Type 2 Diabetes Essay, Research Paper
There is an increasing incidence of Type II diabetes in Australia in children and young adults. People skilled in exercise prescription are in a strategic position to influence the pattern of this condition though the delivery of exercise programs. This includes both the management and prevention of this condition in Australia. Discuss.
Australia, along with other countries is facing the problem of increasing rated of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin dependant diabetes, is becoming an increasing epidemic in Australia. Great concern has been placed on type 2 diabetes, which used to occur in elderly people but is increasingly arising in children and young adults. The rise in type 2 diabetes is due to lifestyle factors such as obesity, diet and exercise. Young adults and children need to control their diet by healthy eating and exercise regularly in order to prevent or maintain the disease.
Type 2 diabetes affects around 85 to 90% of people (Goodheart 1990, p36). It is a result of the pancreas not producing adequate insulin. Young adults are usually diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after type 1 has been eliminated (Higer 1999, 36). A healthy life style that includes exercise, weight control and good eating habits can delay or prevent a person from type 2 diabetes. (will add more about causes and what type 2 diabetes is)
This disease is known to occur in older, over weight and inactive people. However, due Australian life styles and lack of exercise an alarming increase in the number of cases seems to be occurring in young adults. This is usually a result of lifestyle factors obesity, high fat content in the diet and inadequate exercise. O Meara states, Kids don t climb trees anymore. They have become hooked on plastic food and Gameboys they need adventure (Courier Mail 18 Mar. 2001, p.1-2). Children and young adults are unaware of the benefits an active, healthy diet to do for them. Research has shown that by eating healthy foods and by exercising regularly, type 2 diabetes can be delayed or even prevented (Magill s Medical Guide 1995, vol. 1, p208). The results for children and young adults that maintain their weight and exercise regularly, in the short term are controlling blood sugar levels and stabilising glucose levels. Long-term benefits can prevent type 2 diabetes and also promote a healthier, more active life style. Untreated or poorly managed diabetes can lead to complications like: kidney damage; nerve damage in feet and toes; and artery damage.
Primary causes for type 2 diabetes have been related to nutrition and lifestyle choices. Though genetic factors may play a role, diet and exercise are probably more likely causes (Magill s Medical Guide 1995, vol.1, p206). A greater awareness aimed at individuals especially young adults in prevention approaches need to be instigated and appropriately targeted. There is still little information known about type 2 diabetes even though it occurs many Australian s. Although the preventions are identified, Australia needs to implement adequate prevention programs aimed to decrease the occurrence of type 2 diabetes especially in young adults (Sir Charles Gardiner Hospital n.d, p5). This aims to decrease the amount of type 2 diabetes occurring in young adults and children, and perhaps elderly people as well.
The key to controlling obesity is vital to regulating diabetes. Janet Bryson (1999) stated, that 18% of adults are obese in Australia . This relatively large percentage can be drastically reduced by weight loss. Weight loss allows the insulin receptors to stabilise whereas excess fat stops insulin from entering the cells (Reavley 1998, p474). Nicole Senior of Diabetes Australia, claims by eating healthy, exercising and not being overweight assist in keeping glucose levels under control, thus benefiting people with diabetes (International Diabetes Institute 1996, p11).
Diet directly affects the development of diabetes. Australian s eat a diet high in fat and in particular saturated fat. By consuming less saturated fat reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes by controlling blood sugar and decreases body fat (Reavley 1998, p474). A healthy diet also assists in losing extra weight and keeping it off in the long term. It is recommended that consumers eat low fat foods and the necessary nutrients to prevent type 2 diabetes.
Exercise is the most important way to manage type 2 diabetes. Exercising muscles take up and use some of the excess glucose in the blood, which reduces the overall need for insulin (Magill s Medical Guide 1995, vol. 1, p208). The National Physical Activity Guidelines for Australia emphasizes that regular exercise is essential for controlling diabetes; it is not an option (Media Kit 30 June 2000). See appendix 1 for these guidelines.
Healthy life style factors such as exercise, diet, and weight control all contribute to the management and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is occurring in all ages, but is increasing in the younger generations. Since evidence clearly indicates that lifestyle changes can prevent type 2 diabetes, it is surprising that the general public is so unconcerned about such information. Thus great emphasis is needed on the methods of prevention, by targeting this age group and making them aware of the consequences of irregular exercise and poor eating habits.