America Essay Research Paper The Ming TombsThe
America Essay, Research Paper
The Ming Tombs
The Ming Tombs are the mausoleums of 13 Ming Dynasty emperors after the Ming capital was reallocated to Beijing. Located at the southern foot of Tianshou Mountain in Changping County, Beijing, the Ming tombs cover an area of about 120 km^2. With a plain belt in the middle, the Tombs area is enclosed with mountains and right in front of the Tombs is a twisting river. Every tomb is shielded by a mountain and the tomb is on the east, west and north slopes.
The creation of the first tomb, Ding Ling Tomb, was started on the seventh year in Ming Emperor Yongle’s reign (1409) and the building of the last one, Si Ling Tomb was undertaken in the early years of Emperor Shunzhi’s reign in Qing Dynasty. Altogether, the making of the Ming Tombs lasted for a period of more than 200 years. By the order of their construction, the names of the Ming Tombs are follows: Chang Ling, Xian Ling, Jing Ling, Yu Ling Mao Ling, Tai Ling, Kang Ling, Yong Ling, Zhao Ling, Ding Ling, Qing Ling, De Ling and Si Ling. There were buried 13 emperors, 23 empresses, one highest ranking imperial concubine and tens of maids of honor who were buried alive with their deceased masters. At present, the Chang Ling Tomb, Ding Ling Tomb, Zhao Ling Tomb and the Sacred Road are formally open to tourists.
Covered with green trees, the Ming Tombs area boasts of both High Mountain and exquisite rivers. With hills behind and waters in front, each imperial tomb was carefully chosen before its creation. Mountains, rivers, plain and other varied landforms set off with buildings, red walls and yellow tiles in the Tombs, creating a solemn, calm and fresh environment.
In the middle of the Tombs is the Sacred Road, establishing the dignity of the emperors. Along the Sacred Road orderly line the Stone Carving Arch, Down-Horse stele, the Red Gate, the Stele Building, Watch Pole, Stone Honor Guard, the Ling Xing Gate and large and small bridges, which add to the solemn atmosphere in the Tombs. Though different in size, each tomb is composed of ground construction and underground construction. Of all the tombs, the Ching Ling Tomb, the tomb of Ming Emperor Chengzu, Zhu Di, is the best preserved and the largest as well. The Ling En Hall in the Chang Ling Tomb, which was used to offer sacrifices, is one of the largest existing NANMU halls. The Ding Ling Tomb, the tomb of Ming Emperor Shengzong, Zhu Yijun, is the leading imperial tomb that was excavated in a planed way. Having five rooms altogether, the “Black Palace” of the Ding Ling Tomb covers a floor space of 1195 m^2.
In 1957, about 3,000 precious cultural relics were discovered with the successful excavation of the Ding Ling Tomb. Most of them were rare national treasures, including phoenix coronet of the enpress, imperial robe, gold coronet, gold and silver utensils, etc.