. Essay, Research Paper
Art And Western Civilization
Early Christian – Romanesque
A. Chapter 10- Early Christian and Byzantine.
*Discuss the influence of Roman basilica on Early Christian church architecture.
One of Romans many public buildings were called basilica. The Roman basilica was used for a market place later becoming a municiple hall and law court. The large roof buildings provided for a covered gathering place for the towns people and tradesmen.
In 313 A.D. Constantine issued the” Edict of Milan”, finally giving Christains the chance to worship publicly with out persecution. Until that time Christains held small, secret worships in their private homes and catacombs. The “Edict of Milan”, making Christainty legal, began the search for large, open buildings that could accomodate the rapidly growing Christain fellowship. The Roman basilicas were ideal with their large central hall (nave) and the two aisles. The basilicas were easily expanded , again allowing Christains to make yet more room for their still growing population. These advantages are what make Roman basilicas the basis for church architecture through out western Europe.
B. Chapter 11- The Early Middle Ages
*Describe the features of a mosque.
Islamic architecture is a true expression of a rich culture that has
unified countries as far apart as Spain and Java, Central Asia and sub
Saharan Africa, over some thousands years. Islamic architecture covers buildings like a mantle. It’s purpose is to conceal the structure rather than reveal it. The decoration elements are limited to calligraphy, geometry and soliation. Islamic buildings express many things including social and economic structure, political motivation and visual sensibility of a extensive
and unified tradition. However most importantly they express the
religious belifs through the Mosque.
With the spread of Islam toward the west and as more people were converted to Islam, Muslims gathered for prayer in any available space that was aligned with Mecca in Western Saudi Arabia, the city in which the founder of Islam, Muhammad was born there in around A.D. 570. There were certain things the Muslims looked for in a gathering place which they called a mosque . A common feature in mosques is an enclosed courtyard called a shan and a prayer wall refered to as a qibla. The art in Islamic religious buildings were bare of sculpture pieces because Muslims belived that sculptures were evil and the work of the devil. They instead had large paintings with floral patterns and abstract geometric shapes.
C. Chapter 12- Romanesque Art
*Lable the parts of a typical pilgrimage church floor plan and explain the pratical purpose of each.
See figure 1.
1) Nave: The nave originated with the Roman basilicas, which grew into the pilgramage churches as the need for public worship places changed with the times. The nave was along narrow passage that formed the main part of the building, lined on either side by the asiles. The nave served as the central area used to house the congregation in pilgramage churches.
2) Asile: As said the aisles were located on either side of the nave. The aisles were set off by a row of columns. This allowed for a passageway between the sections of seating and later made way for a second story to be added.
3) Transept: The transept was the arm of the “cross” that the piligramage churches took pride in resembling. It was located on a right angle from the nave.
4) Crossing: You could say the crossing was just that, a point of referance where the transept “crosses” the nave.
5) Choir: Located just above the crossing , near to the alter is the choir.This is where those holding the cermonies would be found, for this was an area to chant the services from.
6) Chancel: The chancel was most times found at the east end of the church around the alter reserved as a place for the clergy. Another inovation used to give the monks space in which they could prepare.
7) Ambulatory: The ambulatory was a walkway formed by extending the aisles giving the clergy more room with which to move around and not disturb the cermony.
8) Apse: The apse, also located at the east end of most churches, was a semicicular projection from the buliding. They protrude from the ambulatory and most times had a domed or vaulted roof this may be hard to determine from our diagram, they include all of the radiating chaples.
9) Radiating chaple: The apse was the base for the radiating chaple, these can be found at the east most point of our diagram. They were used to allow the pilgrams to move freely without interfearing with the monks.
D. Chapter 12- Romanesque Art
*List the problems faced by Romanesque architects as compared to Roman architects.
Romanseque architecture was very complex, stylized and ornate. Roman and Romanesque architects both needed to build elaborate and extensive stuctures to accommodate an ever expanding population. The availablity of materials to Romanesque architects often presented problems due to the augment in building activity, this problem was not as evident in the time of the Romans.
Romanesque architects also had the problem of the clergy requiring undisturbed access to the alter and the surrounding area which the Romans did not have to deal with. It must be decided how to adjust the Roman basilica to meet the again expanding needs of the growing pilgrimage.
Romanesque craftsmen traveled the pilgrimage roads causing many Romanesque churches to have very similar features very unlike the Romans who copied from the buildings and other works their travels permitted them to see for a variety.