their bills, seek extra capital to expand their operations. Other common financial activities includegranting, monitoring, and collecting on credit or loans, and ensuring that customers pay bills on time. The financial division of any business must also establish a good working relationship with a bank. This is particularly important when a business wants to obtain a loan.
Businesses rely on effective human resource management (HRM) to ensure that they hire and keep good employees, and that they are able to respond to conflicts between workers and management. HRM specialists are responsible for recruiting new employees to replace those who leave and for filling newly created positions. A business's HRM division also trains or arranges for the training of its staff. Human resource managers create workers' compensation plans and benefit packages for employees.
10. JOB TITLES & PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS
Названия должностей и функции персонала
chairman of the board
председатель правления /совета
|exportmanager||директор по экспорту|
|marketingmanager||директор по сбыту|
|personnelmanager||начальник отдела кадров|
|productionmanager||директор по производству|
|trainingmanager||заведующий отделомповышения квалификации / подготовки кадров|
|transportmanager||заведующий транспортным отделом|
|post-roommanager||заведующий почтовой службой|
|receptionist||секретарь в приемной|
|accomplish (achieve) objectives||достигатьцели|
Making appointments is one of the main personnel functions. Advertisements are placed in newspapers and in trade journals. Applicants who reply to these, or who are found in other ways, are sent application forms. From these best candidates are chosen and a short list is drawn up. The shortlisted applicants are called for an interview. During this, the employment package is explained: this includes the annual holiday entitlement, the rates of pay, and the opportunities for promotion. When the successful candidate is decided on, there is one last step: references are taken up before the appointment is finally confirmed.
PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Top jobs demand top qualifications, and company directors usually need a degree in economics or business administration, plus experience in the sphere of activity of the company to get the job.
The managing director is responsible for the overall running of the firm. A good commercial director should know his firm from the inside, and at all levels, plus know the outside environment: he should understand state tax policies, the wider sphere of economics and the mentality of the officials the firm is to deal with; -and when making a management decision, he should study the market situation to estimate the reliability of the figures he is given. The sales manager is responsible for supplying goods to customers and is also very much the 'face' of the company, interacting with potential clients and persuading them to become customers. The personnel officer is responsible for hiring staff and for staff welfare. The head of the accounts department is responsible for all the money in the firm. She or he handles payments from customers and wages for the staff. The office manager handles the day-to-day running of the office, orders office supplies and arranges for equipment to be serviced or repaired. The typist types letters and other documents for the company. The post-room clerkhandles the incoming and outgoing post. The receptionist answers the phone and greets visitors.
Office routine work and secretarial duties:
- doing all the paperwork
- filing, using a filing system and making up an index to the files for them to be found quickly
- answering the phone and phoning
- making travel arrangements, talking to the travel agents the company uses
- making appointments and fixing the meetings
- writing business letters
- sorting out the letters and knowing mail procedures and post-office services
- knowing office safety and security rules
- managing typing, audio-typing (when the text to be typed has been dictated on to a cassette tape)
- doing some proofreading
- using office equipment
- keeping the diary (for making appointments for the boss)
- taking the minutes of the meetings
- ordering stationery
- being responsible for circulating memos (memorandums) to other members of the staff
- screening callers to the office
- dealing with the petty cash (when buying coffee, and the like)
- being a shorthand typist, having high shorthand and typing speeds
- being a personal assistant - P.A. for short
So the secretary of a company is basically responsible for fielding phone calls, keeping track of appointments and taking down the minutes at meetings.
ADVICE FOROFFICE WORKERS
You should train yourself to make more effective use of your time. This will help you to gain control over your job, to accomplish more of what is important for you. To get control of your time and your job it is necessary to avoid delays and distractions and to follow these rules of time management:
* list goals; * set priorities, * make a daily "To Do" list, * start with A's not with C's; * handle each piece of paper only once; * start now.
Advice for secretaries:
* know where to look for any information in your files;
* use a dictionary to check spelling, avoid errors, clumsy corrections;
* learn the names of the most frequent contacts by heart, keep a desk diary to mark down all work to be carried out, your boss's engagements and appointments, conferences, reminders of actions to be taken, birthdays of your col leagues, etc.;
* have a good telephone manner, good communication skills; never let your personal problems show in the office; pay attention to your personal appearance and manners.
PHRASES TO BE USED when speaking about responsibilities of employees:
- to join the company быть принятым на работу в компанию
- to be taken on the staff бытьпринятымвштат
- to work for the company работатьвкомпании
- to be with the company работатьвкомпании
- to hold position занимать должность
- to assume position вступить в должность
- to be appointed senior manager быть назначенным на должность главного менеджера
быть ответственным за (планирование, управление проектом)
- his responsibilities include... егообязанностивключают
- to work as ... before joining the company работать в качестве ... перед приходом в компанию
- his career included management positions in some Euro pean countries его карьера включала управленческие должности в некоторых Европейских странах
- he began as an economist trainee at National Oil Company
- his previous position has been as Department Head ранее онзанималпостначальникаотдела
- he is recognized as an expert in programming and soft ware он получил признание как специалист по программированию и программному обеспечению
- his role will be to install and tailor software applications to the specific needs of clients егофункциейбудетустановкаиадаптацияпримененияпрограммкнуждамклиентов
- he spent 10 years with Citibank and during his tenure there he lectured tax law at Sofia University and worked as a legal adviser for a law firm онработал 10 летвСити банкивтечениесрокапребываниявдолжностичиталлекциипозаконуоналогообложениииработалконсультантомвюридическойфирме.
11. JOB CONTENT AND OPPORTUNITIES
Содержание и перспективы работы
|routine||заведенный порядок, обычный(рабочий) режим, установившаяся практика|
|jobdescription||описание функциональных обязанностей|
|jobobjective||желаемая работа (чем хотите заниматься)|
|probation||испытание, испытательный срок|
|availabl||нeдоступный, имеющийся в распоряжении|
|fulltime||полный (рабочий) день|
|parttime||неполный (рабочий) день|
JOB PROSPECTS IN THE GENERAL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF THE COMPANY
It is important to know how to ask for information about the job content, your responsibilities and the job prospects in your career to understand the organizational culture and the philosophy of the company. Consider the following:
1. What is much of my future work concerned with?
2. What sort of job is it?
3. What sort of work am I supposed to do?
4. What is the day-to-day routine like?
5. What are the bieeest problems?
6. What will (shall) I be in charge of/ be responsible for?
(What will my responsibilities include?)
7. Can I have my future job description?
8. I'd like to indicate my job objective.
9. Can I be on probation for a time first?
10.Where is the job based?
11.Is overtime available / desirable?
12. Are business trips available? (Shall I travel much?)
13. Is this post suitable for full time or part time?
14. Will I have any opportunities for personal development?
|Salary||жалованье, оклад, заработнаяплата служащего|
|wage(s)||заработная плата (рабочих)|
|wagesandsalaries||заработная плата рабочих и служащих|
|(wage) scale||шкала (заработной платы)|
|byagreement||по договоренности, по согласиюсторон|
|grosspay / salary||общая сумма зарплаты ("грязная ")|
|netsalary (takehomepay)||чистая зарплата (за вычетом налогов)|
|fee for services||платазауслуги|
|amount to (sum)||составлять( сумму )|
|cash award (bonus, premium)||денежнаяпремия|
|wages run from .. .(the date)||зарплатаначисляетсяс... ( дата )|
|(wage) rate||тарифная ставка, расценки|
|salary based on hourly rate||почасовая оплата|
|pay by the hour / by the job||платить почасово / сдельно (за отдельную часть работы)|
|scaled down / raised||снижены / повышены|
|payday||день выплаты зарплаты, получка|
SPEAKING ABOUT SALARY
Get familiar with these definitions, questions and statements to be ready to use them when it is appropriate.
1. The term 'salary' means * fixed regular pay each month for a job, especially a job done by a senior member of staff.
2. * Wages' denotes 'payment for labour or services, usually paid every day or every week, and often based on the number of hours worked'.
3. 'Remuneration' is used to denote 'payment for work done or trouble taken; a reward'.
4. Can I ask questions referring to the salary?
5. Can I ask what my starting salary will be?
6. You'll be paid on the computer programmer scale.
7. Salaries are commensurate with experience and will re flect the importance of the positions.
8. The salary is commensurate with the importance of this position.
9. We offer a salary commensurate with experience.
10. Salaries are commensurate with experience and will reflect the importance of the positions.
11. The salary will be by agreement.
12. This is a key post and the salary will be by agreement.
13. The salary will be negotiable, depending on qualifications and experience. However, the position will attract a minimum gross salary of not less than ... pa (per annum}.
14. My gross pay is ... , but the net salary (take home pay, with all the deductions made} is usually ....
15. It is a well-paid job.
16. He thinks he is underpaid.
17. He earns / gets / makes ... dollars a week.
18. The minimum wage / salary is ....
19. It is a regular pay, but you 41 also get your fee for services.
20. My yearly salary amounted to ....
21. You'll also have some cash award (bonus, premium).
22. Your wages run from 10 September. 23.1 am guaranteed overtime pay.
23. Your salary will be based on hourly rate.
24. You'll be paid not by the hour but by the job.
25. Our wages were scaled down / raised.
26. Tomorrow is pay-day.
|arrangeanappointment||назначать деловую встречу|
|useaphone||звонить по телефону|
|usetheintercom||пользоваться внутренней связью|
|circulateadocument||передавать документ (для ознакомления)|
|distributionlist||список тех, кому направляетсядокумент|
|passadocumenton ...||передать документ далее (по списку)|
|memorandum (memo)||памятная записка, докладная записка|
There are different methods of communication in the office for each problem depending upon your task or desire: you may want to contact or meet someone, to discuss something with a person or a group of people, to have a brief talk or some information for your partners or members of the staff, etc. In each case you will chose the best way to communicatewith people you need. You can hold a meeting, arrange an appointment with the person you want to see, you can use a phone or the intercom, write a letter, send a fax or use E-mail, occasionally you prefer to talk to him or her face to face. If you want to let your people know some document you can circulate it with a distribution list. After the document is read it is passed on to the next person on the list. Putting a notice on the notice board is also practiced very often. Sometimes you write a note to a person, or write a memo (memorandum) to all the staff. Refer to the sample memo given below.
TO: All departments FROM: Managing director Re: Annual corporate plan
May I remind you all to send me your suggestions as to participating in the next year fairs and exhibitions. After detailed discussion the approved propositions will be included into our corporate plan. A report on the previous participation experience, with the drawbacks and efficiency analysis, should be submitted by 1st October.
In its basic form, the telephone (the terminal) and the network (local and local distance) make up the basic components of telecommunications. It is an effective tool that can easily change with seasonality and growth. How you use telecommunications can affect how efficiently and profitably your company grows in the future.
14. SPEAKING OVER THE PHONE
Разговор по телефону
|bookacall||заказать телефонный разговор|
|buzz||гудок, сигнал, разг. звонить|
|call||звонок по телефону, вызов|
|generalcall||общий вызов (кто подойдет)|
|long distance call / trunk call||междугородный вызов|
|personal call / person-to-person call||вызов определенного лица|
|answer the call||ответитьназвонок|
|collectcall / reverse||телефонный разговор, оплачиваемый тем, кому звонят|
|callsmb||звонить кому-либо по телефону|
|callback||позвонить еще раз; позвонить вответ на звонок|
|call to the telephoae||позватьктелефону|
|dialthewrongnumber||набрать неправильный номер|
|engaged / busy||занято|
|exchange (trunk exchange)||телефоннаястанция, подстанция, АТС|
|extension||добавочный (номер); параллельный аппарат|
|get smb over the telephone||связаться с кем-либо по телефону|
|get in touch with smb||соединиться, связаться с кем-либо по телефону|
|getthrough (to)||соединиться, попасть|
|hangup||класть трубку, давать отбой|
|holdon||держать (не вешать) трубку|
|IDD (international direct dialing)||прямой набор по международному коду|
|keypad||клавишный циферблат телефона|
|line||линия, абонент, номер, телефон|
|ontheline||у телефона, на проводе|
|be engaged on another line||говорить по другому телефону|
|message||содержание сообщения; то, что нужно передать; записка|
|pick up / take up||брать, снимать( трубку )|
|put down the receiver||положитьтрубку|
|put / write down a telephone number||записать телефон|
|reach / getat||найти, застать по (такому-то телефону)|
|reply / answer||ответ; отвечать|
|Speaking||Слушаю / У телефона|
|city / desk / home /||городской / настольный / домашний / внутренний / мобильный /|
|house / mobile / office / public (pay-) / phone||Офисный (рабочий) / общественный (телефон- автомат) телефон|
|telephone booth (cabin) /call box||телефонная будка (кабина)|
|telephonedirectory / book||телефонный справочник|
|there (Who is there? Areyouthere?)||на другом конце провода (Кто говорит? Вы слушаете?)|
|through ( Are you through? You are through)||в выражениях (Вы говорите / Вам ответили? Вас соединили)|
|tone dialing / ringing / engaged||гудок, сигнал/гудок, указывающий, что можно|
|numberunobtainabletone||набирать номер /линия свободна, жди ответа /линия занята/ гудок, означающий, что связи нет|
|unobtainablenumber||номер, по которому нельзя дозвониться|
TELEPHONE CONVERSATION PHRASES:
1. STARTING A PHONE TALK.
- Hello, is that the sales department?
- May I speak to Mr. N..., please?
- Can you put me in touch with Mr. N...?
- Who is speaking?
- Who is calling?
-1 didn't quite catch your name, how do you spell it?
- Is that you? I didn't recognize you at once.
- It's urgent. Could you please tell him he's wanted on the phone?
- Who shall I say is calling?
- Mr. N... is calling/ Mr. N... is on the line.
- There's a call for you / You are wanted on the phone.
2. THE PERSON YOU ARE CALLING IS NOT IN.
LEAVING A MESSAGE
- Excuse me, could I speak to Mr. N...?
- I'm sorry, he is not available / he is in a meeting / he is out
at the moment / he is at lunch / he is not at work today / he
is with a customer / he is not in now.
- Не is on another line.
- Could you call again later?
- Sorry, he hasn't returned yet.
- Can I take a message? / Would you like to leave a mes
- I'd like to leave a message for him / Could you take a
message for him?
- Can you tell Mr. N.......... (name) from (company) called.
Please ask him to call me. My phone number is .... Thank you.
- Mr. N... called and said he'd be calling again tonight.
- Mr. N... wants you to call him back.
- Was there any call for me?
- Somebody called but didn't leave his name.
3. BOOKING A CALL
- I want to book a call to .. .(city) for 8 p.m.
- What number are you calling from?
- Do you want to make it personal?
- I just want a station-to-station call.
- Will it be on credit? / Is it a credit card call?
- Hold the line. I'm putting you through .... Go ahead.
15. ARRANGING AN APPOINTMENT
Назначение деловой встречи
|haveanengagement||быть занятым, иметь деловуювстречу|
|be in the meeting||бытьнасовещании|
|have an appointment||иметь( деловую ) встречу|
|makeanappointment||назначить (деловую) встречу|
|suit (smb)||устраивать, подходить|
|arrangealunchappointment||договариваться о встрече для совместного ланча (чтобы вместе пообедать)|
|How about Thursday?||Какнасчетчетверга?|
|Why?||А что? (Почему ты спрашиваешь?)|
|Is it all right with you?||Это тебе подходит? (Это тебя устраивает?)|
|It'sallrightwithme||Меня это вполне устраивает|
|postpone||отложить, перенести (на другое время)|
|convenientforsmb||удобно для кого-либо|
- Good morning.
- Good morning. Is this Mr. Howard's office? I was wondering whether Mr. Howard could see me. My name is Bool.
- Mr. Bool, I am very sorry, but I'm afraid Mr Howard has several engagements today. He's in the meeting now and he has some other appointments this afternoon.
- Then would you kindly make an appointment for me?
- Yes, certainly. I'll just look in my diary. Now, would Friday at three-fifteen suit you?
- No, I'm afraid I won't be in town on Friday.
- Then would you be able to come on Monday at eleven?
- Yes, that would be quite all right.
- Good. I'll make it for eleven o'clock on Monday, then.
- Thank you very much.
- Good morning. My name's Chris Day. I'd like to arrange a lunch appointment with Mr Norman. He told me to arrange it with you. Is he doing anything on Thursday 12th?
- Let me see now... I'm afraid he's going away for the whole day. How about Friday?
- No, I'm flying to Scotland on Friday. I'm not doing any thing on Wednesday afternoon though. Perhaps we could have a late lunch?
- Well, Mr Norman's going to a meeting at two, so he can't have a late lunch. He's free on Tuesday though.
- Tuesday.,. hmmm... Well, I'm meeting a client in the morning but I'm not doing anything at lunchtime. Yes. Let's make it Tuesday. I'll come to the office at one o'clock.
- That's fine, Mr Day. One o'clock on Tuesday then. I'll tell Mr Norman to expect you. Goodbye.
- Thank you. Goodbye.
- How about a game of golf next week?
- That's a good idea. What are you doing on Monday morning?
- Sorry. Monday morning's no good. I'm seeing the doctor. Are you free in the afternoon though?
- I'm afraid not. I'm going to a board meeting,
- I'm free all day Tuesday. Is that any good?
- No. That's no good either. I'm going to a conference.
- Well, I'm traveling to Oxford on Friday morning so we must meet on Wednesday or Thursday.
- How about Thursday? I'm not doing anything in the afternoon. Are you free?
- At last! I'm not doing anything either. I'll come round to your place about 1.30.
- See you on Thursday.
- Do you have any engagements for Saturday evening?
- No. Why?
- Would you come and have dinner with me and my wife?
- That's very kind of you. I'd love to. What time shall I come?
- About seven o'clock. Is it all right with you?
- Yes, it's all right with me. I'll be there about seven.
SOME MORE PHRASES to be used for arrangements:
- Can we arrange a meeting / an appointment for tomorrow?
- Would 3 o'clock suit you?
- I have an appointment with Mr. N... for 3 tomorrow. I’m calling to confirm / cancel / it. -1 am calling to postpone my appointment till a later date,
- Let's fix the date.
- Will the same time after tomorrow be convenient for you?
- It's all right with me. Thank you.
16. PETTY CASH & CHANGING MONEY
Мелкая наличность офиса
|cash||деньги, наличность; обналичить, получить деньги|
|pettycash||мелкие суммы или статьи расходов|
|float||резервная сумма, запас|
|sundries||всякая всячина, разное (остальные мелкие статьи расходов)|
|(bank) notes / bills||банкноты, бумажные деньги|
|denomination||наименование, достоинство (о деньгах)|
|coinofsmalldenomination||монета малого достоинства|
|penny||пенни, один цент|
|nickel||никель, пять центов|
|dime||дайм, десять центов|
|penny( pi . репсе)||пенни (мн. пенсы)|
|change||сдача, (раз)менять, разменивать|
|checkpoint / bureau de change (pi. bureaux)||бюрообменавалюты|
|rate of commission||комиссионныйсбор|
|cashier / teller||кассир|
|cashier'sdesk / counter||касса (кассовое помещение)|
|cashpoint machines /cash dispensers / automated teller machines||банкоматы|
DEALING WITH PETTY CASH
In the office they usually have the amount of money available for petty cash. This money spent on travel (bus, fares, etc.), snacks (coffee, sugar, biscuits, etc,), possibly, on some stationery (envelopes, pens, etc.) is recorded into the petty cash book, with the receipts (as written proofs of payment) being attached to this financial report.
This system of recording petty cash transactions is known. as the imprest system. The amount of money available for petty cash is called the float.
TALKING ABOUT PETTY CASH
- Where's all the petty cash gone?
- Well, last Monday I bought some coffee and milk and the next day I paid $12 for stamps.
- What else?
- And I bought a petty cash book and the flowers cost $15.
'- What flowers?
- For Betty. She is in hospital.
- What about the rest?
- The rest went for sundries.
17. MONEY & BANKING
Деньги и банковское дело
|current (Am. checking) account||чековый( текущий ) счет|
|I check (Am) at your disposal||ввашемраспоряжении|
|deposit (Am. savings)||депозитный( сберегательный )|
|interest||процент( на вклад )|
|withdraw||снимать деньги со счета|
|afewmonths' notice||предупреждение за несколькомесяцев|
|certificateofdeposit||депозитный сертификат (выдаваемый в обмен на срочный вклад)|
|specimen of one's signature||образецподписи|
|requiresomereferences||запрашивать информацию (о финансовом статусе, платежеспособности)|
|makecashdeposits||вносить денежные вклады|
|lend||занимать (давать взаймы)|
|borrow||занимать (брать взаймы)|
|repaytheloan||вернуть деньги по займу|
|statement||ведомость, официальный отчет|
|accountingdocuments||отчетность, отчетные (бухгалтерские) документы|
|income (profit-and-loss) statement||доходно-расходная ведомость|
|expertise||компетенция, знание и опыт|
|decline a loan application||отказатьвзаеме|
If you want to invest money at short term, you've got several possibilities: first, a current account. This gives you the possibility of having all your money at your immediate disposal. It also entitles you to a cheque-book. Second, you've got a deposit account. It is a better investment as it gives a higher interest. However, though you are entitled to a chequebook, you can only withdraw up to a certain sum each month. For larger amounts, you must give the bank a few months' notice. Finally, you have certificates of deposit. These pay the highest interest. However, they block your capital for a fixed period of 3, 4 or 5 years. Your choice of short-term investment, therefore, will depend largely on how quickly you'd like to have access to your money.
OPENING AN ACCOUNT
- We wish to open a current account with you for the use of the manager of our office. The manager's name is Mr Robert Bush, and he will be authorized to sign cheques on our behalf
- OK. We'll arrange for an appointment for this gentleman to visit the bank and complete the necessary formalities and provide a specimen of his signature. Also, we require some references.
- We can refer you to the British Clydeside Bank, Glasgow, where you will get all information you need on our company's financial status.
- Thank you. What cash deposit will your make?
- We intend to open the account with a cash deposit of $ 50,000.
- Now, let's fix the time for the appointment.
GETTING A LOAN
Initially, the lender will ask you three questions:
- How will you use the loan?
- How much do you need to borrow?
- How will you repay the loan?
When you apply for the loan, you must provide projected financial statements and a clear business plan which supplies the name of the firm, location, production facilities, legal structure and business goals.
Two main accounting documents - two basic financial statements - should be prepared: (1) the balance sheet, which is a record of assets, liabilities and capital; and (2) the income (profit-and-loss) statement, a summary of earnings and expenses over a given period of time.
A clear description of your experience and management capabilities, as well as the expertise of other key personnel, will also be needed. In the USA, if your loan applications are declined by at least two banks, you may ask the banker to make the loan under Small Businesses Administration's Loan Guarantee Plan.
SOME BANKING AND FINANCIAL TERMS:
- open an account (with a deposit of,..) открытьсчет (сделаввкладвразмере...)
- maintain a minimum balance of ... сохранять (на счету) минимальный вклад
- service charge плата за банковские услуги
- you will be charged с вас будут удерживать
- make cash deposits вносить денежные вклады
- make cash withdrawals сниматьденьги
- joint account совместный счет
- interest rate процентная ставка
- fluctuating / adjustable / fixed rate колеблющаяся / пере менная/ постоянная процентная ставка
- loan заем, ссуда
- shares (Br) I (common) stocks (Am) акции
- share price ценаакции
- real estate недвижимость
- mortgage залог под недвижимость
- income tax подоходный налог
- value added tax ( VAT ) налог на добавленную стоимость (НДС)
- credit terms условия кредитования
18. SPECIAL FINANCING INSTITUTIONS
Various special financial institutions provide finance to both the personal and corporate borrowed sector. In general they offer alternative, flexible funding to that offered by banks and building societies. Some of these organizations were set up with official support but with financial backing from traditional sources.
Among the public sector agencies are the British Technology Group; the Scottish and Welsh Development Agencies; the Industrial Development Board in Northern Ireland; the Co-operative Development Agency; and the Export Credits Guarantee Department, Britain's official export credit insurer. The main private sector institutions are as follows.
FINANCE HOUSES AND LEASING COMPANIES
Finance Houses and Leasing Companies provide consumer credit, business finance, leasing, and motor finance. For consumers they provide personal loans, hire purchase, store cards, store instalment credit, and first and second mortgages. For the business sector, they offer leasing and hire purchase as well as a variety of business loans.
A wide range of companies offer these facilities: banks, merchant banks, building societies, finance houses, leasing companies and the finance arms of several large manufacturing and retail companies.
The representative body for this highly specialized sector of Britain's financial industry, is the Finance & Leasing Association. Its members achieved $26.8 billion of new business and $56.2 billion outstandings in 1993. This covers 80 per cent of consumer credit, apart from that provided by the clearing banks and first mortgage lenders, and approximately 30 per cent of all Britain's fixed investment in plant and equipment.
The main service of a factoring or invoice discounting company is to improve the cashflow of healthy, growing companies by providing finance secured against the outstanding invoices of a business. The injection of cash isa flexible form of finance to increase a company's liquidity, rciluu' ik kink or other borrowing requirements and release capital for growth. Since Пи-early 1960s, factoring and invoice discounting have become major Гмкикм! services covering international activities as well as domestic trade. A nuinU-i of banks and other financial ogranizations have established factoring anil invoice discounting subsidiaries as part of their group activities. In July I91 M, 11,021 companies were making use of the services of the members of the Association of British Factors and Discounters (ABFD).
VENTURE CAPITAL COMPANIES
Venture capital is long-term equity financing for new and developing businesses. The 115 full members of the British Venture Capital Association (BVCA) represent every significant source of venture capital in Britain. About half the capital comes from venture/development organizations which are subsidiaries or divisions of larger financial institutions such as banks, merchant banks, pension funds or insurance companies. The rest comes from the independent venture capital firms which will have raised their capital from more than one financial institution.
Venture capital investment has grown dramatically since its emergence in the late 70s. in 1993, $1.2 billion was invested by BVCA members in the UK, Britain's largest venture capital organization invested $318 million in British companies in the financial year ending March 1994. Since 1984, the venture capital industry has invested over $10 billion and currently commands an investment pool of about $2 billion.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
instalment — очередной взнос, частичный платеж
by instalment — в рассрочку
mortgage — ипотека, залог, закладная
outstandings — неоплаченные счета, задолженность
clearing — безналичные расчеты междубанками
factoring — факторинг, факторинговые (компании)
discounting — операция по дисконту
discounter — магазин,торгующим по сниженным ценам
invoice — счет-фактура, выписать счет-фактуру
liquidity — ликвидность
Every day, the London Stock Exchange and the money and bond, foreign exchange, bullion and commodities markets attract amounts of money unequalled in any other centre in the world. Some $4 billion worth of equities and bonds are traded in a typical day.
THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE
The London Stock Exchange is positioned in the heart of a city unrivalled anywhere in the world for its spread of financial markets and its number of foreign-owned banking, financial and securities businesses.The Exchange has a dominant position in international equities trading. At the centre of this market are over 50 securities houses offering buying and selling prices for more than 8,000 domestic and overseas securities with prices displayed on thousands of information screens around the world.
The Exchange's position in cross-border equities is equally impressive, ground 60 per cent of the world's equity trading outside home markets passes through London, and this figure rises to more than 90 per cent within Europe. In the year to the end of March \1994, foreign equity turnover reached an impressive $671 billion, while total domestic equity market turnover was $612 billion.
The Exchange has its administrative centre in London with regional offices in Belfast, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds and Manchester and the Irish Stock Exchange in Dublin. It is one of the largest in the world in terms of the number and variety of securities listed.
Around 10 million people in Britain now own shares directly and a great many others hold them indirectly through collective investment schemes such as pension funds and insurance investment.
In July 1994, the Exchange introduced the 10-day rolling settlement which meant that 250 years of an account-based system of settlement came to an end. The new system is designed to smooth workflows and reduce risk. Ten-day rolling settlement is the first phase of a programme of improvements to UK equity settlement, leading to the introduction of the Bank ofEngland's CREST service. A move to 5-day rolling settlement is planned when the industry has adjusted to the new environment.
Various pressures for change led to Big Bang. The London Stock Exchange of the late 1970s depended enormously on institution funds but once exchange controls were lifted in 1979 many fund managers were attracted to foreign securities, principally through Tokyo and New York exchanges. Member firms on the London Stock Exchange were undercapitalized to trade in sufficient volumes to compete on international markets. At the same time, the London Stock Exchange came under enormous pressure when it was taken to court by the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) under the Restrictive Trade Practices Act. The OFT had three principal complaints: the operation of a scale of minimum commissions paid to brokers; the separation of capacity between jobbers and brokers; and restrictions on membership amounting to "closed shop" practices.
The pressure was relieved in 1983 when the then Chairman of the Stock Exchange, Sir Nicholas Goodison, reached an out-of-court agreement with the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. The concessions offered by the Stock Exchange were the catalyst for major changes in the operation of the Stock Market — Big Bang in October 1986.
In the post Big Bang years, all three areas of OFT complaint have been resolved with the result that the scope and capability of the new Exchange has vastly increased. Banks and merchant banks swiftly bought up or merged with the stockbroking firms and took over many jobbers on the market. During this period, a number of major privatisations (reversing the nationalisation programme started in the 1950s) continued to open the stocks and shares market directly to millions of smaller private investors. <
Under the Financial Services Act 1986, members of the London Stock Exchange are now covered by a single SRO, the Securities and Futures Authority (SFA) and a single Recognized Investment Exchange (RIE), the London Stock Exchange. The Exchange as an RIE regulates the operation of the marketplace whilst the SFA sets the rules for securities houses' dealings with clients and monitors their conduct accordingly.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
Belfast — БелфастBirmingham — БирмингемDublin — Дублин
Glasgow — Глазго
Leeds — Лидс
Manchester — Манчестер
Big Bang — «Большой шок», потрясение (резкое изменение в финансовой практике, экономической политике)
20. TODAY'S EXCHANGE MARKETS
The post Big Bang market is conducted almost entirely by electronic screen through the Stock Exchange Automated Quotations (SEAQ) system. Market makers are obliged to enter their competitive buying and selling prices during trading between 08.30 and 16.30 every day on SEAQ terminals in their offices. SEAQ puts together composite pages of these prices which are displayed in broker dealers' offices through commercial quote vendor networks. Trading usually takes place by telephone although the Exchange operates an electronic execution facility for small bargains (SAEF). The Exchange operates in three principal markets: Domestic equity market
Ordinary shares issued by UK companies quoted on SEAQ are traded on this market which is based on the competing market maker system. Gilt-edged market
The Government meets its Public Sector Borrowing Requirement predominantly by issues of gilt-edged stocks, or "gilts". These are issued through the Bank of England and traded in a secondary market through the Exchange with around $6 billion changing hands every day. Prices are displayed by computer on a service independent of SEAQ but still administered by the Exchange.
International equity market
The SEAQ international system makes it possible for leading securities firms around the world to trade through the Exchange. Today there are over 50 market makers offering firm prices in over 600 overseas stocks.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY DIRECTIVES
The London Stock Exchange altered its rules in 1990 to conform to EC directives on listing particulars, prospectuses and mutual recognition. The major effect of the EC directive on Mutual Recognition of Listing Particulars is that, subject to certain limitations, each member state must recognise the listing particulars accepted in another member state. To bring Britishcompanies into line with those of the EU, the minimum trading record requirement was reduced from five to three years.
THE MONEY MARKETS
London's money markets channel wholesale, short-term funds between lenders and borrowers, an operation conducted by all the major banks and financial institutions described in this publication. The Bank of England regulates the market, authorizing many of its participants and laying down an ethical conduct followed by all participants. There is no physical market place; negotiations are conducted mostly by telephone or via automated dealing systems.
The main financial instruments are CDs; bills of exchange; Treasury and local authority bills; and short-term government stocks. The bill markets and those in which the discount houses borrow from the rest of the banking system are often referred to as the "traditional" markets.
THE PARALLEL MARKETS
Since the 1960s, the "parallel" money markets emerged and these include the market in inter-bank lending, CDs and commercial bills. Today's parallel markets involve banks, building societies, local autorities, finance houses and companies.
The inter-bank market allows banks to deposit surplus cash with each other. Interest rates are governed by the London Inter Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR), which provides the base rate for other markets. The rates quoted range from overnight to one year or more.
The CDs market involves large companies and institutions depositing large surplus sums with clearing banks, merchant banks or building societies in return for a promise of payment in a specified period at a given rate of interest. If depositors need money they can resell CDs; thus a CD is a negotiable bill similar to a bill of exchange.
Commercial bills or "paper" developed as a result of the increasing trend towards the "securitisation of debt" during the 1980s, whereby major borrowers preferred to raise funds by issuing securities instead of seeking band loans. They consist of short-term, unsecured promissory notes which can only be issued by companies quoted on the London Stock Exchange and which fulfil a minimum capital requirement. Programmes of commercial bills are usually issued using banks as intermediaries. The buyers are usually big companies or institutions with money available from two weeks to several months.
21. THE EUROCURRENCY MARKET
This market began with Eurodollars — US dollars lent outside the United States — and has developed into a powerful market in currencies lent outside their domestic marketplace. There are, for example, Euromarks and Euroyen in London, Euroslerling etc in Bonn, Tokyo and New York. London and Tokyo are the main world capitals for eurocurrency dealings. Dealing centres around Euroloans, involving commercial banks, and Eurobonds which involve investing institutions and banks.
Euroloans consist of large tranches of short-term money (usually repayable in three to six months) lent by syndicates of banks and linked to the LI BO R rate.
Eurobonds are bearer bonds, requiring no register of holders, issued in currencies other than that of the issuing country and operating over a longer period, usually between 5 and 20 years. Their issue is managed by a bank with the aid of underwriters and is placed with investors. Market participants include multinational corporations, non-bank financial institutions, governments and the international banking community.
The Euromarket, as it has become known, has a single SRO the International Securities Market Association (ISMA). During 1993, some $23.167 trillion was traded in the eurobond market, an increase of almost 60 per cent over the 1992 total, which was itself a record year. UK members of ISMA accounted for a considerable amount of this total. This huge increase in turnover was marked by continued growth in cross-border trading in domestic instruments. As a global market emerges institutional funds will switch relatively smoothly from "domestic" to "international" and vice versa. This trend can be expected to continue.
THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET
London's Foreign Exchange Market is the largest in the world with currency transactions amounting to about $303,000 million each day. Market dealing is conducted entirely through telephone and data links between the banks,other financial institutions and a number of firms of foreign exchange brokers which act as intermediaries.
British banks keep close contact with the banking community abroad and quote buying and selling rates on a daily basis for both immediate transactions ("spot") and future transactions ("forward") in many currencies. The forward market enables dealers to buy currency at a fixed exchange rate on a particular date in the future. Dealings in foreign exchange provide those engaged in international trade and investment with foreign currency for their transactions and can be used to maintain controls on the costs of imports.
EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM (EMS)
The purpose of the EMS, in operation since 1979, is to establish a greater measure of monetary stability in the European Community. A key element is the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) under which members keep their currencies within agreed limits against one another. Britain was a party to the 1978 agreement that set up the EMS, and has always participated in its arrangements and institutions.
At the centre of the EMS is the European Currency Unit (ecu) used fora number of purposes within the system. The ecu is made up of a "basket" of agreed amounts of each of the EC member currencies and its composition is normally adjusted every five years.
In addition to its use between members of the EMS, there is a growing private sector market in ecus, particularly in ecu-denominated depostis and Eurobonds.
22. FINANCIAL FUTURES AND TRADED OPTIONS
Financial Futures are legally binding contracts for the purchase or sale of financial products, on a specified future date, at a price agreed in the present. Trading in financial futures developed out of the numerous futures markets in commodities that have their origins in London's position as a port and in Britain's need to import food and raw materials.
Financial futures and options are traded at the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange (LIFFE) established in 1982. Members of the market include about 200 banks, other financial institutions, brokers and individual traders. The Exchange provides facilities for dealing in contracts including UK, US, Japanese, German, Italian and ECU government bonds; UK, US and European short-tern»interest rates; the FTSE-100 Index plus a range of equity options. The market allows those that could be affected by movements in interest rates or the stock markets, either to reduce their vulnerability (by "hedging") or to speculate on the possibility of making a gain. Fund managers will normally hedge, while individual traders, or "locals", will speculate.
Traded or equity options are contracts giving the right to buy and sell Exchange-listed securities at an agreed price within a particular period of time. This again allows fund managers to hedge on the market; they can buy either "call" options (the right to buy stocks and shares at an agreed price on a future date) or "put" options (the right to sell securities at an agreed price on a future date).
The financial futures and traded options market are based on a system of "open outcry" (a kind of auction) conducted on the floor, rather than by computer terminals, but supported by state of the art technology.
HE LONDON BULLION MARKET
London is regarded as the world's major gold dealing center and has become the clearing center in the world marketplace. Over 60 financial institutions including banks, securities and trading companies comprise the London gold and silver markets which today trade by telephone and electronic communications links. Although most trading is on account, large quantities of gold pass through London with the result that the standards set in London are adopted worldwide. Five members of the market meet twice a day to establish a London fixing price for gold which is a reference point for worldwide gold dealings. Silver price-fixing occurs once a day and involves three market participants. Each price-fixing punctuates active and continuous dealings throughout the day.
COMMODITIES, SHIPPING AND FREIGHT
London Commodity Exchange (LCE) is Europe's primary market for trading soft commodity futures and options contracts in cocoa, robusta coffee, white and raw sugar, wheat, barley, potatoes, and Biffex (dry cargo freight) which is traded against the Baltic Freight Index. The large-scale economies of cocoa and coffee trading continue to justify the open outcry system of floor trading.
Gas oil for heating, and petroleum are traded through the International Petroleum Exchange (IPE). Copper, lead, zinc, nickel, aluminium, aluminium alloy and tin are traded through the London Metal Exchange (LME), the world's largest non-ferrous base metals exchange.
The Baltic Exchange is the world's only truly international shipping exchange where ships and cargoes are matched, bought and sold throughout the world. The Baltic Exchange contributes several hundred million pounds of foreign currency earnings to Britain's balance of payments account. The floor of the Exchange is still a daily meeting place for brokers and the Baltic upholds the high standard of business conduct upon which the London market is based. "Our Word our Bond" remains the firmly upheld priciple for transactions in the Exchange Baltic dealers handle more than half the world's bulk cargo movements of oil, ore, coal and grain. In April 1993, The Baltic relumed to St Mary Axe from Lloyd's of London where it was temporarily relocated after a bomb explosion severely damaged the original building in 1992.
The commodities markets are located close to sources of finance and the City's shipping and insurance services.
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