Dynasties Of China Essay, Research Paper
Religion and philosophy embraced in 550 BC and continued to play an important role in China. Confucianism is the accepted philosophy of China 2000 years later. Daoism, Naturalism, and Buddhism are part of Chinese beliefs and customs. These philosophies are at the very core of Chinese life and society.
During the Qin Dynasty China was ruled by Legalism. The Great Wall was built by the forced obedience of all the people for the emperor. The people of China were treated poorly and the advancement was not achieved do to the philosophy inacted. However, during the Han Dynasty they thought the government should be to serve the people and legalism lost support and the Han Dynasty replaced it with Confucianism. There were dramatic cultural and scientific advances during the Han Dynasty. Poetry was written and the first Chinese dictionary was compiled. Chinese history was written and modeled for the late historians. Inventions of the sundials, water clocks, water mills and the first seismograph advanced the society. Paper was invented during this dynasty. Steel was being a produced as well as farming tools
. Irrigation systems were developed and new inventions of spinning, weaving, and dying silk were invented.
After the collapse of the Han Dynasty came 359 years of disunity. Many people migrated to the south and contributed to its development. As a result there were major improvements in the cultivation of rice. Buddhism was introduced to China from merchants and missionaries. Buddhism was a calming force during this period of upheaval. Buddhism inspired many artists to create works of art.
The Sui Dynasty followed this period of difficulty. Wendi united the North and the South of China into the empire. He stated the great building program. An entire empire was rebuilt and became a model for other cities. Canal systems were built that linked rice region that provided food during famine. However, the Sui Dynasty was overthrown thirty years later due to rebellion by the peasants.
In 618 the Tang Dynasty took control. A government was developed that ruled through four departments. Horses were raised for cavalry. Trade of silk crafts and jewelry flourished. People from all over the empire came to study at the university. Farm tools were improved and water wheels were invented. An elaborate system of taxing was set up. The arts excelled during this time. Sculpting, painting, porcelain making and gardening were an important part of culture. Over 48,000 poems were composed during this period and have been preserved.
The Tang and Song Dynasty saw times of great economic growth. Large coal and steel industries were built. New strains of rice fed many more people. Shops were developed and scattered all over cities. Bookstores, antique shops, jewelry and pottery makers filled city streets. Paper forms of money were developed. Homes were adorned with luxuries and furniture. A professional service was formed to cope with city fires. Loans were introduced as well as government aid programs. Crop production increased dramatically. During this dynasty achievements in science and art also reached new levels. Calligraphy, painting techniques and poetry excelled. Inventions of compass, hydraulic clocks and nautical engineering continued. This dynasty developed gun powder, fireworks, artillery and flame launchers.
China was considerably advanced and issued it as the center of the world by the time of the Europeans discovered it. I have attempted to outline the extent of the advancements in this essay.