Facism Essay, Research Paper
Fascism is a political system characterized by totalitarianism and a complete rejection of democratic institutions, values and procedures. The basic institutions made use of by fascism are the Leader (or dictator), the one-party state, total regimentation of economic and social activities and the arbitrary use of governmental power. Almost all economic activity is controlled and regulated by the government for the political ends of the state. Fascism has no particular economic or social theory. The emphasis is placed upon the glory of the state, which is considered a spiritual and mystical being. In addition, fascism stresses nationalism and imperialism. War is glorified.
Fascism is associated with the rise of Benito Mussolini in Italy in the 1920’s. He made Italy the first European totalitarian state of the 20th century. According to Mussolini, fascism is not words, but action. Alfredo Rocco, who became Minister of Justice in Mussolini’s government, helped in establishing the fascist statutes and to reform the Italian legal code on fascist principles. Rocco stated in his speech, On the Political Doctrine of Fascism, “Fascism insists that the government be entrusted to men capable of rising above their own private interests and of realizing the aspirations of the social collectivity.”
Hitler established a fascist dictatorship when he was appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933. His fascist dictatorship was based upon German nationalism and the racist and totalitarian principles of the Nazi programs. Alfred Rosenberg was an important thinker in Hitler’s government and was one of the main ideologues of Nazism. In his book, Myth of the Twentieth Century, published in 1930, he asserted the right of Nordic Germans to conquer and rule the inferior peoples, such as the Jews, Slavs and Latin peoples. Freedoms were suspended, political opposition suppressed and punished, and stringent legislation was passed against Jews and other minority groups. Hitler also mounted a military campaign and prepared for war for the prestige of Germany.