Тексты для чтения и лексический минимум по дисциплине Английский язык

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ ФИЛИАЛ государственного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Дальневосточный государственный технический университет

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

ФИЛИАЛ

государственного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования

«Дальневосточный государственный технический университет

(ДВПИ имени В.В. Куйбышева)» в г. Петропавловске-Камчатском

Одобрено Утверждаю

МК филиала Директор филиала

___________ Помогаева Г.Н. __________ Разумеев М.Л.

«____» ___________ 2007 г. «____» ___________ 2007 г.

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ И ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЙ МИНИМУМ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ

«АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК»

Специальности: «Менеджмент организации»,

«Государственное и муниципальное управление»

Учебное пособие

Согласовано: Утверждены на заседании кафедры

Заведующий кафедрой Гуманитарных и социальных дисциплин

Менеджмента от «__25 __» ____10 ____ 2007 г.

_________ к.э.н., доц. Морозова Ю.С.

Заведующий кафедрой

_____________ к.ф.н. доц. Разумеев М.Л.

Разработал – ст. преподаватель

Яцевич Т.В.

Петропавловск-Камчатский, 2007

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

1. OFFICE FURNITURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2. OFFICE EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

3. COMPUTERS IN AN OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

4. STATIONERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

5. ORIENTATION INSIDE AN OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

6. OFFICE SAFETY & SECURITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

7. THE COMPANY YOU WORK FOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

8. WELFARE SCHEME FOR EMPLOYEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

9. BUSINESS ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

10. JOB TITLES& PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

11. JOB CONTENT AND OPPORTUNITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

12. SALARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

13. COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

14. SPEAKING OVER THE PHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

15. ARRANGING AN APPOINTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

16. PETTY CASH & CHANGING MONEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

17. MONEY & BANKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

18. SPECIAL FINANCING INSTITUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

19. THE FINANCIAL MARKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

20. TODAY'S EXCHANGE MARKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

21. THE EUROCURRENCY MARKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

22. FINANCIAL FUTURES AND TRADED OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . 52

1. OFFICEFURNITURE

Офисная мебель

modemfurniture современная мебель
modularfurniture модульная мебель
furnished меблированный
fittedwardrobe встроенный шкаф (для одежды)
built-in closet встроенныйшкаф
corner construction угловаяконструкция
office cupboard канцелярскийшкаф
desk канцелярский (письменный стол)
typingdesk стол для пишущей машинки
filing (file) cabinet шкафдлякартотек
filingshelves полки для картотеки
filingdrawer ящик для картотеки
top / bottomdrawer верхний / нижний ящик
cabinet шкафчик
conferencegrouping уголок для проведения совеща­ний
conferencetable большой офисный стол
coffeetable низкий столик
high-backdeskchair стул с высокой спинкой
visitorchair стул для посетителя
swivelchair вращающийся стул
mobilechair стул на колесиках
easychair кресло
ergonomic эргономичный
upholstered мягкий (о мебели)
leather кожаный
two-seatersofa двухместный диванчик
coat stand (rack for coats) вешалка
tray тележка, поднос
umbrellastand стойки для зонтиков
planter (plantstand) ящик для комнатных цветов
waste-paperbasket корзинка для использованнойбумаги

MODERN OFFICE – WELL PLANNED, COMFORTABLE, TIME-SAVING

Modern modular furniture offers great flexibility to create interesting configurations. Movable partitions can change the size of the space: being moved around they divide big spaces into work cubicles.

A senior management office can be divided into three zones: a working zone, a conference zone for meetings with employees and an area for relaxation and entertain­ing visitors.

Modular and ergonomic furniture optimizes the amount of usable space and can organize functional and comfortable workstations, Manufacturing companies offer a selectable of Corner constructions, shelves, compact desks with rounded corners, light weight filing cabinets with wheels which can be tucked away under desks, conference groupings and up­holstered or leather furniture, office wardrobes of various designs and sizes.

The colour of the floor has an effect on people: they tend to feel less confident when walking on shiny floors отод light carpeting. Dark carpeting gives visitors a feeling of sta­bility.

Neutral colours and surfaces are recommended for con­servative offices: warm colours such as beiges keep people relaxed, while cool colours - blue, grey - keep people ener­getic and concentrated. For offices where desk-top computers are the main means for work, it is recommended to have the walls painted in a light shade of green, as green is relax­ing on eyes that have been 'glued' to a computer monitor.

Artwork - watercolors, landscapes - placed on a wall will also help-cope with fatigue and irritation.

2. OFFICE EQUIPMENT

Офисное оборудование

air conditioning кондиционер
personalcomputer (PC) персональный компьютер
computersetup компьютерная установка
desktopmodel стационарная настольная модель
handheldmodel переносная модель

portable/mobile

personalcomputer

переносной компьютер
Intercom внутренний телефон или селекторная связь
switchboard внутренний коммутатор
callingcentre АТС для организации
telephone телефон
answeringmachine автоответчик
with digital memory сцифровойпамятью
witherrorcorrection с системой исправления ошибок
faxmachine факсимильный аппарат
photocopier копировальная машина
laserprinter лазерный принтер
desklamp настольная лампа
calculator калькулятор
dictatingmachine диктофон
documentshredder уничтожитель документов
Typing Выполнение машинописи
Typist машинистка
shorthandtypist стенографистка
typewriter печатная машинка
manualtypewriter механическая печатная машинка
electrictypewriter электрическая печатная машинка
totype печатать (на машинке)
wpm (words per minute) словвминуту
totypeat 40 wpm печатать со скоростью 40 словв минуту
tohavehighshorthand показывать хорошие скорости
andtypingspeeds стенографирования и печатания
ribbon лента
ribboncassette катушка с лентой
left/rightmarginstop левый/правый полеограничитель
paperbailwithroller планка для прижатия бумаги с роликами
platen валик
paperreleaselever рычаг освобождения бумаги
Keyboard клавиатура; кнопочный номеронабиратель тел.
a new line краснаястрока
Space интервал
Margin поле
Paragraph абзац
punctuation marks знакипрепинания
colon /: / двоеточие
semicolon / ; / точкасзапятой
full stop (US : period) /. / точка
comma /, / запятая
hyphen / - / дефис
dash / - / тире
apostrophe /' / апостроф
brackets / () / скобки
inverted commas, or quotation marks / "..." / кавычки
questionmark /? / вопросительный знак
exclamationmark /! / восклицательный знак
oblique / наклонная черта
tick "птичка"
cross/x/ "крестик"
asterisk / * / "звездочка"

OFFICE ESSENTIALS

Most offices start with the basics: a telephone/fax machine combination, computer and a copying machine. A modern fax machine can be combined with a digital answering ma­chine, telephone, digital memory, and error correction.

It is important that the computer suits the needs of the user. There are Internet machines (Net Stations') that do not have hard disks and are specifically for web browsing. Com­puters are usually bundled with the software from which you can choose what you need. A network laser printer is eco­nomical and efficient, as office workers from many worksta­tions can print from the same machine.

The latest copiers have digital functions, colour capabili­ties, high quantity stacking capabilities.

Very often it is possible for every employee in an office to have a telephone extension at the desk. Workers can make direct calls from their own phones to anybody else in the office, through internal switchboard and telephone switch­ing systems or calling centres. Calling centres have a great capacity, and can accommodate from hundreds to tens of hundreds of subscribers. It is possible to use voice mail to call a person if he or she is not available at the desk.

Another must in an office is a document shredder. Big offices generate lots of waste paper, and a shredder is partic­ularly useful when there are checks, bank statements or other confidential materials to be shredded.

3. COMPUTERS IN AN OFFICE

Компьютеры в офисе

wordprocessor текстовый редактор
filing хранение информации
accountsdepartment бухгалтерия
webbrowsing навигация в сети
installacomputer установить компьютер
systemadministrator системный администратор
adaptation адаптация
tailoredtospecificneeds приспособленный под определенные потребности
programming программирование
accurate informationnetwork точная информация
networkserver сеть (сетевой) сервер
workstation рабочая станция

access to the files

password

доступ к файлам
пароль
wideareanetworks широкомасштабная сеть

local area networks

audible signal

локальнаясеть
звуковойсигнал
transmission передача
fraction доля, часть
Computer-users, mini-vocabulary Словарикпользователя
byte данных байт
CD-ROM disk диск CD-ROM
CD-ROM drive дисковод CD-ROM
CPU (Central Processing Unit) центральныйпроцессор
cursor курсор
data данные
database базаданных
file файл
floppydisk магнитный минидиск, дискета
floppydrive дисковод для магнитных мини­ дисков
format формат (данных) форматировать
hard disk, HDD (Hard Disk Drive) жесткий диск, винчестер
hardware аппаратная часть, устройство
inkjetprinter струйный принтер
input ввод
key клавиша
keyboard клавиатура
modem (modulator-demo-dulator) модем
monitor монитор
mouse мышь
mousepad коврик для мыши
output вывод
programminglanguage язык программирования
RAM (Random Access Memory) оперативная память
Screen экран
software программное обеспечение, про­грамма
texteditor текстовый редактор

USING COMPUTERS

A computer really makes office life easier as it can do all sorts of different jobs. The same computer could be used, for example, as a word processor, for filing, printing, working out statistics for the accounts department, communicating with other offices, web browsing.

When a company decides to install a computer, it usually gets a system administrator to study the ways in which the machine might best be used. If the company is a large one, the system administrator may be a full-time employee, look­ing after the continuous improvement and adaptation of the computer system. The system administrator will recommend what kinds of program and computer equipment are required.

Many companies buy ready-written programs 'off the shelf, or buy programs that can be tailored to specific needs but are mostly standard. This reduces the cost of the system, for programming is very expensive and time-consuming. Once it is installed and running, a well-designed computer system can take over much of the routine work and at the same time provide accurate information about the business quickly and efficiently.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK FOR A SMALL COMPANY

Such network consists of a central computer, with a num­ber of other computers, laser printers, and other machines, such as might be used in a modern office. Each computer that is linked to the network is referred to as a terminal or a workstation. The central computer is referred to as a network server. As each workstation has access to the files held on the hard disk system of the server, information held there can beobtained by any of the workstations, subject to the right pass­word. Thus the accounts manager can obtain historical data about sales, for example, and use his workstation to produce his statistics.

Wide area networks link offices in different parts of the country or of the world by special communication lines. Wide area networks link the same kinds of machine as local area networks, but you may find a facsimile machine at each end of the long-distance link. The facsimile machine can scan any document or photograph and transmit a copy of it to the machine at the other end of the link.

It is possible to transmit information over the normal 'speech' telephone lines, using a device called a modem. The output of the computer is converted into an audible signal, and sent down the telephone lines. A modem at the other end translates the signal for the receiving computer. Because tele­phone lines are intended for speech, they are not ideal for data. The speed of transmission is only a fraction of what can be obtained using proper data lines, and the reliability is not as good. The advantage is its cheapness.

4. STATIONERY

Канцелярские товары (принадлежности)

paper бумага
sheetofpaper лист бумаги
reamofpaper стопа бумаги
plainpaper обычная бумага
correspondencepaper писчая бумага высшего качества
ruledpaper линованная бумага
headed note-paper фирменныйбланк
whatmanpaper ватманская бумага
stock of notepaper пачкабумаги
carbonpaper копировальная бумага (копирка)
flimsypaper папиросная (тонкая) бумага
shorthand pad блокнот для стенографии
(Am.: stenopad)
envelope конверт
correcting (correction) fluid жидкостьдляисправленияошибок
archboardfile скоросшиватель с пружиннымзажимом
folder палка для документов, коррес­понденции
ringbinder скоросшиватель (папка)
stapler (stapling machine) скоросшиватель
staples скобы металлические для скоросшивателя
paper clip / paper fastener скрепка
drawing pin канцелярскаякнопка
hole punch дырокол
airmail sticker наклейкадляавиапочты
adhesive tape клейкаялента
adhesive tape dispenser катушкасклейкойлентой
tear-offedge кромка-лезвие для отрыва ленты
packingtapе упаковочная лента
rubberbands резинки (для скрепления чего-л.)
eraser, rubber резинка (для стирания следов карандаша с бумаги)
ruler линейка
gluepot пузырек с клеем
moistener
set of drawing instruments

губка

готовальня

pen ручка
ball-point pen шариковаяручка
felt tip pen фломастер
fiber tip (marker) pen маркер
pencil карандаш
pencil sharpener точилка
drawing pencil чертежныйкарандаш
desk diary дневник
deskset настольный письменный прибор
pen-and-pencil tray подставкадляручек
desk mat (blotter) пресс-папье
telephone directory телефонныйсправочник
wall calendar настенныйкалендарь
pettycashbook журнал регистрации мелких рас­ходов

SPEAKING ABOUT STATIONERY

Here is the drawer for ball-point pens, rulers, drawing in­struments, boxes of drawing pins and paper clips, small and large. There is a stapling machine and a hole punch, too. Here we have all types of storage (places to keep things). In that built-in closet there ought to be envelopes, headed notepaper, plain paper, stationery, glue-pots, adhesive tapes, pack­ing tapes, rubber bands and erasers. This is a drawer for all sorts of files and here is another drawer for personal things. In the top drawer there are two telephone directories, one of them containing the employees' home phone numbers.

ORDERING STATIONARY

- Good morning. Is that the sales department?

- Yes. Miss Warner speaking.

- Good morning, Miss Warner. My name is Elsie Brown from BSD International. I'm ringing about our last order.

- Could you give me the delivery number, please.

- Yes, 3839.

Right. Here it is. Now, what can I do for you?

- Well, firstly, the pencil sharpeners we ordered didn't arrive.

- No. I'm afraid our suppliers didn't deliver any pencil sharp­ to us. I'll try to send them to you next week.

- The other thing is that we ordered large paper-clips, and you've sent small ones.

- I'm very sorry. We'll send you the correct ones this after­ noon and collect the ones you've got.

- Well, I'm afraid I can't sign the delivery note.

- Could you change it to what you actually received and then sign it?

- I'll do that.

- And I'll arrange for our accounts department to issue a credit note for the difference in price. They've probably already prepared the invoice from the delivery note.

- That's fine. I look forward to receiving the correct paper clips this afternoon.

- Sorry for all the trouble. We've got a new man working in the stock room.

- Well I hope it won't happen again. This is the second time this month that you've sent the wrong order.

PHRASES TO BE USED when buying or ordering some­thing for your office (furniture, equipment, stationery):

We want... (say what and how much you want).

Нам нужно ... (скажите, что и сколько вам нужно).

We would like / prefer to have ...

Нам бы хотелось / Mbi бы предпочли приобрести...

How much does it cost?

Сколько это стоит ?

Is there a guarantee?

Имеется ли гарантия ?

Will we get a discount?

Можем ли мы иметь скидку?

How big will a discount be?

Какая скидка будет предоставлена?

Isitsimpletoinstall?

Это легко устанавливается?

Is it easily fitted and removed?

Легко ли это устанавливается и убирается?

Is it water repellent / stain resistant / washable?

Это водонепроницаемо /не пачкается /стирается?

How soon can you deliver it?

Когда вы сможете это доставить?

When can we have the invoice?

Когда мы можем получить счет-фактуру?

5. ORIENTATION INSIDE AN OFFICE

Путеводитель по офису

onthegroundfloor на первом (наземном) этаже
turnleft/right повернуть налево / направо
go this way as far as the идти в этом направлении до лифта
elevator (Am) /lift (GB) лифт, подъемник
take the lift to the ... floor поднятьсялифтомна ... этаж
next to the counter / entrance следующийзастойкой / входом
youcan'tmissit вы легко его найдете (вы не смо­жете не заметить и пройти мимо)
upstairs / downstairs вниз (внизу) / вверх (вверху)
over there вонтам
downthecorridor дальше по коридору
opposite the lift напротивлифта
in the middle of the lobby вцентрезала
behind the central pillar зацентральнойколонной
in front of перед
canteen столовая, буфет (на заводе, в учебном заведении и т.п.)
round the comer зауглом
in the right / left wing в правом / левом крыле
go straight on идти прямо
takethesecondright / второй поворот направо / первый
the first left (поворот) налево
go down / up staircase спускайтесь / поднимайтесь по
( number or letter) лестнице ... (номер или буква)
out of the back of the buildine из тыльной (задней) части здания
by door черездверь
outside снаружи
assemble собираться

FINDING YOUR WAY ABOUT. GIVING DIRECTIONS

- Excuse me, I'm looking for the personnel department. Do you know where it is?

- I'm a stranger here myself, but I happen to know that it's on the second floor, in the left wing.

- Thank you very much.

- Excuse me, where is the store room?

- It's on the ground floor. At the end of the corridor turn left, room 27.

- Excuse me, what floor is the general manager's office on?

- Go this way as far as the elevator. Take it to the third floor. His office is next to the samples exhibition counter, on your right, you can't miss it.

- May I ask to help me?

- Sure. What can I do for you?

- I can't find your marketing services. Are they upstairs or downstairs?

- The marketing section is just on this floor, over there, down the corridor. Rooms 304 and 305, next to the stationary store.

- Where's the managing director's office?

- Go upstairs and turn right. It's the second door on the right, opposite the transport manager's office.

-The mail room is next to the entrance, opposite the lift. And the information desk is in the middle of the lobby, behind the central pillar, in front of the public telephones. Our canteen with a small bar are round the corner, in the right wing. To get to the guards' rest facilities, you should go straight on, take the second right, then the first left.

-As you know, there was a small fire in one of our show rooms yesterday, so I want to make sure that you all know what to do if we have another one. In rooms 1 to 10, you should go down staircase A, out of the back of the building by door 2 and then wait in the car parking outside. If you are in any other room, use staircase B. Go out of door 5 and assemble by the fountain.

6. OFFICE SAFETY & SECURITY

Безопасность и охрана офиса

Crime преступление
armedrobbery вооруженное ограбление
embezzlement растрата; присвоение чужогоимущества или чужих денег
safeguards охрана
ensureawareness обеспечить сознательность
defraud отнимать (с помощью обмана)
spot обнаруживать
deter останавливать, отпугивать, удерживать
shoplifting воровство (покупателей) в магазинах, магазинные кражи
screen тщательно отбирать, проверять
hire нанимать на работу
lock замок
sparekeys запасные ключи
pilfering (pilferage) хищение
petty theft мелкаякража
thief вор
robber грабитель
intruder непрошеный пришедший
suspiciously подозрительно
confidential секретный
securitysystem охранная система
reliable надежный
safety безопасность
electrical appliances электроприборы
fire пожар
alarm тревога
tirebrigade пожарная команда
tireescape запасной выход
smoke detector детектордыма
fire extinguisher огнетушитель
escape plans планыэвакуации
foam пена

ADVICE ON SECURITY MEASURES

Crimes ranging from armed robbery to embezzlement can destroy even the best businesses. You should install a good physical security system. Just as important, you must establish policies and safeguards to ensure awareness and honesty among your personnel. Because computer systems can be used to defraud as well as keep records, you should check into a computer security program. Consider taking seminars on how to spot and deter shoplifting and how to handle cash. Finally, careful screening when hiring can be your best ally against crime.

SECURITY AND SAFETY IN AN OFFICE

A simple but reliable security system, such as special sensors attached to the doors and windows are often used. Taking security to the next level, a video camera or several video cameras are used in blind or hidden spots in corridors or corners of big buildings or places attractive to intruders. Adding a video tape recorder to the security camera is recommended so that you have a visual record to take to the police if necessary. There exist some security systems that search a visitor for weapons.

These are some rules for the staff to follow:

1. Always keep money in a safe place, never leave it in an unlocked drawer. It is recommended to keep it in a safe.

2. Be careful with keys - don't leave spare keys lying around.

3. Close windows when you are out - a thief needs only 2 minutes.

4. Don't leave a visitor alone in your office - use the telephone to find out if someone can see him.

5. Don't give strangers confidential information. Watch out for people behaving suspiciously.

6. In cases of pilfering and petty theft call the police.

7. Always remember safety rules when using electrical appliances: switch them off before leaving the office or before adjusting them, don't leave the electric cables on the floor.

8. Do not smoke in an office, only in special places, if you cannot give up that harmful habit.

9. Have proper ventilation for heaters and other small appliances.

10.Install smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, maintain them regularly and keep fresh batteries in smoke detec­tors for proper operation. Have, discuss and rehearse es­cape plans.

11.In case of fire, sound the alarm. If possible put out the fire yourself. Use foam not water ftear electrical appliances. If you cannot do that call the fire brigade immediately. Leave the building by the nearest exit - fire escape.

12.Please be responsible and careful. Always.

INSTRUCTING ON SAFETY

- We've got a new man working in the stock room. He should be instructed on our security and safety rules.

- I have already informed him about our routine in this, but he should read the instruction and sign in the register.

-The main things which should be remembered and always observed are: not to leave money in an unlocked drawer and always put it in a safe at night, close windows when one is out, not to leave a visitor alone in the office. Very important is also not to give strangers confidential infor­mation.

- Yes, he'll find all this in our safety instruction, and I've also told him to take care of his own belongings.

- Right you are. I hope he will prove to be a responsible per­son.

7. THE COMPANY YOU WORK FOR

Компания, в которой вы работаете

headoffice главный офис (контора)
manufacturer (producer) производитель
major крупный
software программное обеспечение
customerservice обслуживание клиентов
division отделение
network сеть
dealer дилер
workshop цех, мастерская
expand manufacturing расширять
capacity производственные мощности
startbusiness начать деловую деятельность
launch запустить (производство, товар на рынок)
branch отрасль, филиал
subsidiary дочерняя компания
getacontract получить контракт
totalsales общие продажи, реализациятовара
exceed превышать
turnover товарооборот
profit прибыль
researchanddevelopment научно-исследовательские раз­работки
to hold top-ranking position заниматьлидирующееместо
corebusiness главная, основная деятельность
concrete бетон
aggregates зд. наполнители (бетона)
gypsum гипс
roofing кровельное покрытие
employ нанимать
to be committed бытьприверженным
constructionmaterials строительные материалы
netoperatingincome чистый операционный доход
netearnings чистая прибыль
groupshare все выпущенные акциикомпании
per share наакцию
operate действовать
revenue доход
jointventure совместное предприятие
establish учреждать
breakawayfrom отделиться от
statutoryfund уставный фонд
balanceloss балансовый убыток
initiate инициировать, начать
merge сливаться
mainsupplier основной поставщик

COMPANY'S HISTORY

KKK is a famous computer manufacturer based in... (the name of the country).

The Head Office is in ... (the capital of the country), and there are offices in other cities.

KKK is a leader in the field of minicomputers and busi­ness microcomputers, and it is a major software producer It has a large customer service division, with a wide network of dealers and agents.

KKK has three main production workshops and is plan­ning to expand manufacturing capacity in the next two years.

ККК started business in 1981, and produced small electron­ic components for the first few years. Then it launched its first micro and moved into the computer market in 1986. Now it has five branch offices; in 1991 it opened its overseas subsidiary.

In 1997 KKK launches the famous L66 models and gets the contract to build control systems for the Space Program.

The Company's total sales exceed.... The turnover in 2000 exceeded.... Its profits reach ....

KKK works through five divisions: Research & Develop­ment, Production & Engineering, Software, Administration fc Central services, Sales & Marketing.

SPEAKING ABOUT COMPANIES

1. A world leader in construction materials, ZZZ holds top-ranking positions in all six of its core businesses: cement, ready-mix concrete, aggregates, gypsum, specialty products and roofing. ZZZ employs 65,000 people andgenerates annual sales of $ .... It is committed to the development of construction materials which bring greater comfort, aesthetic appeal and safety to our everyday lives. Net operating income reached $ .... Net earnings (Group share) reached $..., net earnings per share rose to $ .... These increases are the highest in ten years.

2. XXX is a multinational technical service company employing 63,500 people and operating in more than 30 countries. Last year the company generated $... in revenue from its main activities. XXX has been active in this country since December 1998, through a joint venture with ODD.

3. Established in 1996, BBB broke away from ADD in 1999. . Balance loss was .... The statutory fund is .... Realizing that its chances of remaining on the market on its own are slim, the company initiated a plan for merging with ADB, the main supplier in the& industry.

PHRASES TO BE USED when speaking about a company:

- to be established in 19... быть образованным в 19...

- to have a strong position in the market иметь сильную позицию на рынке

- to enjoy an excellent reputation иметь отличную репутацию

- to have qualified / skilled / technically trained employees иметь квалифицированных / обученных / технически подготовленных служащих

- to be a state-owned enterprise быть государственным предприятием

- to be in the process of transformation into a joint-stock company находиться в процессе преобразования в акционерное общество

- to provide services to ... обеспечивать обслуживание / услуги

- to offer high-quality products and innovative technologiesпредлагать высококачественные товары и новейшие технологии

8. WELFARE SCHEME FOR EMPLOYEES

Система социального обеспечения служащих

Welfare социальное обеспечение; материальная помощь; благополучие, благосостояние
medicalinsurance медицинская страховка
annualleave ежегодный отпуск
sickleave отпуск по болезни
maternityleave послеродовой отпуск
creche детские ясли
Noncontributory(non-contributary) пенсионное обеспечение за счет нанимателя
pension scheme (plan) relief /dole пособие по безработице
incentive стимул, поощрение
flexible working hours гибкийрабочийграфик
fringebenefits дополнительные льготы
benefit преимущество, привилегия, пособие (пенсионное, по страхованию и т.д.)
remuneration вознаграждение
dentalbenefits зубоврачебное обслуживание
relocation переезд, перемещение
allowance пособие, содержание (годовое, месячное и т.п.), скидка
parkingfacilities стоянка для автомашин
sportsfacilities условия для занятий спортом
canteen столовая (на предприятии)
subsidy субсидия, денежная помощь
furnishedaccomodation меблированная жилплощадь
rent квартирная плата
airfare авиабилет
forselfanddependents для себя и членов семьи
gratuity денежный подарок, пособие
reward (денежное) вознаграждение

COMPANY'S WELFARE INFORMATION

The benefits package of a company can contain medical insurance, annual leave, sick leave, paid maternity leave, creche facilities, pension scheme (noncontributary pension scheme), relief (dole), regular incentives, flexible working hours, paid overtime, fringe benefits. Also, big companies may offer their staff some benefits for remuneration package: dental benefits, relocation costs to and from the company, car allowance, free parking and sports facilities, the company's canteen, educa­tional subsidies for children, furnished accomodations at nomi­nal rent, annual leaves with airfares for self and dependents, annual gratuities, etc. Such benefits packages and rewards are usually commensurate, and the opportunities for a person who performs well may be considerable.

9. BUSINESS ACTIVITIES

Виды деловой деятельности

production производство, изготовление
manufacturing производство, обработка
raw materials сырье
provision обеспечение, снабжение
accommodation помещение; жилье
ministrations (pi.) помощь
maintenance техническое обслуживание
entertainment развлечение
accounting бухгалтерскийучет
legal services юридическая служба
stockbrokerage биржевые брокерские операции
advertising реклама, рекламирование
demand спрос
acquisition приобретение
utilization использование
keepaccounts вести учет, отчетность
check accounts проверятьсчета
data processing обработка данных
store хранить
database - база данных
currency валюта
securities ценные бумаги
distribution распределение, раздача, распространение
delivery поставка, доставка, разноска
advertisement рекламное объявление
accomplish objectives осуществить цели
retail розничная торговля
cashflow поток наличности
run a business управлять компанией, предпри­ятием
attitude отношение, положение
mode of live / living образжизни
sale ability возможность сбыта
luxuryproducts товары роскоши
prosperity процветание
stapleproducts основные товары (продукты)
business cycle деловойцикл
pricing установление цены
unfeasible невыполнимый
comparable сравнимый
merchandise товары
variables переменные величины
profit прибыль
specified определенный, указанный
returnoninvestments прибыль на инвестированный капитал
discounts скидки
in quantity (ies) в (большом) количестве
persuade убеждать
decision making принятие решения
productline ассортимент изделий
promotion меры по увеличению сбыта, по продвижению товара на рынке
channels of distribution каналы доставки (товара)
warehouse склад
human resource человеческие ресурсы, кадры
HRM division отделкадров
hire / recruit нанимать
compensation plan система вознаграждения (за труд)
benefitpackage пакет пособий (пенсионного, страхового и т.д.

SOME BUSINESS FIELDS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS

Production - the activity of making or growing something. Manufacturing - making goods to sell from raw materials.

Services - the provision of work, accommodations, or ministrations desired by a consumer. Services familiar to most consumers are in the field of maintenance and repair, trans­port, travel, entertainment, education, and medical care. Busi­ness-oriented services include computer applications, mana­gement consulting, banking, accounting and legal services, stock brokerage, and advertising.

Marketing - the actions of identifying, satisfying and in­creasing the buyer's demand for a company's products; the movement of goods and services from manufacturer to cus­tomer in order to satisfy the customer and to achieve the com­pany's objectives.

Finance - money as a resource for business and other ac­tivities; the acquisition and utilization of capital in order to start up, operate, and expand a company; the management of money for business and other activities. Accounting - the handling of large amounts of information generated by busi­ness operations; the work of keeping or checking accounts. Data processing - using a computer to analyze and classify information stored in a database; the measurement and com­munication of financial information, computerized control of statistical data.

Trading - the buying and selling of goods, services, cur­rencies or securities. Exporting - sending goods, services, ideasor people to other countries. Importing - bringing goods, ser­vices, ideas or people into a country from another country.

Transportation - the movement of goods or people from one place to another, the movement, or distribution, of goods to places where they can be sold; the arrangement made for this. Delivery - taking letters, messages, goods, etc to the places or people they are addressed to.

Advertising - business that deals with making, distrib­uting and. selling advertisements; activities for making a product, a service, a job vacancy, an event, etc publicly known. It is done on television, radio, signboards; in news­papers, magazines, and catalogues; and through direct mail to the consumers.

Management - the activities guiding a company io ac­complish its objectives; the control or organization of peo­ple, a business, a department of a firm, a project or a pro­cess (e.g. financial, information, product, retail, cash flow, staff, database management).

MULT/FACETED PROCESS OF RUNNING A BUSINESS

A variety of operations keep businesses, especially large corporations, running efficiently and effectively. Common business operation divisions include production, marketing, finances, and human resource management.

Production includes those activities involved in conceptu­alizing, designing, and creating products and services. Marketing research is conducted to study consumer behaviour. Changing attitudes and modes of living directly affect the sale ability of products. The purchase of durable or long-lived goods, such as refrigerators, cars, and houses, or luxury products may be deferred when the economy is declining and may increase rapidly in periods of prosperity. Staple products, such as food and clothing, tend not to be seriously affected by the business cycle. Consumers today expect product innovations. Compe­tition between manufacturers of similar products naturally accelerates the speed of changes made in those products.

The two basic components that affect product pricing are costs of manufacture and competition in selling. It is unprofit­able to sell a product below the manufacturer's production costs and unfeasible to sell it at a price higher than that at which comparable merchandise is being ottered. Other variables also affect pricing. Company policy may require a minimum profit on new product lines or a specified return on investments, or discounts may be offered on purchases in quantity.

Marketing concentrates primarily on the buyers, or con­sumers, determining their needs and desires, developing stra­tegies to persuade them to buy. Marketing management in­cludes planning, organizing, directing, and controlling deci­sion making regarding product lines, pricing, promotion, and servicing. In addition, the marketing department of a busi ness firm is responsible for the physical distribution of the products, determining the channels of distribution that will be used and supervising the transportation of goods from the factory or warehouse. Marketing and sales departments pre pare documentation, handle cargo, do packing for clients, advise on insurance and the best means of transport, handle customs procedures.

Finance involves the management of money, controlling capital on hand to pay their bills, seek extra capital to expand their operations. Other common financial activities includegranting, monitoring, and collecting on credit or loans, and ensuring that customers pay bills on time. The financial divi­sion of any business must also establish a good working rela­tionship with a bank. This is particularly important when a business wants to obtain a loan.

Businesses rely on effective human resource management (HRM) to ensure that they hire and keep good employees, and that they are able to respond to conflicts between work­ers and management. HRM specialists are responsible for recruiting new employees to replace those who leave and for filling newly created positions. A business's HRM division also trains or arranges for the training of its staff. Human resource managers create workers' compensation plans and benefit packages for employees.

10. JOB TITLES & PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS

Названия должностей и функции персонала

chairman of the board

(of directors)

председатель правления /совета

директоров

chief/generalmanager генеральный директор
managingdirector директор-распорядитель
deputymanagingdirector заместитель директора-распо­рядителя
commercial director коммерческийдиректор
accounting manager главныйбухгалтер
financialmanager финансовый директор
exportmanager директор по экспорту
marketingmanager директор по сбыту
officemanager руководитель конторы
personnelmanager начальник отдела кадров
productionmanager директор по производству
salesmanager коммерческий директор
trainingmanager заведующий отделомповышения квалификации / подготовки кадров
transportmanager заведующий транспортным отделом
supervisor инспектор
goodsexpert товаровед
secretary секретарь
post-roommanager заведующий почтовой службой
clerk офисный служащий
receptionist секретарь в приемной
typist машинистка
accomplish (achieve) objectives достигатьцели
data processing обработкаданных

MAKING APPOINTMENTS

Making appointments is one of the main personnel func­tions. Advertisements are placed in newspapers and in trade journals. Applicants who reply to these, or who are found in other ways, are sent application forms. From these best can­didates are chosen and a short list is drawn up. The short­listed applicants are called for an interview. During this, the employment package is explained: this includes the annual holiday entitlement, the rates of pay, and the opportunities for promotion. When the successful candidate is decided on, there is one last step: references are taken up before the ap­pointment is finally confirmed.

PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Top jobs demand top qualifications, and company direc­tors usually need a degree in economics or business adminis­tration, plus experience in the sphere of activity of the com­pany to get the job.

The managing director is responsible for the overall run­ning of the firm. A good commercial director should know his firm from the inside, and at all levels, plus know the outside environment: he should understand state tax policies, the wid­er sphere of economics and the mentality of the officials the firm is to deal with; -and when making a management deci­sion, he should study the market situation to estimate the reli­ability of the figures he is given. The sales manager is respon­sible for supplying goods to customers and is also very much the 'face' of the company, interacting with potential clients and persuading them to become customers. The personnel of­ficer is responsible for hiring staff and for staff welfare. The head of the accounts department is responsible for all the money in the firm. She or he handles payments from customers and wages for the staff. The office manager handles the day-to-day running of the office, orders office supplies and arranges for equipment to be serviced or repaired. The typist types letters and other documents for the company. The post-room clerkhandles the incoming and outgoing post. The receptionist an­swers the phone and greets visitors.

Office routine work and secretarial duties:

- doing all the paperwork

- filing, using a filing system and making up an index to the files for them to be found quickly

- answering the phone and phoning

- making travel arrangements, talking to the travel agents the company uses

- making appointments and fixing the meetings

- writing business letters

- sorting out the letters and knowing mail procedures and post-office services

- knowing office safety and security rules

- managing typing, audio-typing (when the text to be typed has been dictated on to a cassette tape)

- doing some proofreading

- using office equipment

- keeping the diary (for making appointments for the boss)

- taking the minutes of the meetings

- ordering stationery

- being responsible for circulating memos (memorandums) to other members of the staff

- screening callers to the office

- dealing with the petty cash (when buying coffee, and the like)

- being a shorthand typist, having high shorthand and typing speeds

- being a personal assistant - P.A. for short

So the secretary of a company is basically responsible for fielding phone calls, keeping track of appointments and tak­ing down the minutes at meetings.

ADVICE FOROFFICE WORKERS

You should train yourself to make more effective use of your time. This will help you to gain control over your job, to accomplish more of what is important for you. To get control of your time and your job it is necessary to avoid delays and distractions and to follow these rules of time management:

* list goals; * set priorities, * make a daily "To Do" list, * start with A's not with C's; * handle each piece of paper only once; * start now.

Advice for secretaries:

* know where to look for any information in your files;

* use a dictionary to check spelling, avoid errors, clumsy corrections;

* learn the names of the most frequent contacts by heart, keep a desk diary to mark down all work to be carried out, your boss's engagements and appointments, conferences, reminders of actions to be taken, birthdays of your col­ leagues, etc.;

* have a good telephone manner, good communication skills; never let your personal problems show in the office; pay attention to your personal appearance and manners.

PHRASES TO BE USED when speaking about responsi­bilities of employees:

- to join the company быть принятым на работу в компанию

- to be taken on the staff бытьпринятымвштат

- to work for the company работатьвкомпании

- to be with the company работатьвкомпании

- to hold position занимать должность

- to assume position вступить в должность

- to be appointed senior manager быть назначенным на должность главного менеджера

- to be responsible for ( planning , project management , etc .)
быть ответственным за (планирование, управление проектом)

- his responsibilities include... егообязанностивключают

- to work as ... before joining the company работать в ка­честве ... перед приходом в компанию

- his career included management positions in some Euro ­ pean countries его карьера включала управленческие должности в некоторых Европейских странах

- he began as an economist trainee at National Oil Company
онначиналкакэкономист-стажервНациональнойНефтянойКомпании

- his previous position has been as Department Head ранее онзанималпостначальникаотдела

- he is recognized as an expert in programming and soft ­ ware он получил признание как специалист по програм­мированию и программному обеспечению

- his role will be to install and tailor software applications to the specific needs of clients егофункциейбудетустановкаиадаптацияпримененияпрограммкнуж­дамклиентов

- he spent 10 years with Citibank and during his tenure there he lectured tax law at Sofia University and worked as a legal adviser for a law firm онработал 10 летвСити­ банкивтечениесрокапребываниявдолжностичиталлекциипозаконуоналогообложениииработалкон­сультантомвюридическойфирме.

11. JOB CONTENT AND OPPORTUNITIES

Содержание и перспективы работы

routine заведенный порядок, обычный(рабочий) режим, установив­шаяся практика
jobdescription описание функциональных обязанностей
jobobjective желаемая работа (чем хотите заниматься)
probation испытание, испытательный срок
base размещаться, базироваться
overtime сверхурочная работа
availabl нeдоступный, имеющийся в распоряжении
fulltime полный (рабочий) день
parttime неполный (рабочий) день

JOB PROSPECTS IN THE GENERAL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF THE COMPANY

It is important to know how to ask for information about the job content, your responsibilities and the job prospects in your career to understand the organizational culture and the philosophy of the company. Consider the following:

1. What is much of my future work concerned with?

2. What sort of job is it?

3. What sort of work am I supposed to do?

4. What is the day-to-day routine like?

5. What are the bieeest problems?

6. What will (shall) I be in charge of/ be responsible for?
(What will my responsibilities include?)

7. Can I have my future job description?

8. I'd like to indicate my job objective.

9. Can I be on probation for a time first?

10.Where is the job based?

11.Is overtime available / desirable?

12. Are business trips available? (Shall I travel much?)

13. Is this post suitable for full time or part time?

14. Will I have any opportunities for personal development?

12. SALARY

Заработная плата

Salary жалованье, оклад, заработнаяплата служащего
wage(s) заработная плата (рабочих)
wagesandsalaries заработная плата рабочих и служащих
remuneration вознаграждение
reward вознаграждение, награда
startingsalary начальная зарплата
(wage) scale шкала (заработной платы)
commensurate соразмерный, соответственный
byagreement по договоренности, по согласиюсторон
negotiable по договоренности
grosspay / salary общая сумма зарплаты ("грязная ")
netsalary (takehomepay) чистая зарплата (за вычетом налогов)
deduction вычет
underpay не доплачивать
regularpay основная зарплата
fee for services платазауслуги
yearly salary годовойоклад
amount to (sum) составлять( сумму )
cash award (bonus, premium) денежнаяпремия
wages run from .. .(the date) зарплатаначисляетсяс... ( дата )
overtime pay сверхурочнаяоплата
(wage) rate тарифная ставка, расценки
salary based on hourly rate почасовая оплата
pay by the hour / by the job платить почасово / сдельно (за отдельную часть работы)
scaled down / raised снижены / повышены
payday день выплаты зарплаты, получка

SPEAKING ABOUT SALARY

Get familiar with these definitions, questions and state­ments to be ready to use them when it is appropriate.

1. The term 'salary' means * fixed regular pay each month for a job, especially a job done by a senior member of staff.

2. * Wages' denotes 'payment for labour or services, usually paid every day or every week, and often based on the number of hours worked'.

3. 'Remuneration' is used to denote 'payment for work done or trouble taken; a reward'.

4. Can I ask questions referring to the salary?

5. Can I ask what my starting salary will be?

6. You'll be paid on the computer programmer scale.

7. Salaries are commensurate with experience and will re­ flect the importance of the positions.

8. The salary is commensurate with the importance of this position.

9. We offer a salary commensurate with experience.

10. Salaries are commensurate with experience and will re­flect the importance of the positions.

11. The salary will be by agreement.

12. This is a key post and the salary will be by agreement.

13. The salary will be negotiable, depending on qualifications and experience. However, the position will attract a mini­mum gross salary of not less than ... pa (per annum}.

14. My gross pay is ... , but the net salary (take home pay, with all the deductions made} is usually ....

15. It is a well-paid job.

16. He thinks he is underpaid.

17. He earns / gets / makes ... dollars a week.

18. The minimum wage / salary is ....

19. It is a regular pay, but you 41 also get your fee for services.

20. My yearly salary amounted to ....

21. You'll also have some cash award (bonus, premium).

22. Your wages run from 10 September. 23.1 am guaranteed overtime pay.

23. Your salary will be based on hourly rate.

24. You'll be paid not by the hour but by the job.

25. Our wages were scaled down / raised.

26. Tomorrow is pay-day.

13. COMMUNICATIONS

Средства связи

task задача
brieftalk короткая беседа
communicatewith общаться с
holdameeting проводить собрание
arrangeanappointment назначать деловую встречу
useaphone звонить по телефону
usetheintercom пользоваться внутренней связью
circulateadocument передавать документ (для ознакомления)
distributionlist список тех, кому направляетсядокумент
passadocumenton ... передать документ далее (по списку)
notice объявление
noticeboard доска объявлений
note записка
memorandum (memo) памятная записка, докладная записка
sample образец

COMMUNICATION METHODS

There are different methods of communication in the of­fice for each problem depending upon your task or desire: you may want to contact or meet someone, to discuss some­thing with a person or a group of people, to have a brief talk or some information for your partners or members of the staff, etc. In each case you will chose the best way to communicatewith people you need. You can hold a meeting, arrange an appointment with the person you want to see, you can use a phone or the intercom, write a letter, send a fax or use E-mail, occasionally you prefer to talk to him or her face to face. If you want to let your people know some document you can circulate it with a distribution list. After the docu­ment is read it is passed on to the next person on the list. Putting a notice on the notice board is also practiced very often. Sometimes you write a note to a person, or write a memo (memorandum) to all the staff. Refer to the sample memo given below.

MEMORANDUM

TO: All departments FROM: Managing director Re: Annual corporate plan

May I remind you all to send me your suggestions as to participating in the next year fairs and exhibitions. After de­tailed discussion the approved propositions will be included into our corporate plan. A report on the previous participa­tion experience, with the drawbacks and efficiency analysis, should be submitted by 1st October.

TELECOMMUNICA TIONS

In its basic form, the telephone (the terminal) and the net­work (local and local distance) make up the basic compo­nents of telecommunications. It is an effective tool that can easily change with seasonality and growth. How you use tele­communications can affect how efficiently and profitably your company grows in the future.

14. SPEAKING OVER THE PHONE

Разговор по телефону

bookacall заказать телефонный разговор
buzz гудок, сигнал, разг. звонить
call звонок по телефону, вызов
generalcall общий вызов (кто подойдет)
localcall местный звонок
long distance call / trunk call междугородный вызов
personal call / person-to-person call вызов определенного лица
answer the call ответитьназвонок
makeacall позвонить
givesmbacall позвонить кому-либо
collectcall / reverse телефонный разговор, оплачиваемый тем, кому звонят
callsmb звонить кому-либо по телефону
callback позвонить еще раз; позвонить вответ на звонок
call to the telephoae позватьктелефону
dial диск; набирать
dialthewrongnumber набрать неправильный номер
engaged / busy занято
exchange (trunk exchange) телефоннаястанция, подстанция, АТС
extension добавочный (номер); параллельный аппарат
free /clear свободно
get smb over the telephone связаться с кем-либо по телефону
get in touch with smb соединиться, связаться с кем-либо по телефону
getthrough (to) соединиться, попасть
goahead! говорите!
hangup класть трубку, давать отбой
holdon держать (не вешать) трубку
IDD (international direct dialing) прямой набор по международному коду
keypad клавишный циферблат телефона
line линия, абонент, номер, телефон
ontheline у телефона, на проводе
keepmeontheline не разъединяйте
be engaged on another line говорить по другому телефону
message содержание сообщения; то, что нужно передать; записка
leaveamessage передать что-либо
operator телефонистка
pick up / take up брать, снимать( трубку )
put down the receiver положитьтрубку
put / write down a telephone number записать телефон
reach / getat найти, застать по (такому-то телефону)
receiver трубка
reply / answer ответ; отвечать
Speaking Слушаю / У телефона
Subscriber абонент
Switchboard коммутатор
(tele)phone телефон
city / desk / home / городской / настольный / домашний / внутренний / мобильный /
house / mobile / office / public (pay-) / phone Офисный (рабочий) / об­щественный (телефон- авто­мат) телефон
telephone booth (cabin) /call box телефонная будка (кабина)
telephonedirectory / book телефонный справочник
there (Who is there? Areyouthere?) на другом конце провода (Кто говорит? Вы слушаете?)
through ( Are you through? You are through) в выражениях (Вы говорите / Вам ответили? Вас соединили)
tone dialing / ringing / engaged гудок, сигнал/гудок, указывающий, что можно
numberunobtainabletone набирать номер /линия свободна, жди ответа /линия занята/ гудок, означающий, что связи нет
unobtainablenumber номер, по которому нельзя дозвониться

TELEPHONE CONVERSATION PHRASES:

1. STARTING A PHONE TALK.

- Hello, is that the sales department?

- May I speak to Mr. N..., please?

- Can you put me in touch with Mr. N...?

- Who is speaking?

- Who is calling?

-1 didn't quite catch your name, how do you spell it?

- Is that you? I didn't recognize you at once.

- It's urgent. Could you please tell him he's wanted on the phone?

- Who shall I say is calling?

- Mr. N... is calling/ Mr. N... is on the line.

- There's a call for you / You are wanted on the phone.

2. THE PERSON YOU ARE CALLING IS NOT IN.
LEAVING A MESSAGE

- Excuse me, could I speak to Mr. N...?

- I'm sorry, he is not available / he is in a meeting / he is out
at the moment / he is at lunch / he is not at work today / he
is with a customer / he is not in now.

- Не is on another line.

- Could you call again later?

- Sorry, he hasn't returned yet.

- Can I take a message? / Would you like to leave a mes­
sage?

- I'd like to leave a message for him / Could you take a
message for him?

- Can you tell Mr. N.......... (name) from (company) called.

Please ask him to call me. My phone number is .... Thank you.

- Mr. N... called and said he'd be calling again tonight.

- Mr. N... wants you to call him back.

- Was there any call for me?

- Somebody called but didn't leave his name.

3. BOOKING A CALL

- I want to book a call to .. .(city) for 8 p.m.

- What number are you calling from?

- Do you want to make it personal?

- I just want a station-to-station call.

- Will it be on credit? / Is it a credit card call?

- Hold the line. I'm putting you through .... Go ahead.

15. ARRANGING AN APPOINTMENT

Назначение деловой встречи

haveanengagement быть занятым, иметь деловуювстречу
be in the meeting бытьнасовещании
have an appointment иметь( деловую ) встречу
makeanappointment назначить (деловую) встречу
diary дневник
suit (smb) устраивать, подходить
arrangealunchappointment договариваться о встрече для совместного ланча (чтобы вместе пообедать)
How about Thursday? Какнасчетчетверга?
Why? А что? (Почему ты спрашиваешь?)
Is it all right with you? Это тебе подходит? (Это тебя устраивает?)
It'sallrightwithme Меня это вполне устраивает
confirm подтвердить
cancel отменить
postpone отложить, перенести (на другое время)
fixthedate назначить дату
convenientforsmb удобно для кого-либо
APPOINTMENTS AND INVITATIONS

1.

- Good morning.

- Good morning. Is this Mr. Howard's office? I was wonder­ing whether Mr. Howard could see me. My name is Bool.

- Mr. Bool, I am very sorry, but I'm afraid Mr Howard has several engagements today. He's in the meeting now and he has some other appointments this afternoon.

- Then would you kindly make an appointment for me?

- Yes, certainly. I'll just look in my diary. Now, would Friday at three-fifteen suit you?

- No, I'm afraid I won't be in town on Friday.

- Then would you be able to come on Monday at eleven?

- Yes, that would be quite all right.

- Good. I'll make it for eleven o'clock on Monday, then.

- Thank you very much.

2.

- Good morning. My name's Chris Day. I'd like to arrange a lunch appointment with Mr Norman. He told me to arrange it with you. Is he doing anything on Thursday 12th?

- Let me see now... I'm afraid he's going away for the whole day. How about Friday?

- No, I'm flying to Scotland on Friday. I'm not doing any­ thing on Wednesday afternoon though. Perhaps we could have a late lunch?

- Well, Mr Norman's going to a meeting at two, so he can't have a late lunch. He's free on Tuesday though.

- Tuesday.,. hmmm... Well, I'm meeting a client in the morn­ing but I'm not doing anything at lunchtime. Yes. Let's make it Tuesday. I'll come to the office at one o'clock.

- That's fine, Mr Day. One o'clock on Tuesday then. I'll tell Mr Norman to expect you. Goodbye.

- Thank you. Goodbye.

3.

- How about a game of golf next week?

- That's a good idea. What are you doing on Monday morning?

- Sorry. Monday morning's no good. I'm seeing the doctor. Are you free in the afternoon though?

- I'm afraid not. I'm going to a board meeting,

- I'm free all day Tuesday. Is that any good?

- No. That's no good either. I'm going to a conference.

- Well, I'm traveling to Oxford on Friday morning so we must meet on Wednesday or Thursday.

- How about Thursday? I'm not doing anything in the after­noon. Are you free?

- At last! I'm not doing anything either. I'll come round to your place about 1.30.

- See you on Thursday.

4.

- Do you have any engagements for Saturday evening?
- No. Why?

- Would you come and have dinner with me and my wife?

- That's very kind of you. I'd love to. What time shall I come?

- About seven o'clock. Is it all right with you?

- Yes, it's all right with me. I'll be there about seven.

SOME MORE PHRASES to be used for arrangements:

- Can we arrange a meeting / an appointment for tomor­row?

- Would 3 o'clock suit you?

- I have an appointment with Mr. N... for 3 tomorrow. I’m calling to confirm / cancel / it. -1 am calling to postpone my appointment till a later date,

- Let's fix the date.

- Will the same time after tomorrow be convenient for you?

- It's all right with me. Thank you.

16. PETTY CASH & CHANGING MONEY

Мелкая наличность офиса

cash деньги, наличность; обнали­чить, получить деньги
pettycash мелкие суммы или статьи рас­ходов
receipt квитанция
record записывать, регистрировать
imprest подотчетная сумма
float резервная сумма, запас
sundries всякая всячина, разное (остальные мелкие статьи расходов)
currency валюта
legalcurrency официальная валюта
hardcurrency твердая валюта
(bank) notes / bills банкноты, бумажные деньги
water mark водянойзнак
in circulation вобращении
denomination наименование, достоинство деньгах)
coin монета
coinofsmalldenomination монета малого достоинства
penny пенни, один цент
nickel никель, пять центов
dime дайм, десять центов
quarter четверть доллара
penny( pi . репсе) пенни (мн. пенсы)
poundsterling фунт стерлингов
change сдача, (раз)менять, разменивать
small change сдача
exchange обмен; обменивать
currency exchange обменвалюты
exchange rate обменныйкурс
exchange facilities пунктыобменавалюты
checkpoint / bureau de change (pi. bureaux) бюрообменавалюты
rate of commission комиссионныйсбор
cashier / teller кассир
cashier'sdesk / counter касса (кассовое помещение)
bankclerk банковский служащий
cashpoint machines /cash dispensers / automated teller machines банкоматы
value стоимость, сумма

DEALING WITH PETTY CASH

In the office they usually have the amount of money avail­able for petty cash. This money spent on travel (bus, fares, etc.), snacks (coffee, sugar, biscuits, etc,), possibly, on some stationery (envelopes, pens, etc.) is recorded into the petty cash book, with the receipts (as written proofs of payment) being attached to this financial report.

This system of recording petty cash transactions is known. as the imprest system. The amount of money available for petty cash is called the float.

TALKING ABOUT PETTY CASH

- Where's all the petty cash gone?

- Well, last Monday I bought some coffee and milk and the next day I paid $12 for stamps.

- What else?

- And I bought a petty cash book and the flowers cost $15.
'- What flowers?

- For Betty. She is in hospital.

- What about the rest?

- The rest went for sundries.

17. MONEY & BANKING

Деньги и банковское дело

banking account счетвбанке
current (Am. checking) account чековый( текущий ) счет
cheque (Br.) чек
I check (Am) at your disposal ввашемраспоряжении
deposit (Am. savings) депозитный( сберегательный )
account счет
interest процент( на вклад )
beentitled иметь право
withdraw снимать деньги со счета
afewmonths' notice предупреждение за несколькомесяцев
certificateofdeposit депозитный сертификат (выдаваемый в обмен на срочный вклад)
access доступ
specimen of one's signature образецподписи
requiresomereferences запрашивать информацию (о финансовом статусе, платежеспособности)
makecashdeposits вносить денежные вклады
loan заем
lender заимодавец, кредитор
lend занимать (давать взаймы)
borrow занимать (брать взаймы)
repaytheloan вернуть деньги по займу
projected планируемый
statement ведомость, официальный отчет
accountingdocuments отчетность, отчетные (бухгалтерские) документы
balancesheet балансовый отчет
assets активы
liabilities пассивы, задолженности
income (profit-and-loss) statement доходно-расходная ведомость
earnings доходы
expenses расходы
expertise компетенция, знание и опыт
decline a loan application отказатьвзаеме

BANKING ACCOUNTS

If you want to invest money at short term, you've got seve­ral possibilities: first, a current account. This gives you the possibility of having all your money at your immediate dis­posal. It also entitles you to a cheque-book. Second, you've got a deposit account. It is a better investment as it gives a higher interest. However, though you are entitled to a cheque­book, you can only withdraw up to a certain sum each month. For larger amounts, you must give the bank a few months' notice. Finally, you have certificates of deposit. These pay the highest interest. However, they block your capital for a fixed period of 3, 4 or 5 years. Your choice of short-term investment, therefore, will depend largely on how quickly you'd like to have access to your money.

OPENING AN ACCOUNT

- We wish to open a current account with you for the use of the manager of our office. The manager's name is Mr Ro­bert Bush, and he will be authorized to sign cheques on our behalf

- OK. We'll arrange for an appointment for this gentleman to visit the bank and complete the necessary formalities and provide a specimen of his signature. Also, we require some references.

- We can refer you to the British Clydeside Bank, Glasgow, where you will get all information you need on our compa­ny's financial status.

- Thank you. What cash deposit will your make?

- We intend to open the account with a cash deposit of $ 50,000.

- Now, let's fix the time for the appointment.

GETTING A LOAN

Initially, the lender will ask you three questions:

- How will you use the loan?

- How much do you need to borrow?

- How will you repay the loan?

When you apply for the loan, you must provide projected financial statements and a clear business plan which supplies the name of the firm, location, production facilities, legal structure and business goals.

Two main accounting documents - two basic financial statements - should be prepared: (1) the balance sheet, which is a record of assets, liabilities and capital; and (2) the in­come (profit-and-loss) statement, a summary of earnings and expenses over a given period of time.

A clear description of your experience and management capabilities, as well as the expertise of other key personnel, will also be needed. In the USA, if your loan applications are declined by at least two banks, you may ask the banker to make the loan under Small Businesses Administration's Loan Guarantee Plan.

SOME BANKING AND FINANCIAL TERMS:

- open an account (with a deposit of,..) открытьсчет (сделаввкладвразмере...)

- maintain a minimum balance of ... сохранять (на счету) минимальный вклад

- service charge плата за банковские услуги

- you will be charged с вас будут удерживать

- make cash deposits вносить денежные вклады

- make cash withdrawals сниматьденьги

- joint account совместный счет

- interest rate процентная ставка

- fluctuating / adjustable / fixed rate колеблющаяся / пере менная/ постоянная процентная ставка

- loan заем, ссуда

- shares (Br) I (common) stocks (Am) акции

- share price ценаакции

- real estate недвижимость

- mortgage залог под недвижимость

- income tax подоходный налог

- value added tax ( VAT ) налог на добавленную стоимость (НДС)

- credit terms условия кредитования

18. SPECIAL FINANCING INSTITUTIONS

Various special financial institutions provide finance to both the personal and corporate borrowed sector. In general they offer alternative, flexible funding to that offered by banks and building societies. Some of these or­ganizations were set up with official support but with financial backing from traditional sources.

Among the public sector agencies are the British Technology Group; the Scottish and Welsh Development Agencies; the Industrial Development Board in Northern Ireland; the Co-operative Development Agency; and the Export Credits Guarantee Department, Britain's official export credit in­surer. The main private sector institutions are as follows.

FINANCE HOUSES AND LEASING COMPANIES

Finance Houses and Leasing Companies provide consumer credit, business finance, leasing, and motor finance. For consumers they provide personal loans, hire purchase, store cards, store instalment credit, and first and sec­ond mortgages. For the business sector, they offer leasing and hire purchase as well as a variety of business loans.

A wide range of companies offer these facilities: banks, merchant banks, building societies, finance houses, leasing companies and the finance arms of several large manufacturing and retail companies.

The representative body for this highly specialized sector of Britain's financial industry, is the Finance & Leasing Association. Its members achieved $26.8 billion of new business and $56.2 billion outstandings in 1993. This covers 80 per cent of consumer credit, apart from that provided by the clearing banks and first mortgage lenders, and approximately 30 per cent of all Britain's fixed investment in plant and equipment.

FACTORING COMPANIES

The main service of a factoring or invoice discounting company is to im­prove the cashflow of healthy, growing companies by providing finance se­cured against the outstanding invoices of a business. The injection of cash isa flexible form of finance to increase a company's liquidity, rciluu' ik kink or other borrowing requirements and release capital for growth. Since Пи-early 1960s, factoring and invoice discounting have become major Гмкикм! services covering international activities as well as domestic trade. A nuinU-i of banks and other financial ogranizations have established factoring anil invoice discounting subsidiaries as part of their group activities. In July I91 M, 11,021 companies were making use of the services of the members of the Association of British Factors and Discounters (ABFD).

VENTURE CAPITAL COMPANIES

Venture capital is long-term equity financing for new and developing busi­nesses. The 115 full members of the British Venture Capital Association (BVCA) represent every significant source of venture capital in Britain. About half the capital comes from venture/development organizations which are subsidiaries or divisions of larger financial institutions such as banks, merchant banks, pension funds or insurance companies. The rest comes from the independent venture capital firms which will have raised their capi­tal from more than one financial institution.

Venture capital investment has grown dramatically since its emergence in the late 70s. in 1993, $1.2 billion was invested by BVCA members in the UK, Britain's largest venture capital organization invested $318 million in British companies in the financial year ending March 1994. Since 1984, the venture capital industry has invested over $10 billion and currently com­mands an investment pool of about $2 billion.

ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ

instalment очередной взнос, частичный платеж

by instalment — в рассрочку

mortgage — ипотека, залог, закладная

outstandings неоплаченные счета, задолженность

clearing безналичные расчеты междубанками

factoring — факторинг, факторинговые (компании)

discounting — операция по дисконту

discounter магазин,торгующим по сниженным ценам

invoice — счет-фактура, выписать счет-фактуру

liquidity — ликвидность

19. THE FINANCIAL MARKETS

Every day, the London Stock Exchange and the money and bond, foreign exchange, bullion and commodities markets attract amounts of money une­qualled in any other centre in the world. Some $4 billion worth of equities and bonds are traded in a typical day.

THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE

The London Stock Exchange is positioned in the heart of a city unrivalled anywhere in the world for its spread of financial markets and its number of foreign-owned banking, financial and securities businesses.The Exchange has a dominant position in international equities trading. At the centre of this market are over 50 securities houses offering buying and selling prices for more than 8,000 domestic and overseas securities with prices displayed on thousands of information screens around the world.

The Exchange's position in cross-border equities is equally impressive, ground 60 per cent of the world's equity trading outside home markets passes through London, and this figure rises to more than 90 per cent within Europe. In the year to the end of March \1994, foreign equity turnover reached an impressive $671 billion, while total domestic equity market turn­over was $612 billion.

The Exchange has its administrative centre in London with regional of­fices in Belfast, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds and Manchester and the Irish Stock Exchange in Dublin. It is one of the largest in the world in terms of the number and variety of securities listed.

Around 10 million people in Britain now own shares directly and a great many others hold them indirectly through collective investment schemes such as pension funds and insurance investment.

In July 1994, the Exchange introduced the 10-day rolling settlement which meant that 250 years of an account-based system of settlement came to an end. The new system is designed to smooth workflows and reduce risk. Ten-day rolling settlement is the first phase of a programme of improve­ments to UK equity settlement, leading to the introduction of the Bank ofEngland's CREST service. A move to 5-day rolling settlement is planned when the industry has adjusted to the new environment.

BIG BANG

Various pressures for change led to Big Bang. The London Stock Exchange of the late 1970s depended enormously on institution funds but once ex­change controls were lifted in 1979 many fund managers were attracted to foreign securities, principally through Tokyo and New York exchanges. Member firms on the London Stock Exchange were undercapitalized to trade in sufficient volumes to compete on international markets. At the same time, the London Stock Exchange came under enormous pressure when it was taken to court by the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) under the Restrictive Trade Practices Act. The OFT had three principal complaints: the operation of a scale of minimum commissions paid to brokers; the separation of capac­ity between jobbers and brokers; and restrictions on membership amounting to "closed shop" practices.

The pressure was relieved in 1983 when the then Chairman of the Stock Exchange, Sir Nicholas Goodison, reached an out-of-court agreement with the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. The concessions offered by the Stock Exchange were the catalyst for major changes in the operation of the Stock Market — Big Bang in October 1986.

In the post Big Bang years, all three areas of OFT complaint have been resolved with the result that the scope and capability of the new Exchange has vastly increased. Banks and merchant banks swiftly bought up or merged with the stockbroking firms and took over many jobbers on the market. Dur­ing this period, a number of major privatisations (reversing the nationalisa­tion programme started in the 1950s) continued to open the stocks and shares market directly to millions of smaller private investors. <

Under the Financial Services Act 1986, members of the London Stock Exchange are now covered by a single SRO, the Securities and Futures Authority (SFA) and a single Recognized Investment Exchange (RIE), the London Stock Exchange. The Exchange as an RIE regulates the operation of the marketplace whilst the SFA sets the rules for securities houses' dealings with clients and monitors their conduct accordingly.

ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ

Belfast — БелфастBirmingham — БирмингемDublin Дублин

Glasgow — Глазго

Leeds — Лидс

Manchester — Манчестер

Big Bang — «Большой шок», потрясение (резкое изменение в финансовой практике, экономической политике)

20. TODAY'S EXCHANGE MARKETS

The post Big Bang market is conducted almost entirely by electronic screen through the Stock Exchange Automated Quotations (SEAQ) system. Market makers are obliged to enter their competitive buying and selling prices during trading between 08.30 and 16.30 every day on SEAQ terminals in their of­fices. SEAQ puts together composite pages of these prices which are dis­played in broker dealers' offices through commercial quote vendor networks. Trading usually takes place by telephone although the Exchange operates an electronic execution facility for small bargains (SAEF). The Exchange operates in three principal markets: Domestic equity market

Ordinary shares issued by UK companies quoted on SEAQ are traded on this market which is based on the competing market maker system. Gilt-edged market

The Government meets its Public Sector Borrowing Requirement pre­dominantly by issues of gilt-edged stocks, or "gilts". These are issued through the Bank of England and traded in a secondary market through the Exchange with around $6 billion changing hands every day. Prices are dis­played by computer on a service independent of SEAQ but still administered by the Exchange.

International equity market

The SEAQ international system makes it possible for leading securities firms around the world to trade through the Exchange. Today there are over 50 market makers offering firm prices in over 600 overseas stocks.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY DIRECTIVES

The London Stock Exchange altered its rules in 1990 to conform to EC directives on listing particulars, prospectuses and mutual recognition. The major effect of the EC directive on Mutual Recognition of Listing Particu­lars is that, subject to certain limitations, each member state must recognise the listing particulars accepted in another member state. To bring Britishcompanies into line with those of the EU, the minimum trading record requirement was reduced from five to three years.

THE MONEY MARKETS

London's money markets channel wholesale, short-term funds between lend­ers and borrowers, an operation conducted by all the major banks and finan­cial institutions described in this publication. The Bank of England regulates the market, authorizing many of its participants and laying down an ethical conduct followed by all participants. There is no physical market place; ne­gotiations are conducted mostly by telephone or via automated dealing sys­tems.

The main financial instruments are CDs; bills of exchange; Treasury and local authority bills; and short-term government stocks. The bill markets and those in which the discount houses borrow from the rest of the banking system are often referred to as the "traditional" markets.

THE PARALLEL MARKETS

Since the 1960s, the "parallel" money markets emerged and these include the market in inter-bank lending, CDs and commercial bills. Today's paral­lel markets involve banks, building societies, local autorities, finance houses and companies.

The inter-bank market allows banks to deposit surplus cash with each other. Interest rates are governed by the London Inter Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR), which provides the base rate for other markets. The rates quoted range from overnight to one year or more.

The CDs market involves large companies and institutions depositing large surplus sums with clearing banks, merchant banks or building societies in return for a promise of payment in a specified period at a given rate of interest. If depositors need money they can resell CDs; thus a CD is a nego­tiable bill similar to a bill of exchange.

Commercial bills or "paper" developed as a result of the increasing trend towards the "securitisation of debt" during the 1980s, whereby major bor­rowers preferred to raise funds by issuing securities instead of seeking band loans. They consist of short-term, unsecured promissory notes which can only be issued by companies quoted on the London Stock Exchange and which fulfil a minimum capital requirement. Programmes of commercial bills are usually issued using banks as intermediaries. The buyers are usually big companies or institutions with money available from two weeks to several months.

21. THE EUROCURRENCY MARKET

This market began with Eurodollars — US dollars lent outside the United States — and has developed into a powerful market in currencies lent outside their domestic marketplace. There are, for example, Euromarks and Euroyen in London, Euroslerling etc in Bonn, Tokyo and New York. Lon­don and Tokyo are the main world capitals for eurocurrency dealings. Deal­ing centres around Euroloans, involving commercial banks, and Eurobonds which involve investing institutions and banks.

Euroloans consist of large tranches of short-term money (usually repay­able in three to six months) lent by syndicates of banks and linked to the LI BO R rate.

Eurobonds are bearer bonds, requiring no register of holders, issued in currencies other than that of the issuing country and operating over a longer period, usually between 5 and 20 years. Their issue is managed by a bank with the aid of underwriters and is placed with investors. Market participants include multinational corporations, non-bank financial institutions, govern­ments and the international banking community.

The Euromarket, as it has become known, has a single SRO the Interna­tional Securities Market Association (ISMA). During 1993, some $23.167 trillion was traded in the eurobond market, an increase of almost 60 per cent over the 1992 total, which was itself a record year. UK members of ISMA accounted for a considerable amount of this total. This huge increase in turnover was marked by continued growth in cross-border trading in domes­tic instruments. As a global market emerges institutional funds will switch relatively smoothly from "domestic" to "international" and vice versa. This trend can be expected to continue.

THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET

London's Foreign Exchange Market is the largest in the world with currency transactions amounting to about $303,000 million each day. Market dealing is conducted entirely through telephone and data links between the banks,other financial institutions and a number of firms of foreign exchange bro­kers which act as intermediaries.

British banks keep close contact with the banking community abroad and quote buying and selling rates on a daily basis for both immediate trans­actions ("spot") and future transactions ("forward") in many currencies. The forward market enables dealers to buy currency at a fixed exchange rate on a particular date in the future. Dealings in foreign exchange provide those engaged in international trade and investment with foreign currency for their transactions and can be used to maintain controls on the costs of imports.

EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM (EMS)

The purpose of the EMS, in operation since 1979, is to establish a greater measure of monetary stability in the European Community. A key element is the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) under which members keep their currencies within agreed limits against one another. Britain was a party to the 1978 agreement that set up the EMS, and has always participated in its arrangements and institutions.

At the centre of the EMS is the European Currency Unit (ecu) used fora number of purposes within the system. The ecu is made up of a "basket" of agreed amounts of each of the EC member currencies and its composition is normally adjusted every five years.

In addition to its use between members of the EMS, there is a growing private sector market in ecus, particularly in ecu-denominated depostis and Eurobonds.

22. FINANCIAL FUTURES AND TRADED OPTIONS

Financial Futures are legally binding contracts for the purchase or sale of financial products, on a specified future date, at a price agreed in the present. Trading in financial futures developed out of the numerous futures markets in commodities that have their origins in London's position as a port and in Britain's need to import food and raw materials.

Financial futures and options are traded at the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange (LIFFE) established in 1982. Members of the market include about 200 banks, other financial institutions, brokers and individual traders. The Exchange provides facilities for dealing in contracts including UK, US, Japanese, German, Italian and ECU gov­ernment bonds; UK, US and European short-tern»interest rates; the FTSE-100 Index plus a range of equity options. The market allows those that could be affected by movements in interest rates or the stock markets, either to reduce their vulnerability (by "hedging") or to speculate on the possibility of making a gain. Fund managers will normally hedge, while individual traders, or "locals", will speculate.

TRADED OPTIONS

Traded or equity options are contracts giving the right to buy and sell Ex­change-listed securities at an agreed price within a particular period of time. This again allows fund managers to hedge on the market; they can buy either "call" options (the right to buy stocks and shares at an agreed price on a future date) or "put" options (the right to sell securities at an agreed price on a future date).

The financial futures and traded options market are based on a system of "open outcry" (a kind of auction) conducted on the floor, rather than by computer terminals, but supported by state of the art technology.

HE LONDON BULLION MARKET

London is regarded as the world's major gold dealing center and has become the clearing center in the world marketplace. Over 60 financial institutions including banks, securities and trading companies comprise the London gold and silver markets which today trade by telephone and electronic communi­cations links. Although most trading is on account, large quantities of gold pass through London with the result that the standards set in London are adopted worldwide. Five members of the market meet twice a day to estab­lish a London fixing price for gold which is a reference point for worldwide gold dealings. Silver price-fixing occurs once a day and involves three market participants. Each price-fixing punctuates active and continuous dealings throughout the day.

COMMODITIES, SHIPPING AND FREIGHT

London Commodity Exchange (LCE) is Europe's primary market for trading soft commodity futures and options contracts in cocoa, robusta coffee, white and raw sugar, wheat, barley, potatoes, and Biffex (dry cargo freight) which is traded against the Baltic Freight Index. The large-scale economies of cocoa and coffee trading continue to justify the open outcry system of floor trading.

Gas oil for heating, and petroleum are traded through the International Petroleum Exchange (IPE). Copper, lead, zinc, nickel, aluminium, alu­minium alloy and tin are traded through the London Metal Exchange (LME), the world's largest non-ferrous base metals exchange.

The Baltic Exchange is the world's only truly international shipping ex­change where ships and cargoes are matched, bought and sold throughout the world. The Baltic Exchange contributes several hundred million pounds of foreign currency earnings to Britain's balance of payments account. The floor of the Exchange is still a daily meeting place for brokers and the Baltic upholds the high standard of business conduct upon which the London mar­ket is based. "Our Word our Bond" remains the firmly upheld priciple for transactions in the Exchange Baltic dealers handle more than half the world's bulk cargo movements of oil, ore, coal and grain. In April 1993, The Baltic relumed to St Mary Axe from Lloyd's of London where it was tempo­rarily relocated after a bomb explosion severely damaged the original build­ing in 1992.

The commodities markets are located close to sources of finance and the City's shipping and insurance services.